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Dictionary of y department 

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American Naval 
Fighting Ships 

VOLUME II * 1963 

REPRINT WITH CORRECTIONS 1969 


NAVY DEPARTMENT 

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS 


NAVAL HISTORY DIVISION • WASHINGTON 


L. C. CARD 60-60198 


UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $6.50 


FOREWORD 


Often as the Sixth Fleet steamed through the Mediterranean, from the 
bridge I watched the marvelous ships that carry the power of America for 
the welfare of man wherever seas reach. The mighty aircraft carriers, the 
cruisers strong and swift, the greyhound destroyers, the deadly submarines, 
the supply and amphibious ships, alive with duty and purpose — each as it 
steamed across this sea of history represented part of the strength and 
spirit of America. What a Greek statesman said of one part of the Sixth 
Fleet is true of all : 

I hardly know any countryman of mine who does not rejoice when he 
sees your beautiful and powerful ships visiting the Greek seas . . . 
The Greek people have always maintained a special affection for any- 
thing connected with the sea . . . 

The sea stands for freedom in every human soul; to us it stands for 
life itself. 

These ships are America. With their efficiency, their power, their alert 
crews they both protect and represent freedom wherever they sail. 

Our ships light men’s eyes with hope on the shores of many seas. This 
has been true from the far off beginning of American history as is clear in 
these brief fascinating stories of ships. Sailed and fought by devoted and 
dedicated men of a free land, American ships have been a bulwark of free- 
dom from the time of George Washington, great naval strategist as well as 
general, and John Paul Jones. 

This volume, eagerly awaited by those who profited by Volume I, will 
prove indispensable for writers, students, reference libraries and other men 
and institutions of knowledge across America. Most of all it will help to 
give everyone who looks into it a better understanding of the heritage of a 
strong, brave and free America. 

Each history tells a proud story. Combined they form a flooding tide 
of inspiration to all Americans, and especially to those privileged to serve 
in the superb ships that still sail and will sail the seas of freedom. 




George W. Anderson 

Admiral, U.S. Navy, 
Chief of Naval Operations. 

















































. 


INTRODUCTION 


The first volume of Dictionary of American 
Naval Fighting Ships became a best seller. His- 
torians and ship enthusiasts at once began to 
press us for subsequent volumes covering the 
remaining ships in the United States Navy. 
The brief histories and statistics of this second 
volume make a long stride towards this end. 
Volume I provides succinct histories on over 
1,000 ships, with statistical data in appendixes 
on nearly 3,000. Volume II adds some 1,800 
histories of ships bearing names starting with 
“C” through “F”. Two appendixes give vital 
statistics on a large number of other ships. One 
includes all aircraft carriers and escort aircraft 
carriers, while the second gives the histories of 
ships that served the Confederate States Gov- 
ernment. 

With many other duties usurping the time, 
we have made slower headway with Volume II 
than we had hoped. On the other side of the 
coin, by not hurrying into print we believe we 
have made this an even more useful and inter- 
esting volume than the highly valuable first one. 
This has been our hope for we know that in the 
history of our ships, given life and spirit by the 
men who sailed them, surges the history of the 
Navy and much of the history and welfare of 
America. 

Work was started on the Confederate appen- 
dix by Mrs. Alma R. Lawrence several years ago 
as the latest of her many contributions in nearly 
a lifetime of devoted and intelligent service to 
the Navy. Characteristic of her integrity and 
unselfish devotion, after she retired in 1959 she 
continued to work on this project as a labor of 
love and brought her own work to a splendid 
completion in 1961. On this sound foundation, 
with expanded terms of reference, we developed 
the final results printed here. 

As readers of Volume I know, the Dictionary 
of American Naval Fighting Ships is. a multi- 


volume series containing, in an alphabetical 
arrangement, historical sketches and vital data 
on all ships that have had commissioned service 
in the Continental Navy and the United States 
Navy. Ships which were named but not com- 
missioned are mentioned in their alphabetical 
location but without historical sketches or sta- 
tistical data. Statistical appendixes list chrono- 
logically by type, the principal combatant ships 
of the U.S. Navy of the 20th century. Other 
appendixes list alphabetically ships of the vari- 
ous state navies of the Revolutionary War, the 
Texas Navy, the Confederate Navy, and the 
“Stone Fleet” of the Civil War. A separate 
volume is planned for unnamed ships and craft 
that were commissioned; an index and cross- 
reference volume will complete the series some 
years from now. 

Volume II has been changed somewhat from 
Volume I in format and scope of content, to 
improve the value and utility of the series. 
Certain changes are a result of evaluation of 
comment on Volume I ; others come from our 
own analysis. One of the most useful changes 
is the inclusion of the names of noncommis- 
sioned ships and craft in the alphabetical sec- 
tion of the volume. This provides the reader 
with a list of all U.S. naval vessels that have 
names in the particular segment of the alphabet 
covered by each volume. Another is the intro- 
duction of illustrations into the body of the 
book. A third is the expansion of the histories 
to include more incidents. 

The criteria which determine whether or not 
a given ship will be represented by a detailed 
historical sketch or by only a brief summary of 
service, where its name will appear, and other 
editorial information follow: 

a. Alphabetization. A ship’s name is a unit; 
it may be a simple unit (one word) or a com- 


v 


pound unit (two or more words) . As a unit, a 
name is alphabetized under the first letter of 
the first word. Compound names are listed 
under the first word of the name, as if it were 
the entire name. 

Example : 

Don Don 0. Woods 

Don Juan de Austria Donacona 

Don Marquis Donaldson 

Names which embody prefixes (example: De 
Haven, Des Moines, De Soto) are listed as if 
they were one word. 

b. Criteria for histories. More than 10,000 
named vessels have served in the United States 
and Continental Navies; many thousands of 
unnamed ships and craft also played their roles 
(some perhaps like the nail in the horseshoe) 
in the United States’ proud naval history. The 
vast majority of unnamed vessels were not com- 
missioned; neither were they required to keep 
records from which histories can be prepared. 
From the standpoint of practicability, there- 
fore, this dictionary includes historical sketches 
primarily of only those ships that saw commis- 
sioned service in the United States and Conti- 
nental Navies. Noncommissioned ships that 
were named at some time during their careers 
are included in their proper alphabetical loca- 
tions, but usually without statistical informa- 
tion, and with only a brief outline of service 
instead of a historical sketch. 

c. Lineage. Where a name has been used more 
than once, a lineage has been established. Since 
the Continental Navy is the direct ancestor of 
the U.S. Navy, names used in the Continental 
Navy are included in the lineage. To qualify 
for the lineage, a ship must have been built to 
completion and have carried the name on the 
Navy List, the official register of vessels that 
are components of the regular Navy. If a name 
was assigned but the ship was never completed, 
the name does not appear in the lineage. 

In the case of a vessel serving under two or 
more names, her history appears under the 
name carried when first commissioned unless 
her most significant service was under another 
name. In such cases there will be either cross- 
references to the other names, or all names will 
be mentioned in the historical sketch. 


d. Format. A standard format has been used 
for the historical sketches. The ship’s name is 
printed in bold italics at the center of the col- 
umn. Below the name a phrase or statement 
gives the name source. Next appears a list of 
the principal statistics of the ship. The his- 
torical sketch follows. For noncommissioned 
ships, only the name source, and a brief outline 
of service appear. 

e. Statistics given for each ship apply to the 
ship as commissioned, and do not reflect any 
later alterations. The statistics include the type 
or classification (abbreviated), hull number 
(where assigned), tonnage or displacement, 
length, beam, extreme width of flight deck (air- 
craft carriers) , draft, speed, complement, arma- 
ment, and class. Where any of these items does 
not appear, the information has not been found. 
With few exceptions, “class” names appear for 
ships of the 20th century only. If no “class” 
name appears for one of these, it is an individ- 
ual unit of its type. 

As used in the listing of a ship’s statistics, 
the term tonnage indicates the volumetric 
capacity in tons, of a ship, and is used only 
where displacement is not available. Displace- 
ment is the weight, in tons, of the water dis- 
placed by a ship. Standard displacement, given 
if available, is the displacement of a vessel, 
complete, fully manned, engined, and equipped 
ready for sea, including all armament and am- 
munition, equipment, outfit, provisions, and 
fresh water for crew, miscellaneous stores, and 
implements of every description that are in- 
tended to be carried in war, but in the case of 
steamships, without fuel or reserve feed water 
on board. 

If standard displacement cannot be found in 
the records, we have listed normal displace- 
ment, light displacement, or full load displace- 
ment (selected in the order given according to 
availability). 

Normal displacement refers to a vessel which 
is fully equipped and ready for sea with two- 
thirds full supply of stores and fuel, and with 
supply of ammunition. 

Light displacement is that of a vessel ready 
for service in every respect, including perma- 
nent ballast (solid and liquid), and liquids in 
machinery at operating levels, but without any 


vi 


items of consumable or variable load and with- 
out airplanes. 

Tonnage figures are expressed in long tons 
(2240 lb.) unless otherwise noted. 

Speed listed in the individual histories of ships 
is the Designed speed unless otherwise noted as 
Trial speed. Either is measured in knots. 

Fuel Statistics given for fuel oil, diesel oil, 
and gasoline represent 95% of the total capac- 
ity of all t^nks on the vessel which carry each 
specific fuel. 

Full Load displacement is standard displace- 
ment plus all fuel and reserve feed water. 

f. Dimensions. For vessels without bowsprits, 
length given is normally length overall (i.e. 
maximum length from foremost structure of 
stem to aftermost structure of stern) ; for ves- 
sels with bowsprits, length is normally length 
between perpendiculars. If neither of the de- 
sired norms is available, the closest approximate 
length appears. 

The beam given is normally the extreme 
beam (i.e. extreme width of the hull of the ves- 
sel over plating, fenders, or guards) ; where this 
has not been found, we have printed the moulded 
beam. In the case of aircraft carriers the ex- 
treme width above main deck at or about the 
flight deck, including all projections, is given in 
addition to the beam. 

Drafts stated in the statistics are maximum 
navigational drafts including any underwater 
projections, unless otherwise noted. 

Armament does not include machineguns 
(such as 40mm, 20mm, etc.) unless such guns 
were the largest carried on board, or saluting 
batteries. The armament shown is that which 
ship carried on commissioning. Often there were 
important changes in the larger caliber guns 
afterwards. 

g. Ship’s Nomenclature. The first entry in the 
statistics line in individual ship’s histories is 
the nomenclature of the ship when first com- 
missioned, usually indicated by an abbreviation 
or a classification symbol and number. The key 
to these abbreviations and classification symbols 
will be found in the list of abbreviations and 
symbols. Later changes in nomenclature due to 
conversion or redesignation are indicated in the 
body of each history. 


Until 1920 the nomenclature of a United 
States Navy ship was spelled out (i.e. sloop-of- 
war, monitor, submarine, torpedo boat). On 17 
July 1920 the Secretary of the Navy approved 
General Order No. 541, establishing the use of 
classification symbols to convey the nomencla- 
ture for all ships (i.e. BB — battleship, DD — de- 
stroyer, SS — submarine). Linked with a hull 
number, these classification symbols provide 
positive and individual identification of both 
named and unnamed ships (i.e. USS Charles F. 
Adams (DDG-2) is recognized immediately as 
Guided Missile Destroyer Number 2 and USS 
SC-185 as Submarine Chaser No. 185). 

Register numbers were given to many of the 
private ships taken into the Navy during World 
War I. Assigned at the time a ship was inspected 
for suitability for Navy use, the number bore 
no relation to the nomenclature system, but was 
for identification only. Register numbers ap- 
pear in the history as “(No ).” 

h. “Battle stars” is the unofficial but customary 
name given to the engagement stars awarded in 
World. War II and the Korean war. An engage- 
ment star is a star authorized for actual combat 
in an operation or engagement. An “operation” 
is a series of connected military actions occupy- 
ing a specific but generally broad area and time, 
and may involve many clashes with the enemy ; 
an “engagement” is an action with the enemy 
taking place within a restricted time and area, 
and of sufficient intensity and significance to 
justify recognition. Battle stars are worn on 
area campaign ribbons. For World War II 
there were three areas for which ships were 
awarded campaign ribbons with battle stars, 
the American area, the European-African-Mid- 
dle Eastern area, and the Asiatic-Pacific area; 
for the Korean war there was but one area. For 
World War II, exclusive of certain minesweep- 
ing and special operations, there were 41 
Asiatic-Pacific stars, and 8 European- African- 
Middle Eastern stars authorized. There were 
10 Korean stars authorized. 

For World War II, in addition to battle stars 
for general operations, a battle star was 
awarded to a ship for each submarine it sank, 
and a battle star was awarded to a submarine 
for each of its war patrols. 

[The Bureau of Naval Personnel and the 
headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, determine 

vii 


eligibility for battle stars. Information and 
regulations on eligibility and wearing of battle 
stars are found in the Navy and Marine Corps 
Awards Manual (NavPers 15,790 (Rev. 1953) ) . 
Nothing in this dictionary is to be construed to 
authorize any ship or individual to wear battle 
stars] 

i. A “Successful War Patrol” is a patrol during 
which a submarine sinks or assists in sinking at 
least one enemy vessel, or accomplishes a combat 
mission of comparable importance. Patrols were 
designated as “successful” by the submarine 
force commander under whose command the 
submarine operated. Designations were based 
upon the submarine’s report of its patrol, and 
were made immediately upon receipt of the 
patrol report; later information may have re- 
sulted in some modifications. In this work, desig- 
nations of “Successful War Patrols” have been 
taken from Submarine Patrol List: Results of 
U.S. Submarine War Patrols Listed Alpha- 
betically by Name of Submarine, Based on Task 
Force Commanders’ Assessments. This list was 
compiled in October 1945 from the records of 
the Submarine Operations Research Group, 
Office of Strategic Planning, Commander Sub- 
marine Force, Pacific Fleet. 

j. Tonnage sunk by submarines. The figures 
given for tonnage credited to individual sub- 
marines are taken from Japanese Naval and 
Merchant Shipping Losses During World War 
II by All Causes. This assessment was made 
after World War II from study of records of all 
Japanese naval vessels known or believed to 
have been lost, and all Japanese merchant ves- 
sels of 500 or more gross tons known or believed 
to have been lost. Since some doubt exists as to 
actual causes of some sinkings, the figures given, 
while official, are approximate, not exact. 

United States submarines concentrated their 
offensive efforts in the Pacific during World 
War II, except for a small number of special 
missions in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. 
They sank no enemy shipping, naval or mer- 
chant, in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

k. Credits. This volume is most ably edited by 
Mr. Harold P. Deeley, Jr.,* and successor 
Mr. Edwin J. Blesch, Jr., of the Ships’ Histories 
Section, Naval History Division. The basic 


writing was done principally by Lieutenant 
(junior grade) Esther Handleman Vail, USN*; 
Lieutenant (junior grade) Roberta L. Hazard, 
USN*, and Mr. Jesse B. Thomas; preliminary 
drafts were written by Mrs. Elaine Lewis 
Fries,* Dr. K. Jack Bauer,* Mrs. Fay A. Gar- 
rett, all of the Naval History Division. The 
arduous task of research was done by Mrs. 
Alma R. Lawrence,* Miss Teresa R. Hasson, 
Miss Charlotte L. Skiba,* Miss Mabel I. Welde, 
Chief Yeoman Rodolfo L. Mendoza, USN,* Mrs. 
Fries,* Mrs. Garrett, Lieutenant (junior grade) 
Hazard,* Mr. Thomas, and Mr. Deeley*. Indis- 
pensable assistance in resolving specific ques- 
tions was provided by Dr. William J. Morgan, 
Head of the General Historical Research Sec- 
tion; Mr. Dean C. Allard, Head of the Opera- 
tional Archives Branch ; Mrs. Ethel S. Talley, 
Head of the Ship’s Names and Sponsors Sec- 
tion ; and Mr. Loyd A. Olsson of the Ships’ His- 
tories Section, all of the Naval History Division. 

Most valuable advice and aid in both selecting 
and obtaining the illustrations in this volume, 
were given by Mr. Allard and Commander Fran- 
cis C. Huntley, USNR, of the Ships’ Histories 
Section, Naval History Division; Miss Florence 
E. Sharswood of the Early Records Section, 
Naval History Division ; Commander Dermott V. 
Hickey, USN, assistant curator for the Navy 
Department; and Mr. Henry A. Vadnais, civil- 
ian assistant curator for the Navy Department. 

The editors received willing cooperation and 
aid from the many bureaus and offices, both 
within and without the Navy Department, 
which they consulted during the preparation of 
this volume. While the number of individuals 
concerned precludes mentioning each name, we 
nevertheless feel compelled to single out for 
special mention Mrs. Estelle T. Turner, of the 
Ships Status and Progress Data Section, Bu- 
reau of Ships; Miss Olga B. Mager and Mr. 
Robert J. Fletcher, of the Ships’ Deck Logs 
Section, Bureau of Naval Personnel; and Mrs. 
Josephine M. James and Mrs. Bette W. Shirley, 
of the Biographies Branch, Internal Relations 
Division, Office of Information, Navy Depart- 
ment. Without their cheerful help, these 
sketches could not have been completed. 

The final, and a very important step in pre- 

*Now detached from the Division. 


viii 


paring a manuscript is the typing; here, this 
critical task was most capably performed by 
Chief Yeoman Mendoza, Mr. Donald R. Martin, 
and Paul G. Culbertson, YN2, USN. 

Supervising the entire project from their 
posts as successive Heads of the Ships’ Histories 
Section have been Commander Walter P. 
Smiley, USN, and Commander Robert E. Me 
Clure, USNR. Commander McClure also par- 
ticipated most actively in the general editorial 
work of producing this volume. 

In all its stages, including final editing, the 
project like all others of this busy division has 
benefitted greatly from the wise and able guid- 
ance of Captain F. Kent Loomis, USN (Ret.), 
Assistant Director of Naval History. 

For nearly 2 centuries the Navy has served 
the Nation well through calm and storm. Vast 
change has come over America and the world 
since John Paul Jones lashed his shattered, 
sinking Bonhomme Richard alongside Serapis 
and defiantly shouted “I have not yet begun to 
fight!” This change has swept through the 
Navy like a gale: From sail to atom; from 
smooth bore frigate to guided missile destroyer, 
nuclear submarine, and aircraft carrier; from 
bitter ship duels at “pistol shot” range to 
“Polaris” reaching into the hearts of conti- 
nents, and satellites into space. 

Each generation, especially in this century 
has witnessed a Navy in constant change. Yet 
every development has been shaped about and 
forged into the ship — the ship, in the ultimate, 
is the Navy. The Navy can only be as good as 


its ships — their material, their crews and train- 
ing, their leadership. All who have sailed in a 
ship know that it has become part of them — and 
they of it forever. The history of the Navy is 
truly written in the stories of ships. 

Many proud names appear in this volume as 
in its predecessor. Constitution and Constella- 
tion, two of the first three frigates built after 
the United States became a nation, still float, 
returned home as is the way of the sea to the 
ports where they built, Boston and Baltimore. 
Our first Enterprise in the American Revolu- 
tion helped set the stage on Lake Champlain for 
one of the decisive battles of history, Saratoga. 
The latest Enterprise, number eight in a long 
and valiant line, has tireless nuclear engines. 
Hence in this volume we have histories of both 
some of our oldest and most gallant ships under 
sail joined with those of the newest and most 
powerful, driven across the seas by the atom. 

It is stirring for anyone to read these thumb- 
nail sketches of ships that together helped shape 
America’s destiny and will forge the future. As 
we read of each gallant ship we come to realize 
how much together they affect America’s course 
through time. Freedom has sailed under their 
shield in the past. Only with ships like them 
that continue to do their job well will we ad- 
vance into the years ahead towards man’s high- 
est dreams. 

E. M. Eller 

Rear Admiral, USN (Ret.), 
Director of Naval History. 

February 1963 


ix 




CONTENTS 


Page 

FOREWORD iii 

INTRODUCTION V 

BIBLIOGRAPHY XIII 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XVII 

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS XIX 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES: 

Letter “C” 1 

Letter “D” 228 

Letter “E” 313 

Letter “F” 381 

APPENDIXES: 

I. Aircraft Carriers 461 

II. Confederate Forces Afloat 487 

CONTENTS, VOLUME 1 591 


xi 























































































. 






ft 













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xiii 


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XIV 


1812-1815 

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World War Monographs. 8 vols. Washington: 

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XV 


Gleaves, Albert. History of the Transport Force. New 
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Charles, Roland W. Troopships of World War II. 
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Lott, Arnold S. Most Dangerous Sea; A History of 
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. Ships of the United States Navy and Their 

Sponsors 1950-1958. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Insti- 
tute, 1959. 


XVI 


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Numbers shown in parentheses represent negative numbers for illus- 
trations. Unless otherwise indicated, prints can be purchased from the 
Commanding Officer, U. S. Naval Photographic Center, U. S. Naval 
Station, Washington 25, D. C. Requests for photographs from the Na- 
tional Archives should be directed to the General Services Administra- 
tion, National Archives and Records Service, Washington 25, D.C. 


Page 


USS Chesapeake (NR&L MOD 33155) Frontispiece 

Loading troops — 1898 (NR&L OLD 20850) 7 

USS Caliente (AO-53) (USN 1046301) 12 

USS California (BB-44). FADM Nimitz served 
in California as Aide and Assistant Chief of 
Staff to Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (NR&L 

MOD 33184) 14 

USS California (Armored Cruiser No. 6) (NR&L 

OLD 7833) 13 

USS Cabildo (LSD-16) (USN 1045539) ._ 3 

USS Calvert (APA-32) (USN 1045255)-.. 18 

Bombardment of Wonsin Harbor. To left, inshore, 

USS Carmick (DMS-33) is seen near splash 
from enemy fire. Destroyer to right returns fire. 

(USN 433546) 23 

USS Canberra (CAG-2) fires Terrier missile in 

practice. (USN 1009850) 24 

Historic USS Carondelet as shown in contempo- 
rary photograph (NR&L OLD 16778) 39 

USS Carter Hall (LSD-3) (USN 1045578) __ 43 

USS Casco (AVP-12) (USN 455262) 45 

USS Casablanca (CVE-55) (USN 43941) 44 

USS Castine (Gunboat No. 6) in which LT C. W. 
Nimitz served as Commander, Atlantic Subma- 
rine Flotilla (NR&L MOD 33169) 50 

USS Catoctin (AGC-5) (USN 240914).. 55 

USS Catskill (LSV-1) (.National Archives 19-N- 

69091) ... 56 

USS Cavalla (SS-244) (National Archives 80-G- 

233592) 58 

USS Chandeleur (AV-10) (USN 286310) 70 

USS Chara (AKA-58) (USN 1044317) 71 

USS Charles Ausburne (DD-570); Painting: “31 

Knots” (KN 3539) 73 

Document on night surface engagement, Cape St. 
George, Fla. (No number) 73 


USS Chicago (Protected Cruiser). FADM Nimitz 
served in Chicago as Aide, and later, Chief of 
Staff, to Commander Submarine Force, Atlantic 
Fleet, during World War I. He later commanded 
Chicago , with additional duty as Commander, 
Division 14, Submarine Force. (NR&L MOD 


33170) 101 

USS Childs ( AVD-1) (USN 376655) 106 

USS Chillicothe (HISTORICAL OLD 8186) 107 

USS Chickasaw (ATF-83) (USN 1045279) 108 

USS Chowanoc (ATF-100) (USN 1045279) 108 

USS Clay (APA-39) (USN 207295) 126 

USS Cimarron (AO-22) (USN 1046055) 118 

Battle of New Orleans (USN 903021).. 127 

USS Cleveland (CL-55) (USN 365464) 129 

Document on USS Cleveland (No number) 130 

USS Clifton (Side-wheel Steamer) in attack on 

Sabine Pass, Tex. (USN 903260) 131 

USS Concord (PG-3) (NR&L OLD 4559) 158 

Fine Civil War photograph of USS Commodore 
Perry (Side- wheel Steamer) (National Ar- 
chives, U.S. Signal Corps Photograph 111-B- 

130) 153 

USS Colorado (BB-45) (Nonumber) 145 

Document on USS Colorado (No number) 145 


Page 


Illustration for manning the yards, photographed 
from Watch, Quarter and Station Book, Ship-of- 
the-line Columbus. Illustrations were in color, 
drawn by an unnamed ship’s yeoman, in 1847. 

(Naval Historical Foundation Collection) 148 

Ship-of-the-line Columbus (NR&L OLD 6080) 149 

USS Columbus (CA-74) (USN 1042047) 149 

Ships of the Revolution (USN 902724) 183 

Congress, Enterprise and others at Valcour Island, 

Lake Champlain, N.Y. (NR&L OLD 11457, USN 

902634) 164 

USS Connecticut (BB-18) (NR&L OLD 9138).... 165 
USS Connecticut (Side-wheel Steamer) (NR&L 

OLD 18654) 166 

USS Consolation (AH-15) (USN 1046143) 169 

Document on Constellation (No number) 172 

Constellation vs L’Insurgente (USN 902909) 172 

USS Constellation (Frigate) (NR&L OLD 2136) 173 

Truxtun report of launching, Document (No 

number) 173 

USS Constellation (CVA-64) fires Terrier (USN 

1060448) 173 

USS Constitution (Frigate) (NR&L OLD 17235) 175 

Sail plan of “Old Ironsides” (NR&L OLD 16691) 176 

USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) (USN 1036577) 185 

USS Cormorant (AMS-122) (USN 1046274) 188 

USS Coucal (ASR-8) (USN 1045361) 195 

USS Corvus (AKA-26) (USN 326326) 193 

Contemporary photograph of USS Cricket (NR&L 

OLD 1557) 206 

USS Croaker (SS-246) (National Archives 80-G- 

453286) 207 

USS Cumberland (Frigate) (NR&L OLD 2791)_ 214 
Cumberland (Frigate) and others at Fort Clark, 

N.C. (USN 902555) 215 

USS Currituck (AV-7) with Skyhook balloon 

(USN 628099) ., 219 

USS Current (ARS-22) (USN 1046280) 218 

USS Curtiss (AV-4) (USN 1042890) 221 

USS Dace (SS-247), down the ways (National 

Archives 19-N— 46153) 229 

USS Dashiell (DD-659) (USN 1041766) 243 

USS Decatur (DD-5). Admiral Nimitz com- 
manded her in the Philippines early irf his career 


— one of the unrealized preparations for his vast 
contributions in the Pacific. (NR&L MOD 

33153) 250 

Battleship at sea (NR&L MOD 7365-A) 251 

US Delta (AR-9) (USN 1045379) .259 

USS Denver (C-14). Denver was another of the 
many ships in which FADM Nimitz served dur- 
ing his illustrious career. (NR&L MOD 33176) 263 

USS Denver (CL-58) (USN 165493) 264 

USS Des Moines (C-15) (USN 162539) 266 

USS Detector (AM-429) (USN 1045948) 269 

USS Deuel (APA-160) (USN 1045281) 270 

United States Navy, 1898 (NR&L OLD 21080).... 272 

USS Dixie (AD-14) (USN 438361) 280 

USS Diphda (AKA-59) (USN 1044314) 281 

USS Doyen (APA-1) (USN 243762) 296 

USS Du Pont (DD-941) (USN 1044673) 308 

USS Duxbury Bay (AVP-38) (USN 1042851) 311 

xvii 


Page 


Submarine E-l ( Skipjack , SS-24) (NR&L MOD 

33161) 314 

Submarine C— 5 (Snapper SS-16) (NR&L MOD 

33173) 314 

Original log of USS E-l (No number) 314 

Submarine D-l ( Narwhal SS-17) (NR&L MOD 

33157) 315 

Document on E-l (No number) 315 

USS Edisto ( AGB-2) (USN 818949) 325 

USS Electra (AKA-4) (USN 1044158) 337 

USS Elkhart (APA-80) (USN 71265) 341 

USS Epping Forrest (LSD-4) (USN 1045576).... 359 

USS Essex (CVA-9) (USN 1051615) 367 

USS Estes (AGC-12) (No number) 370 

USS Etlah (AN-79) (USN 1046233) 371 

USS Fanning (DD-37) (NR&L MOD 13041) 389 

USS Fabius (ARVA-5) (USN 1046336) 382 

USS Fargo (CL-106) (USN 416027) 393 

Farragut (DLG-6) (USN 1055889).... 396 

Farragut’s orders for an attack (Document, no 
number) 397 


USS Firedrake (AE-14) (USN 1044025) 

USS Franklin (Ship-of-the-line) (NR&L OLD 
1077) 

(Document, no number) Submarine Squadron 
Eighteen report on USS Flasher (SS-°49) fifth 

war patrol 

USS Florida (BB-30)— Dress Ship, 1921 (USN 

1007401) 

USS Florikan (ASR-9) (USN 1046244) 

Foote’s gunboats attack Fort Henry, Tenn. (USN 

902498) _ 

USS Floyds Bay (A VP-40) (USN 1043003) 

USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) (USN 1045166) 

USS Francis Marion (APA-249) fueling USS 

Kidd (DD-661) (No number) 

USS Frontier (AD-25) (USN 1044013) 

USS Fulton (Steam frigate) Copied from collec- 
tion of President F. D. Roosevelt (NR&L OLD 
11876) 


AIRCRAFT CARRIER APPENDIX 


Letter of President Theodore Roosevelt on a “fly- 
ing machine” 460 

Ely landing on USS Pennsylvania (Armored 

Cruiser No. 4) (USN 428455) 463 

USS Saratoga (CVA-60) launching two aircraft 

simultaneously (USN 1016165) 464 

USS Casablanca (CVE-55) (USN 320296) 465 

USS Card (CVE-11) (USN 410259) 465 

USS Charger (CVE-30) (National Archives 80- 


G-208391) 466 

USS Constellation (CVA-64) (CVA-64-L-1391- 

4/6/62) 467 

USS Enterprise (CVA(N)-65) at anchor, Guan- 
tanamo Bay, Cuba (USN 1060393) 469 

USS Enterprise (CV-6) (USN 217729) 470 


Various aircraft of USS Essex (CVA-9) shown 
from high angle view, during Mediterranean 

cruise of 1960 (USN 1051617) 471 

USS Forrestal (CVA-59) (USN 1040749) 472 

USS Franklin (CV-13) saved in best tradition of 
“Don’t give up the ship.” (National Archives 
80-G-274015) 473 


USS I wo Jima (LPH-2) (LPH-2-L-159-1-62) 

USS Forrestal (CVA-59) (USN 1054761) 

USS Franklin (CV-13) (National Archives 80-G- 

367248) 

USS Cabot (CVL-28) (USN 262768) 

USS Langley (CV-1) Navy’s first carrier (USN 

189915) 

USS Lexington (CV-2) at Coral Sea (National 

Archives 80-G-11915) 

Lexington and Yorktown planes destroy Shoho in 

Coral Sea National Archives 80-G-17026 

USS Ranger (CV-4) (USN 236719) 

USS Long Island (AVG-1) (USN 26567). 

USS Wasp (CV-7) (National Archives 80-G- 

12240) 

USS Langley (CVL-27) (USN 438767) 

USS Wright (CVL-49) (USN 1057895) 

USS Oriskany (CVA-34) (USN 1043425) 

Flak covers sky in Battle of Santa Cruz (W- 

SPA-10— 10480) 

USS Saratoga (CVA-3) (USN 466400) 


CONFEDERATE FORCES AFLOAT APPENDIX 


Alabama vs Kearsarge (USN 902562) 494 

Ironclad CSS Albemarle after being raised by 

Federals. (NR&L OLD 4980) 496 

Drawing of CSS Albemarle (NR&L OLD 1088) 497 

CSS Arkansas (Ironclad Ram) running the Union 
Fleet at Vicksburg, Miss., 15 July 1862 (USN 

902280) 500 

CSS Arkansas — artist’s version (NR&L OLD 

11465) 501 

CSS Atlanta (Ironclad Ram) (NR&L OLD 1569) 502 

CSS Chickamauga (NR&L OLD 11466) 509 

“David” torpedo boat aground in Charleston Har- 
bor (NR&L OLD 20477) 514 

CSS Florida Reproduced from photograph in pos- 
session of Mr. J. S. Barron, son of Commodore 
Samuel Barron, who sailed in Florida (NR&L 

OLD 13005) 520 

CSS George (Screw Steamer) (NR&L OLD 1949) 526 

CSS General Sterling Price (Side-wheel Ram) 

(NR&L OLD 1545) 527 

Georgia (Ironclad Floating Battery) (NR&L OLD 

20489) 527 

Governor Moore (Side-wheel Gunboat) (NR&L 

OLD 2243) 529 

Battle of Mobile Bay (USN 902905) 530 

Document on torpedo boat H. L. Hunley (No num- 
ber, National Archives) 532 


Submarine torpedo boat H.L. Hunley (NR&L OLD 

20851) 

CSS McRae, from photograph, courtesy of Mr. 
Frederick Way, Jr., of Sewickley, Pennsylvania 

(NR&L OLD 17192) 

CSS (Ironclad Ram) Manassas (NR&L OLD 

11468) 

Manassas damages Federal ship at Battle of New 

Orleans (NR&L OLD 18779) 

CSS Nashville (Side-wheel Steamer) in a con- 
temporary sketch “by a naval officer.” (NR&L 

OLD 20379) 

Some details of CSS Rappahannock can be seen in 
Civil War photograph of ship in harbor of 

Calais, France (NR&L OLD 15564) 

CSS Shenandoah (NR&L OLD 2084) 

Raphael Semmes and officers of CSS Sumter 

(NR&L OLD 36) 

CSS Sumter (Screw Steamer) (NR&L OLD 2096) 
Confederate raider Tacony at work (No number) 
CSS Tallahassee (Screw Steamer) (NR&L OLD 

2074) — 

Photograph of CSS Tennessee (Ironclad Ram) 
taken after capture by Federal forces (NR&L 

OLD 394) 

CSS Virginia (Ironclad Ram) (NR&L OLD 4544) 
Seal of the Confederate States Navy Department 
(No number) 


xviii 


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421 
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440 

452 


457 


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476 

477 
477 

479 

480 

480 

482 

482 

482 

482 

482 

482 

483 
485 


533 


548 

546 

547 


551 


560 

567 

568 
570 
572 

572 


573 

579 

583 


ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 


The below-listed abbreviations and symbols are taken from standard 
U.S. Navy usage, or have been assigned for the specific purpose of the 
Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Where a ship’s classi- 
fication symbol is preceded by the letter “B,” that ship was allocated to 
the United Kingdom under lend-lense ; where a symbol is preceded by 
the letter “E,” that ship is “Experimental” ; where a symbol is preceded 
by the letter “T” and a dash (“T-”), that ship is assigned to the Mili- 
tary Sea Transportation Service; where a symbol is preceded by the 
letter “W,” that ship is a U.S. Coast Guard ship ; where a classification 
symbol is followed by “(N)” the ship has nuclear propulsion. 


a. — Armament. 

AAW — Antiair warfare. 

AB — Crane Ship. 

ABD — Advance Base Dock. 

ABSD — Advance Base. 

Section Dock. 

AC — Collier. 

ACM — Auxiliary Mine Layer. 

ACR — Armored Cruiser. 

ACV — Auxiliary Aircraft Carrier. 

AD — Destroyer Tender. 

ADG — Degaussing Ship. 

AE — Ammunition Ship. 

A.E.F. — American Expeditionary Force (WW I) or 
Allied Expeditionary Force (WW II). 

AF — Store Ship. 

AFD — Auxiliary, Floating Dock. 

AFDB — Large Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock. 

AFDL — Small Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock. 

AFDM — Medium Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock. 

AFS — Combat Store Ship. 

AG — Miscellaneous (Auxiliary). 

A g. — Aktiengesellschaft (Joint Stock Co.). 

AGB — Icebreaker. 

AGC — Amphibious Force Flagship. 

AGD — Seagoing Dredge. 

AGDE — Escort Research Ship. 

AGEH — Hydrofoil Research Ship. 

AGL — Lighthouse Tender. 

AGM — Missile Range Instrumentation Ship. 

AGMR — Major Communications Relay Ship. 

AGOR — Oceanographic Research Ship. 

AGP — Motor Torpedo Boat Tender. 

AGR — Radar Picket Ship. 

AGS — Surveying Ship. 

AGSC — Coastal Survey Ship. 

AGSL — Satellite Launching Ship. 

AGSS — Auxiliary Submarine. 

AH — Hospital Ship. 

AHP — Evacuation Hospital Ship. 

AK — Cargo Ship. 

AKA — Attack Cargo Ship. 

AKD — Cargo Ship Dock or Deep Hold Cargo Ship. 

AKL — Light Cargo Ship. 

AKN — Net Cargo Ship. 


AKS — Stores Cargo Ship. 

AK(SS)" — Cargo Submarine. 

AKV — Cargo Ship and Aircraft Ferry. 

AL — Lightship. 

A.L. — American Locomotive Co., Auburn, N.Y. 

Al.Ch. — Allis Chalmers Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

AM — Mine Sweeper. 

AMb — Mine Sweeper, Harbor. 

AMc — Coastal Mine Sweeper. 

AMc(U) — Mine Hunter Underwater Location. 

AMS — Motor Mine Sweeper. 

AN — Net Laying Ship or Not Tender, (Boom). 

AO — Oiler. 

AOE — Fast Combat Support Ship. 

AOG — Gasoline Tanker or Small Oiler. 

AOR — Replenishment Fleet Tanker. 

AOSS — Submarine Oiler. 

AP — Transport. 

APA — Attack Transport or Animal Transport. 

APb — Base Repair Ship. 

APB — Self-Propelled Barracks Ship or Artillery Barge. 
APc — Small Coastal Transport. 

A PC — Cavalry Transport. 

APD — High-Speed Transport. 

APF — Administrative Flagship. 

APG — Supporting Gunnery Ship. 

A PH — Transport (fitted for evacuation of wounded). 
APL — Barracks Craft (Non-self-propelled). 

APM — Mechanized Artillery Transport. 

APN — Nonmechanized Artillery Transport. 

APP — Troop Barge, Class A. 

APR — Rescue Transport. 

APS — Mine-Laying Submarine. 

APSS — Transport, Submarine. 

APT — Troop Barge, Class B. 

APV — Transport and Aircraft Ferry. 

APY— Giant “Y” Boat. 

AR — Repair Ship. 

ARB — Battle Damage Repair Ship. 

ARC — Cable Repairing or Laying Ship. 

ARD — Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock. 

ARDC — Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock, Concrete. 

ARG — Internal Combustion Engine Repair ship. 

ARH — Heavy-Hull Repair Ship. 

ARL — Landing Craft Repair Ship. 


XIX 


ARM — Heavy Machinery Repair Ship. 

ARS — Salvage Ship. 

ARSD — Salvage Lifting Ship. 

ARST — Salvage Craft Tender. 

ARV — Aircraft Repair Ship. 

ARVA — Aircraft Repair Ship (Aircraft). 

ARVE — Aircraft Repair Ship (Engine). 

AS — Submarine Tender. 

ASR— Submarine Rescue Ship. 

ASSA — Cargo Submarine. 

ASSP — Transport Submarine. 

ASW — Antisubmarine Warfare or Support Aircraft 
Carrier. 

AT — Tug, Ocean-Going. 

ATA — Auxiliary Ocean Tug. 

ATF — Fleet Ocean Tug. 

ATL — Tank Landing Craft. 

ATO — Ocean Tug, Old. 

ATR — Rescue Ocean Tug. 

AV — Seaplane Tender. 

AVB — Advanced Aviation Base Ship. 

AVC — Large Catapult Lighter. 

AVD — Seaplane Tender (Destroyer). 

AVG — Aircraft Escort Vessel. 

AVM — Guided Missile Ship. 

AVP — Small Seaplane Tender. 

AVR — Aircraft Rescue Vessel. 

AVS — Aviation Supply Ship. 

AVT — Auxiliary Air Transport. 

AW — Distilling Ship. 

AWK — Water Tanker. 

AZ — Airship Tender, 
b. — Beam. 

Bath. — Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine. 

BB — Battleship. 

BBG — Guided Missile Capital Ship. 

B.C. — British Columbia. 

BDE — British Escort Ship. 

Bethl. — Bethlehem Steel Co., Shipbuilding Division, 
Quincy, Mass, 
bhp. — Brake horsepower, 
blr. — Breech-loading rifle. 

BM — Monitor. 

bom — “Builder’s Old Measurement.” 
b.p. — Between Perpendiculars. 

Br. — British. 

B.S. — Busch Sulzer Brothers Diesel Engine Co., 

St. Louis, Mo. 

B.W. — Babcock and Wilcox Co., Boiler Division, 
Barberton, Ohio. 

B. W.I. — British West Indies. 

C — Protected Cruiser. 

CA — Heavy Cruiser. 

CAG — Guided Missile Heavy Cruiser, 
cal. — Caliber, 
car. — Carronade. 

CB — Large Cruiser. 

CBC — Large Tactical Command Ship. 

CC — Battle Cruiser or Command Ship. 

CCS — Combined Chiefs of Staff. 

C. E. — Combustion Engineering Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. 
CF — Flying-Deck Cruiser. 

CG — Guided Missile Cruiser. 

CGC — Coast Guard Cutter. 

CG(N) — Guided Missile Cruiser (Nuclear Powered). 
C.I.W. — Columbian Iron Works, Baltimore, Md. 

CL — Light Cruiser, 
cl. — Class. 

CLAA — Anti-Aircraft Light Cruiser. 

CLC — Tactical Command Ship. 

CLG — Guided Missile Light Cruiser. 

CLG(N) — Guided Missile Light Cruiser (Nuclear 
Powered ) . 

CLK — Hunter-Killer Ship. 

CM — Mine Layer. 

CMC — Coastal Mine Layer. 

C.O. — Commanding Officer. 


col. — Columbiad. 
comp. — Compound. 

compos. — Composite drive (2 diesel engines, electric 
drive; 2 diesel engines, geared drive; hydraulic 
couple). 

const. — Construction, 
cont. — Continued, 
cpl. — Complement. 

Craig — Craig Shipbuilding Co., Long Beach, Calif. 
Cramp — Wm. Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine 
Building Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cres. — Crescent Shipyard, Elizabethport, N.J. 

CS — Scout Cruiser. 

CSA — Confederate States Army. 

CSN — Confederate States Navy. 

CSS — Confederate States Ship. 

CTB — Coast Torpedo Boat. 

CTF — Commander Task Force. 

CTG — Commander Task Group. 

Ctr — Cutter. 

CTU — Commander Task Unit. 

Curtis — Curtis-type turbine. 

CV — -Aircraft Carrier or Aircraft Carrier, First Line. 
CVA — Attack Aircraft Carrier. 

CVB — Large Aircraft Carrier. 

CVE — Escort Aircraft Carrier. 

CVHA — Assault Helicopter Aircraft Carrier. 

CVHE — Escort Helicopter Aircraft Carrier. 

CVL — Small Aircraft Carrier. 

CVS — Antisubmarine Warfare Aircraft Carrier. 

CVU — Utility Aircraft Carrier. 

C.Z. — Canal Zone. 

dcp. — Depth charge projector. 

dcp. (hh.) — Depth charge projector (“hedgehog” type), 
dct. — Depth charge track. 

DD — Destroyer, 
dd. — Drydock. 

DDC — Corvette. 

DDK — Hunter-Killer Destroyer, 
ddd. — Diesel direct drive. 

DDE — Antisubmarine Destroyer. 

DDG — Guided Missile Destroyer. 

DDR — Radar Picket Destroyer. 

DE — Escort Ship. 

DEC — Control Escort Ship, 
ded. — Diesel electric drive. 

DEG — Guided Missile Escort Ship. 

DER — Radar Picket Escort Ship, 
derd. — Diesel electric reduction drive. 

des. — Designed. 

det. — Diesel electric tandem motor drive. 

DEW — Distant Early Warning (a radar network across 
upper North America), 
dgd. — Diesel geared drive. 

Diehl — Diehl Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport, N.Y. 
div. — Division. 

DL — Frigate. 

DLG — Guided Missile Frigate. 

Dlv. — De Laval Steam Turbine Co., Trenton, N.J. 

DM — Destroyer Minelayer. 

DMS — High-speed Mine Sweeper. 

dp. — Displacement or Dual Purpose (Guns). 

dph. — Depth (in hold). 

dr. — Draft. 

drd. — Diesel reduction drive, 
dw. — Deadweight ( tonnage ) . 

E.B. — Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn, 
ehp. — Electric horse power. 

Elec. Dy. — Electric Dynamic Co., Bayonne, N.J. 

Elec. Spec. — Electric Specialty Co., Stamford, Conn. 
Ell. — Elliot Motor Co., Jeannette, Pa. 
eng. — engine, 
enl. — Enlisted. 

ew. — Extreme width of flight deck, 
ex— former. 

Exide — Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
exp. — Expansion. 


XX 


Fdry. — Foundry. 

Fiat — Fiat-San Giorgio Ltd., Turin, Italy. 

F.M. — Fairbanks Morse Diesel, Reverse Gear Drive, 
f. — Full load (Displacement). 

Fit Btry — Floating Battery. 

F.R. — Fore River Ship and Engine Co., Quincy, Mass. 

Fr — Frigate. 

FS — Freight Supply Ship. 

ft. — Fire-tube (Scotch-type) boiler. 

F. W. — Foster Wheeler Corp., Mountaintop, Pa. 
gal. — Gallon. 

Gbt — Gunboat. 

G. E. — General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y. 
gen. — Generator. 

Ges. — Gesellschaft (Company). 

G.M. — General Motors Corp., Cleveland Diesel Division, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

G. M.T. — General Motors diesels with diesel electric 

tandem motor drive. 

Gon — Gondola. 

Gould — Gould Storage Battery Co., Trenton, N.J. 
gr. — Gross (tonnage). 

Gy — Galley. 

HBM — His Britannic Majesty’s. 

Here. — Hercules Motor Corp., Canton, Ohio, 
h.h. — Hedge-hog. 

H. H.— Harlan and Hollingsworth Corp., Wilmington, 

Del. 

HUMS — His Imperial Japanese Majesty’s Ship. 

H.L. — R. W. Hawthorn, Leslie and Co., Ltd., Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, England. 

HMAS — His(Her) Majesty’s Australian Ship. 

HMCS — His(Her) Majesty’s Canadian Ship. 

HMNZS — His (Her) Majesty’s New Zealand Ship. 

HMS — His(Her) Majesty’s Ship (Great Britain). 
HNMS — Her Netherlands Majesty’s Ship. 

H.O.R. — Hooven, Owens, Rentschler Co., Hamilton, 

Ohio. 

hor. — Horizontal, 
how. — Howitzer. 

H.T. — Humphreys and Tenant Ltd., London, England. 

H. W.— Hunter Wheel. 

HwGbt — Hunter-wheel Gunboat. 

IFS — Inshore Fire Support Ship, 
ihp. — Indicated horsepower, 
int.— International. 

Ire — Ironclad. 

Ire. Fit. Btry.— Ironclad Floating Battery. 

IrcGbt — Ironclad Gunboat. 

IrcRam — Ironclad Ram. 

IreSlp — Ironclad Sloop. 

IrcStr. — Ironclad Steamer. 

IrcStFltBtry — Ironclad Steam Floating Battery. 

I. W. — Iron Works. 

IX — Unclassified Miscellaneous Ship. 

JCS — Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

JTF — Joint Task Force. 

k. — Knots. 

l. — Length. 

lbp — Length between perpendiculars. 

LBP — Personnel Landing Boat. 

LES — Support Landing Boat. 

LBV — Vehicle Landing Boat. 

LCA — Assault Landing Craft. 

LCC(l) — Landing Craft, Control Mk I. 

LCC(2) — Landing Craft, Control Mk II. 

LCFF — Landing Craft, Infantry (Flotilla Flagship). 
LCI — Landing Craft, Infantry. 

LCI(FF) — Landing Craft, Infantry (Flotilla Flagship). 
LCIG — Landing Craft, Infantry (Gunboat). 

LCI(L) — Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) 

LCIM — Landing Craft, Infantry (Mortar). 

LCIR — Landing Craft, Infantry (Rocket). 

LCM(2) — Landing Craft, Mechanized, Mk II. 

LCM(3) — Landing Craft, Mechanized, Mk III. 

LCM(6) — Landing Craft, Mechanized, Mk VI. 

LCM(8) — Landing Craft, Mechanized, Mk VIII. 


LCP(L) — Landing Craft, Personnel (Large). 

LCP(N) — Landing Craft, Personnel (Nested). 

LCP(R) — Landing Craft, Personnel (With Ramp). 
LCR(L) — Landing Craft, Inflatable Boat (Large). 
LCR(S) — Landing Craft, Inflatable Boat (Small). 
LCSL — Landing Craft, Infantry (Support). 

LCSR — Landing Craft, Swimmer Reconnaissance. 
LCS(S)(1) — Landing Craft, Support (Small) Mk I. 
LCS(S)(2) — Landing Craft, Support (Small) Mk II. 
LCT — Landing Ship, Utility or Landing Craft, Tank. 
LCU — Utility Landing Craft. 

LCV — Landing Craft, Vehicle. 

LCVP — Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel. 

LHT — Lighthouse Tender. 

LPD — Amphibious Transport Dock. 

LPH — Amphibious Assault Ship. 

LSD — Dock Landing Ship. 

LSFF — Flotilla Flagship Landing Ship. 

LSI— Giant “Y” Boat. 

LSIG — Landing Craft, Infantry (Gunboat). 

LSIL — Infantry Landing Ship (Large). 

LSIM — Landing Craft, Infantry (Mortar). 

LSIR — Landing Craft, Infantry (Rocket). 

LSM — Medium Landing Ship. 

LSMR — Medium Landing Ship (Rocket). 

LSSL — Support Landing Ship (Large) Mk III. 

LST — Tank Landing Ship. 

LSTH — Landing Ship, Tank (Casualty Evacuation). 
LSTS — Landing Ship (Utility). 

LSU— Landing Ship, Utility. 

LSV — Landing Ship, Vehicle. 

It. — Light (Displacement). 

LVT — Landing Vehicle, Track. 

m. — Mortar, 
mach. — M achinery. 

M.A.N.- 1 — Maschinefabrik-Augsburg-Nurnberg-type 
diesel. 

MATS — Military Air Transport Service, 
max. — Maximum. 

MC — Maritime Commission. 

MCS — Mine Countermeasures Support Ship. 

M.D.A.P. — Mutual Defense Assistance Program, 
mfr. — Manufacturer, 
mg. — Machine gun. 

MHA — Minehunter, Auxiliary. 

MHC — Minehunter, Coastal. 

M. I. Ny. — Mare Island Navy Yard, 
mm. — Millimeter. 

MM — Minelayer, Fleet. 

MMA — Minelayer, Auxiliary. 

MMC — Minelayer, Coastal. 

MMF — Minelayer, Fleet. 

Moran — Moran Brothers Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Mosh. — Mosher-type boiler, 
mph — Miles per hour. 

MS— Motor Ship. 

MSA — Minesweeper, Auxiliary. 

MSB — Minesweeper Boat. 

MSC — Minesweeper, Coastal (Nonmagnetic). 

MSC(O) — Minesweeper, Coastal (Old). 

MSF— Minesweeper, Fleet (Steel hulled). 

MSI — Minesweeper, Inshore. 

MSO — Minesweeper, Ocean (Nonmagnetic). 

MSS — Minesweeper, Special. 

MSTS — Military Sea Transportation Service. 

n. — Normal (Displacement). 

NATO — North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

NATS — Naval Air Transportation Service. 

N. E.I. — Netherland East Indies. 

Nfld. — Newfoundland. 

N.G. — New Guinea. 

N.I. — Northern Ireland. 

Nicl.— Niclausse-type boiler (built by the Stirling Co., 
Barberton, Ohio). 

N.L. — Neafie and Levy Ship and Engine Building Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


xxi 


N.L.S.E. — New London Ship and Engine Co., Groton, 
Conn. 

N.N. — Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Newport News, Va. 

NNV — National Naval Volunteers, 
no. — number. 

Norm. — Normand-type boiler. 

NOTS — Naval Overseas Transportation Service. 
NROTC— Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps. 

N.S. — Nova Scotia. 

NTS — Naval Transportation Service. 

N.W.I. — Netherlands West Indies. 

Ny. — Navy Yard. 

N.Y. Ny. — New York Navy Yard. 

N.Y.S.B. — New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, N.J. 
off. — Officer (s). 

OIC — Officer-in-Charge. 

Palm. — N. F. Palmer, Jr., and Co., New York, N.Y. 

Par. — Parsons-type turbine. 

PBY — Consolidated Patrol Bomber. 

PC — Submarine Chaser (173'). 

PCC — Control Submarine Chaser (173'). 

PCE— Escort (180'). 

PCEC — Control Escort (80'). 

PCER — Rescue Escort (180'). 

PCH— Submarine Chaser (Hydrofoil). 

PCS — Submarine Chaser (136'). 

PCSC — Control Submarine Chaser (136'). 
pdr. — Pounder. 

PE — Eagle Boat. 

PF — Patrol Escort or Frigate. 

PG — Gunboat. 

PGM — Motor Gunboat. 

P.Ny. — Philadelphia Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 

P.I. — Philippine Islands. 

P.Q. — Providence of Quebec. 

PR — River Gunboat. 

P.R. — Puerto Rico. 

P. S.Ny. — Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash. 
PT — Motor Torpedo Boat. 

PTC — Motor-Boat Subchaser. 

PTF — Fast Patrol Boat. 

PY — Patrol Vessel-Converted Yacht. 

PYc — Patrol Vessel-Converted Yacht (Coastal). 

Q. I.W. — Quintard Iron Works, New York, N.Y. 
quad. — Quadruple. 

quint. — Quintuple. 

r. — Muzzle-loading rifle. 

RAAF — Royal Australian Air Force. 

RAF — Royal Air Force. 

RAN — Royal Australian Navy. 

RC — Revenue Cutter. 

RCAF — Royal Canadian Air Force. 

RCN — Royal Canadian Navy. 

RCS — Revenue Cutter Service, 
recip. — Reciprocating, 
rf. — Rapid fire. 

R. L.W. — Richmond Locomotive Works, Richmond, Va. 
Ridy. — Ridgeway Dynamo and Electric Co., Ridgeway, 

Pa. 

RN — Royal Navy (Great Britain). 

RNN — Royal Netherlands Navy. 

RNZN — Royal New Zealand Navy. 

Roach— John Roach and Sons, Chester, Pa. 

s. — Speed. 

SACEUR— Supreme Allied Commander, Europe. 
SACLANT — Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic, 
sb. — Smooth Bore. 

Sc. — Screw. 

SC — Submarine Chaser (110'). 

SCC — Control Submarine Chaser (110'). 

ScGbt — Screw Gunboat. 

ScFr — Screw Frigate. 

Sch — Schooner. 

ScSlp — Screw Sloop-of-War. 

ScStr — Screw Steamer. 


ScTug — Screw Tug. 

SEATO — Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. 

SF — Fleet Submarine. 

SHAEF — -Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary 
Forces. 

shp. — Shaft horsepower. 

SL — Ship-of-the-Line. 

Sip— Sloop. 

SlpW — Sloop-of-W ar. 

SM — Mine-Laying — Submarine. 

SP — Motor Patrol Boats, 
ss. — Steamship. 

SS — Submarine. 

SSA — Submarine Cargo. 

SSB — Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine. 

SSB(N) — Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine (Nuclear 
Powered ) . 

SSC — Cruiser Submarine. 

SSG — Guided Missile Submarine. 

SSG(N) — Guided Missile Submarine (Nuclear 
Powered ) . 

SSK — Antisubmarine Submarine 
SS(N) — Submarine (Nuclear Powered). 

SSO — Submarine Oiler. 

SSP — Submarine Transport. 

SSR — Radar Picket Submarine. 

SSR(N) — Radar Picket Submarine (Nuclear Powered). 
SST — Target and Training Submarine. 

St — Steam. 

StBrig — Steam Brig. 

Stbt. — Steamboat. 

StFr — Steam Frigate. 

Str. — Steamer. 

StR. — Steam Ram. 

StSlp — Steam Sloop. 

StTB — Steam Torpedo Boat. 

StTug — Steam Tug. 

Stw — Stern Wheel. 

StwGbt — Stern Wheel Gunboat. 

StwStr — Stem Wheel Steamer, 
subm. — Submerged. 

Sun — Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Chester, Pa. 
surf. — Surface. 

SwGbt — Side Wheel Gunboat. 

SwStr — Side Wheel Steamer. 

SwTug — Side Wheel Tug. 

SwRam — Side Wheel Ram. 

Sy. — Shipyard, 

t. — Tonnage. 

TB — Torpedo Boat, 
td. — Turbine direct drive. 

TE — Turbine Electric (Drive), 
terd. — Turbine electric reduction drive. 

TF — Task Force. 

TG— Task Group. 

Thorn. — Thornycroft-type boiler. 

TLL — Tank Lighter. 

TLLW — Tank Lighter (Medium Tank-Well Type). 

torp. — Torpedo ( es ) . 

trd. — Turbine reduction drive. 

Trigg — Wm. R. Trigg Co., Richmond, Va. 
tt. — Torpedo Tubes. 

TU— Task Unit. 

UDT — Underwater Demolition Team. 

U.K. — United Kingdom. 

U.N. — United Nations. 

Union — Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif. 

USA — United States Army. 

USAAC — United States Army Air Corps. 

USAAF — United States Army Air Forces. 

USAF — United States Air Force. 

USAMC — United States Army Medical Corps. 

USANF — United States Auxiliary Naval Force. 

USAT — United States Army Transport. 

USCG — United States Coast Guard. 

USCGR — United States Coast Guard Reserve. 


XXI 1 


USCGS — United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
USCS — United States Coast Survey. 

USMC — United States Marine Corps. 

USMCR — United States Marine Corps Reserve. 
USMCWR — United States Marine Corps Women’s 
Reserve. 

USN — United States Navy. 

USNA — United States Naval Academy. 

USNR — United States Naval Reserve. 

USNRF — United States Naval Reserve Forces. 

USRCS — United States Revenue Cutter Service. 

USSB — United States Shipping Board. 

U. S.S.R. — Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
vert. — Vertical. 

V. I.— Virgin Islands. 

WAVES — Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency 
Service. 

W. F. — White-Forster-type boiler (manufactured by 

Babcock and Wilcox Co.). 

W.G.T. — Westinghouse or General Motors Turbine with 
turbine reduction drive. 

Wint. — Winton Engine Corp., Cleveland, Ohio. 

W.M. — White and Middleton Co., Springfield, Ohio. 
Wstgh. — Westinghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
wt. — Water-tube boiler. 

X — Submersible Craft. 

XMAP — Sweeper Device. 

YA — Ash Lighter. 

YAG — Miscellaneous Auxiliary. 

YAGR — Ocean Radar Station Ship. 

Yar. — Yarrow-type boiler. 

YBR — Sludge Removal Barge. 

YC — Open Lighter or Miscellaneous Auxiliary. 

YCD — Fueling Barge. 

YCF — L Car Float. 

YCK — Open Cargo Lighter. 

YCV — Aircraft Transportation Lighter. 

YD — Floating Derrick. 

YDG — District Degassing Vessel. 

YDT — Diving Tender. 

YE — Ammunition Lighter. 

YF — Covered Lighter (Self-propelled). 

YFB — Ferryboat or Launch. 

YFD — Yard Floating Dry Dock. 

YFN — Covered Lighter (Non-self -propelled). 

YFNB — Large Cover Lighter. 

YFND— Dry Dock Companion Craft. 

YFNG — Covered Lighter (Special Purpose). 

YFNX — Lighter (Special Purpose). 

YFP — Floating Power Barge. 

YFR — Refrigerated Covered Lighter (Self-propelled). 


YFRN — Refrigerated Covered Lighter (Non- 
self-propelled). 

YFRT — Covered Lighter (Range Tender). 

YFT — Torpedo Transportation Lighter. 

YFU— Harbor Utility Craft. 

YG — Garbage Lighter (Self-propelled). 

YGN — Garbage Lighter (Non-self-propelled). 

YH — Ambulance Boat. 

YHB — House Boat. 

YHT — Scow, Heating. 

YLA — Open Landing Lighter. 

YM — Dredge. 

YMD — Mud Scow. 

YMP — Motor Mine Planter. 

YMS — Auxiliary Motor Mine Sweeper. 

YMT — Motor Tug. 

YN — Net Tender (Boom). 

YNG— Gate Craft. 

YNT — District Net Tender (Tug Class). 

YO — Fuel Oil Barge (Self-propelled). 

YOG — Gasoline Barge (Self-propelled). 

YOGN — Gasoline Barge (Non-self-propelled). 

YON — Fuel Oil Barge (Non-self-propelled). 

YOS — Oil Storage Barge. 

YP — Patrol Craft. 

YPD — Floating Pile Driver. 

YPK — Pontoon Stowage Barge. 

YR — Floating Workshop. 

YRB — Submarine Repair and Berthing Barge. 
YRBM — Submarine Repair, Berthing and Messing 
Barge. 

YRC — Submarine Rescue Chamber. 

YRDH — Floating Dry Dock Workshop (Hull) 

YRDM — Floating Dry Dock Workshop (Machinery). 
YRL — Covered Lighter (Repair). 

YS — Stevedoring Barge. 

YSD — Seaplane Wrecking Derrick. 

YSR — Sludge Removal Barge. 

YSP — Stowage Pontoon. 

YT — Harbor Tug. 

YTB — Large Harbor Tug. 

YTBM— Harbor Tug. 

YTL — Small Harbor Tug. 

YTM — Medium Harbor Tug. 

YTT — Torpedo Testing Barge. 

YV — Drone Aircraft Catapult Control Craft or 
Seaplane Barge. 

YVC — Catapult Lighter. 

YW — Water Barge (Self-propelled). 

YWN — Water Barge (Non-self-propelled). 

ZR — Rigid Airship. 

ZRS — Rigid Airship (Scouting). 


xxiii 



Frontispiece 

USS Chesapeake, training ship in which FADM C. W. Nimitz, USN, sailed in his Youngster Cruise. The ship 
and the man represent transition. It has been sail to steam; wood to steel. Now, nuclear-powered, ships carry 
continent-spanning missiles, can cruise the world submerged. The goal of the Navy remains: To control the 
seas for the welfare of the U.S. and free men everywhere. 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 


C-l 

(SS-9: dp. 238; 1. 105'4"; b. 13'11"; dr. 10'; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 15; a. 2 18' tt.; cl. C) 

C-l (Submarine No. 9) was launched 4 October 1906 
as Octopus by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, 
Mass., under a subcontract from Electric Boat Company; 
sponsored by Miss F. Webster; and commissioned 30 
June 1908, Lieutenant C. E. Courtney in command. She 
was renamed C-l on 17 November 1911. 

Assigned to the 2nd Submarine Flotilla, Octopus oper- 
ated out of Newport, R.I., and New York until 9 October 
1908. Tests and experiments with both submarine design 
and the tactical use of her type continued from Norfolk, 
Va., and Newport until she was placed in reserve at 
Charleston, S.C., 14 February 1910. 

Recommissioned 15 April 1910, the submarine con- 
ducted experiments and served as training vessel at 
Newport until 10 May 1913. C-l was reassigned to 1st 
Submarine Group, Torpedo Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet, and 
from 29 May to 7 December 1913, operated out of Guan- 
tanamo Bay, Cuba. She served in Panamanian waters 
in training, and later, on patrol during World War I, 
until 4 August 1919 when she was decommissioned at 
Coco Solo, C.Z. Here she was sold 13 April 1920. 


C-2 

(SS-13 : dp. 238; 1. 105'4"; b. 13'11"; dr. 10'; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 15; a. 2 18" tt.; cl. C) 

C-2 (Submarine No. 13) was launched 8 April 1909 
as Stingray by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, 
Mass., under a subcontract from Electric Boat Com- 
pany; sponsored by Miss E. Stevens; and commissioned 
23 November 1909, Ensign E. B. Armstrong in com- 
mand. She was renamed C-2 on 17 November 1911. 

Stingray, assigned to the Atlantic Torpedo Fleet and 
later the Atlantic Submarine Flotilla, cruised east coast 
waters until 20 May 1913, when she cleared Norfolk, Va., 
for 6 months of operations from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 
In December she reported at Cristobal, C.Z., and began 
an operating schedule of torpedo practice, exploration 
of anchorages, and harbor defense duty at ports of the 
Canal Zone. During the latter part of World War I, 
C-2 patrolled the Florida coast. The submarine was 
placed in ordinary at Coco Solo, C.Z., 22 August 1919, 
and was decommissioned there 23 December 1919. She 
was sold 13 April 1920. 


C-3 

(SS-14: dp. 238; 1. 105'4"; b. 13'11"; dr. 10'; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 15; a. 2 18" tt.; cl. C) 

C-3 (Submarine No. 14) was launched 8 April 1909 
as Tarpon by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, 
Mass., under a subcontract from Electric Boat Co.; spon- 
sored by Miss K. Theiss; and commissioned 23 Novem- 
ber 1909, Lieutenant P. P. Bassett in command. She was 
renamed C-3 on 17 November 1911. 


Tarpon cruised along the east coast with the Atlantic 
Torpedo Fleet and the' Atlantic Submarine Flotilla 
through the spring of 1913, operating in tests and exer- 
cises. From May to December 1913, she was based at 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and on 12 December 1913 re- 
ported at Cristobal, C.Z. Her operations included explo- 
ration of anchorages, tactical drills, and harbor defense 
patrol at Canal Zone ports. In the summer of 1918 she 
patrolled off Florida, then returned to Panamanian 
waters. C-3 was placed in ordinary at Coco Solo, C.Z., 
22 August 1919, decommissioned there 23 December 
1919, and sold 13 April 1920. 


C-4 

(SS-15: dp. 238; 1. 105'4"; b. 13'11"; dr. 10'; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 15; a. 2 18" tt. ; cl. C ) 

C-4 (Submarine No. 15) was launched 17 June 1909 
as Bonita by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass., 
under a subcontract from Electric Boat Co.; sponsored 
by Mrs. J. C. Townsend; and commissioned 23 November 
1909, Lieutenant F. V. McNair in command. She was 
renamed C-4 on 17 November 1911. 

Assigned first to the Atlantic Torpedo Fleet, and later 
to the Atlantic Submarine Flotilla, Bonita plied east 
coast waters until May 1913, when she cleared Norfolk, 
Va., for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Her tactical exercises 
and development operations continued here and from 
Cristobal, C.Z., where she reported 12 December 1913. 
During August of 1917, sailing with two other sub- 
marines, she explored the suitability of Panamanian 
ports as advance submarine bases. Laid up at Coco Solo, 
C.Z., from 12 November 1918, C-4 was decommissioned 
there 15 August 1919, and sold on 13 April 1920. 


C-5 

(SS-16: dp. 238; 1. 105'4"; b. 13'11"; dr. 10'; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 15; a. 2 18" tt. ; cl. C) 

C-5 (Submarine No. 16) was launched 16 June 1908 
as Snapper by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, 
Mass., under a subcontract from Electric Boat Co.; 
sponsored by Miss A. Nicoll; and commissioned 2 Febru- 
ary 1910, Ensign C. W. Nimitz in command. She was 
renamed C-5 on 17 November 1911. 

Snapper fitted out at the Boston Navy Yard, then be- 
gan 3 years of training and tests along the east coast 
and in Chesapeake Bay. She ran experiments with radio, 
submarine signaling apparatus, different types of bat- 
teries, and other equipment, all of which has since be- 
come standard in ships of the “Silent Service.” She 
joined in Fleet maneuvers helping to develop submarine 
tactics in submerged attacks on combatant ships, and 
engaged in operations with airplanes in the infancy of 
naval aviation. Highlights of the period were the re- 
views of the Fleet by President William H. Taft and 
Secretary of the Navy George von L. Meyer, in Novem- 
ber 1911 and October 1912. 

On 20 May 1913, C-5 and her sisters of the First 
Group, Submarine Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet, commanded 


1 


by Lieutenant (junior grade) R. S. Edwards in C-3, 
departed Norfolk in tow of tender Castine and collier 
Mars, for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. From her arrival on 
29 May, C-5 exercised in Cuban waters, principally con- 
ducting torpedo practices, until 7 December 1913. On 
that date C-5 and her sisters of the redesignated First 
Division, escorted by four surface ships, sailed for Cris- 
tobal, C.Z. Five days later the ships completed the 700- 
mile passage, at that time the longest cruise made by 
United States submarines under their own power. 

C-5 operated in Panamanian waters, conducting exer- 
cises, and patrolling on harbor defense as well as study- 
ing the suitability of various ports of Panama for sub- 
marine bases. C-5 was decommissioned at Coco Solo, 
C.Z., 23 December 1919, and sold 13 April 1920. 

Fleet Admiral Nimitz writes of C-5 (Submarine No. 
16), USS Snapper: “Her Craig gasoline engines were 
built in Jersey City by James Craig an extraordinarily 
wise and capable builder. Craig was a self-taught engi- 
neer who began as a draftsman in the Machinery Divi- 
sion of the New York Navy Yard — and who started his 
‘Machine & Engine Works’ in Jersey City at a later 
date. C-5’s engines were excellent as were also the Craig 
diesel engines he built for a subsequent submarine. 
These engines were designed and built by Craig and I 
have never forgotten his ‘Foreword’ — to the pamphlet 
of Operating Instructions — which read briefly — some- 
what like this 

‘No matter what the designer and the builder may 
have planned for these engines — and no matter what the 
operator may try to do with them — the Laws of Nature 
will prevail in the End’. How True!!” 


C. F. Sargent 

Former name retained. 

C. F. Sargent (No. 3027) was a seagoing barge 
acquired by the Navy in 1918 for use as a coastwise 
collier. She sank off Hen and Chicken Shoals on 31 
July 1918. 

C. P. Williams 

Former name retained. 

(Sch: t. 210; 1. 103'8"; b. 28'3"; dph. 8'2"; s. 10 k.; cpl. 

35; a. 1 13" m., 2 32-pdr.) 

C. P. Williams was purchased by the Navy Depart- 
ment at New York 2 September 1861; fitted out as a 
mortar schooner; commissioned 21 January 1862, Acting 
Master A. R. Langthorne in command; and reported to 
the Mortar Flotilla in the Mississippi River. 

Between 13 March and 17 July 1862 C. P. Williams 
cruised the lower Mississippi, joining in the bombard- 
ments of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, La., between 18 
and 23 April, and Vicksburg, Miss., from 27 June to 3 
July as well as blockading Berwick Bay. 

C. P. Williams sailed north on 17 July 1862 for repairs 
at Baltimore during September and October. On 9 No- 
vember, she joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squad- 
ron at Port Royal, S.C. During the remainder of the 
war she patrolled the rivers and sounds of the area, fired 
in the bombardments of forts, covered landing parties, 
and engaged detachments of Confederate cavalry ashore. 

On 9 June 1865 C. P. Williams cleared Charleston, 
S.C., for Philadelphia, arriving on the 19th. She was 
decommissioned 27 June 1865 and sold 10 August 1865. 

C. W. Morse 

Former name retained. 

C. W. Morse (No. 1966) was a river passenger ship 
which the Navy chartered during World War I. On 12 

2 


December 1917 she was placed in service in the 3d Naval 
District as a receiving ship. She was returned to her 
owner on 10 February 1919. 

Cabana 

Born in Fairhaven, Mass., 26 March 1911, Napoleon 
Joseph Cabana enlisted in the Navy 17 March 1930 and 
was appointed machinist 2 February 1941. As assistant 
safety engineer of the Cavite Navy Yard, P.I., he was 
killed in action during Japanese attacks on that base 
12 December 1941. 

(DE-260: dp. 1,140; 1. 289'5"; b. 35'1"; dr. 8'3"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 114; a. 3 3", 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct. ; cl. Evarts) 

Cabana (DE-260) was launched 10 March 1943 by 
Boston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. E. Cabana; and 
commissioned 9 July 1943, Lieutenant Commander R. L. 
Bence, USNR, in command. 

Clearing Norfolk, Va., 2 October 1943, Cabana arrived 
at Pearl Harbor 26 October. From this base she screened 
the tanker units supporting TF 53 in its strikes in the 
Ellice and Gilbert Islands during the invasion of the 
latter. After a convoy escort voyage to San Francisco, 
she cleared Pearl Harbor 28 January 1944 to guard vul- 
nerable transports bound for the occupation of Kwaja- 
lein. Cabana returned to Pearl Harbor 15 February to 
join the screen of tankers destined for the essential task 
of refueling ships engaged in the continuing operations 
in the Marshall Islands. 

Displaying her antisubmarine capabilities, Cabana 
patrolled with a hunter-killer group from Majuro 
through March and April 1944, then returned to Pearl 
Harbor to prepare for the Marianas operation. Through 
the summer she offered fire support, radar picket, and 
escort services as Saipan, Guam, and Tinian were added 
to the growing list of American victories. On 18 Sep- 
tember she arrived at Guadalcanal to escort invasion 
forces to the southern Palau Islands, then continued 
convoy voyages to Ulithi and Peleliu as the Palaus oper- 
ation came to its close. Cabana returned to Pearl Har- 
bor 21 November for training, and on 11 February 1945 
sailed guarding transports to provide reinforcements for 
the invasion of Iwo Jima. She patrolled off that island 
from 7 March to 20 March, then returned to the United 
States for a brief overhaul. 

Cabana rejoined 3d Fleet units operating from Ulithi 
and Guam 17 July 1945, and until the close of the war 
screened the logistics support group as the mighty air 
power of the 3d Fleet smashed at the Japanese home 
islands. On 20 September she entered Tokyo Bay escort- 
ing tankers to refuel the occupation fleet, and after a 
month of service as weather station ship off Pearl Har- 
bor, returned to Mare Island 25 November 1945. Cabana 
was decommissioned 9 January 1946 and sold 13 May 
1947. 

Cabana received seven battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cabell 

A county in West Virginia. 

(AK-166; dp. 2,382; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Alamosa) 

Cabell (AK-166) was launched 23 December 1944 by 
Kaiser Cargo Co., Richmond, Calif., under a Maritime 
Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. W. P. Gilmore; 
acquired by the Navy 11 April 1945; commissioned the 
same day, Lieutenant E. J. McCluskey, USNR, in com- 
mand; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Cabell made one cargo voyage from San Francisco to 
Eniwetok and San Pedro Bay, P.I., between 1 June 1945 
and 22 August. She sailed from San Francisco again 
8 September with cargo for Eniwetok and Yokosuka 
Naval Base in Tokyo Bay, where she arrived 7 October. 


Continuing this vital support of occupation operations, 
she called at ports in the Philippines, and on Okinawa, 
Saipan, and Guam, before arriving at San Pedro, Calif., 
15 April 1946. She was decommissioned at Seattle, 
Wash., 19 July 1946, and returned to the Maritime Com- 
mission 3 days later. 

Cabezon 

A saltwater fish of the sculpin family inhabiting the 
North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. 

(SS-334: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 

20 k., cpl. 66; a.: 1 5"; 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Cabezon (SS-334) was launched 27 August 1944 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
T. R. Cooley; and commissioned 30 December 1944, 
Commander G. W. Lautrup in command. 

Cabezon departed New London, Conn., 19 February 
1945 for Key West, Fla., where she underwent 3 weeks 
of training and providing services for the Fleet Sound 
School. She then sailed via the Panama Canal to Pearl 
Harbor, arriving 15 March 1945. 

From 25 May to 11 July 1945 Cabezon conducted her 
first war patrol in the Sea of Okhotsk, sinking a 2,631- 
ton Japanese cargo vessel on 19 June. She refitted at 
Midway until 4 August, then departed for Saipan to 
serve as target ship for surface force training exercises. 
From 7 September 1945 until 12 January 1946 she en- 
gaged in local operations and training in Philippine 
waters, based at Subic Bay. 

On 6 February 1946 Cabezon arrived at San Diego, 
operating from that port until her base was changed to 
Pearl Harbor. Subsequent to her arrival there on 20 
November 1946, she participated in local operations and 
training cruises for submariners of the Naval Reserve 
there and on the west coast with intervening cruises to 
the South Pacific, the North Pacific, and across the 
Arctic Circle. She also made two cruises to the Far 
East (18 March-29 July 1950 and 21 April-16 October 
1952), the second of which included a reconnaissance 
patrol in the vicinity of La Perouse Strait, between 
Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, U.S.S.R. She sailed for 
Mare Island 21 April 1953 to start inactivation and was 
placed out of commission in reserve there 24 October 
1953. 

Cabezon received one battle star for service in World 
War II. Her single war patrol was designated “success- 
ful.” She is credited with having sunk a total of 2,631 
tons of shipping. 

Cabildo 

The Cabildo in New Orleans, now a historical museum, 
was the meeting place of the Spanish Cabildo and the old 


town hall of the city. Here the formal transfer of the 
Louisiana Territory from France to the United States 
took place. 

(LSD-16: dp. 4,960; 1. 457'9”; b. 72'2"; dr. 18'; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 326; a. 1 5”; cl. Casa Grande) 

Cabildo (LSD-16) was launched 22 December 1944 by 
Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Newport 
News, Va. ; sponsored by Miss A. B. Pendleton; and 
commissioned 15 March 1945, Commander E. B. Holdorff, 
USNR, in command. 

Cabildo sailed from New York City 6 May 1945 for 
Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 8 June. She carried 
out her duties of docking and repairing small craft, 
transporting amphibious eraft, and operating boat-pools 
at Guam and Okinawa in July. After carrying boats to 
the Philippines in August, Cabildo reported in Waka- 
noura Wan, Honshu, on 11 September. Here she loaded 
Javanese, Dutch, and Australians, rescued from Jap- 
anese prison camps, who she carried to Okinawa. Laden 
with men of the Army Engineers, she arrived at Manila 
3 October, then sailed for Japan, where she acted as 
receiving and repair ship at Sasebo and Yokosuka until 
19 April 1946. 

Cabildo returned to the west coast 12 May 1946, and 
was decommissioned 15 January 1947. Recommissioned 
at San Diego 5 October 1950, she took part in atomic 
weapons tests in the Marshalls and on 21 November 
1951 sailed from San Diego for duty in Korean waters. 
She lifted soldiers and marines from Japan to Korea, 
and from Korea’s east coast to the Inchon battle lines, 
and during a part of her tour served as flagship and 
tender to Mine Squadron 3 in its dangerous operations. 
While with this group in April off Wonsan, Cabildo re- 
ceived a direct hit from a shore battery, but suffered no 
casualties, and was able to continue her mission. 

Returning to San Diego 2 September 1952, Cabildo 
prepared for another extended Far Eastern deployment 
from 3 July 1953 to 23 April 1954. In 1955 she was 
fitted with mezzanine and helicopter decks, and from 
that time operated extensively with Marine units in 
developing the vertical envelopment concept of am- 
phibious warfare. Cabildo’s west coast operations alter- 
nated with two tours of duty in the Far East from 
January 1956 to July 1958. Clearing San Diego on 
11 February 1959, she carried craft and an under- 
water demolition team detachment to the Aleutians 
before continuing to Japan. After duty in Japanese and 
Formosan waters, she returned to Long Beach 5 June 
1959. Amphibious exercises at Okinawa highlighted her 
1960 deployment, which began 16 February and con- 
tinued through the major portion of the year. 

Cabildo received two battle stars for service in the 
Korean war. 



USS Cabildo (LSD-16) 


3 


Cable 

A very strong wire or fiber rope. 

(ARS-19: dp. 1,441; 1. 213'6"; b. 39'; dr. 14'8''; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 120; a. 2 40 mm.; cl. Diver) 

Cable (ARS-19) was launched 1 April 1943 by Basalt 
Rock Co., Napa, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. B. Elliott; 
and commissioned 6 March 1944, Lieutenant Commander 
H. Pond, USNR, in command. 

Cable began her salvage and rescue work while still 
in shakedown training, when she took in tow for San 
Diego the water barge AW-86, which had suffered a 
breakdown off Cape San Lucas, Mexico. Cable cleared 
San Pedro, Calif., 30 April 1944, towing small craft to 
Kwajalein on her way to Milne Bay, New Guinea. Here 
she offered salvage and rescue services until sailing 10 
August for Manus and Cairns, Australia, where she 
loaded firefighting and salvage teams. Continuing the 
lengthy process of invasion preparation, she sailed to 
Milne Bay to load firefighting equipment, and on 18 
October put out from Hollandia, New Guinea, in a con- 
voy of supp ships for the initial landings on Leyte. 

Many ships were damaged in the furious naval and 
air actions which accompanied the Leyte, and later the 
Lingayen, operations. Cable’s essential services aided 
many; she made Albert W. Grant (DD-649) seaworthy 
again in only two days after the destroyer had flooded 
from the 19 shell hits received in the Battle of Surigao 
Strait. Such duty in San Pedro Bay and Lingayen Gulf 
was followed by assignment to harbor clearance at Ma- 
nila through the spring of 1945. Cable’s devoted and 
skillful service in the Philippines was recognized with 
the award of the Navy Unit Commendation. 

Cable stood out of Manila Bay 30 May 1945 where her 
repair facilities helped ready ships for the Borneo inva- 
sion. She steamed to Balikpapan for frontline support 
in July, and in August returned to the Philippines for 
continued service through 6 March 1946. Homeward 
bound, she towed APL-18 from Pearl Harbor to San 
Diego, where she arrived 28 July 1946 for local opera- 
tions until 28 January 1947. Proceeding to the east 
coast, Cable carried out salvage, rescue, and towing 
assignments in New England waters until 15 Septem- 
ber 1947, when she was decommissioned at Boston. She 
was loaned, commercially the same day. 

In addition to the Navy Unit Commendation, Cable 
received three battle stars for World War II service. 


Cabot 

John Cabot (1450-1498), the Venetian navigator, dis- 
covered the North American continent in 1497 while 
sailing under the sponsorship of King Henry VII of 
England. 

I 

(Brig: t. 189; 1. 74'10''; b. 24'8"; dph. 11'4"; cpl. 120; 
a. 14 6-pdr.) 

The first Cabot, a 14-gun brig, was purchased in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., during November 1775; outfitted there by 
Wharton and Humphreys; and placed under the com- 
mand of Captain J. B. Hopkins as one of the first ships 
of the Continental Navy. 

Sailing with Commodore Esek Hopkins’ fleet, Cabot 
joined in the expedition against the Bahamas in March 
1776, taking part in the amphibious operations against 
New Providence on 3 March. By this bold stroke, men 
of the fleet seized large quantities of desperately needed 
military supplies which they carried back to the Con- 
tinental Army. Upon the return of the fleet north, 
Cabot was first to fire in the engagement with HMS 
Glasgow 6 April. The next month, she made a short 
cruise off the New England coast, during which she took 


her first prize. In September and October, again sailing 
in New England waters, she seized six more prizes. 

Cabot stood out of Boston in March 1777, and later in 
the month encountered HMS Milford (32). The vastly 
more powerful British ship chased Cabot and forced her 
ashore in Nova Scotia. While Cabot’s captain and crew 
escaped unharmed, the British were later able to get 
the brig off, and refitted her for servipe in the Royal 
Navy. Cabot was the first Continental naval ship cap- 
tured by the British. 


Cabot (CV-16) was renamed Lexington (CV-16) 
(q.v.) 16 June 1942, prior to her launching. 

II 

(CVL-28 : dp. 11,000; 1. 622'6"; b. 71'6”; ew. 109'2"; dr. 
26'; s. 32 k. ; cpl. 1,569; a. 26 40 mm.; cl. Independence) 

The second Cabot (CVL-28) was laid down as Wil- 
mington (CL-79), redesignated CV-28 on 2 June 1942, 
renamed Cabot 23 June 1942, converted while building, 
and launched 4 April 1943 by New York Shipbuilding 
Co., Camden, N.J.; sponsored by Mrs. A. C. Read; re- 
classified CVL-28 on 15 July 1943; and commissioned 24 
July 1943, Captain M. F. Shoeffel in command. 

Cabot sailed from Quonset Point, R.I., 8 November 
1943 for Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 2 December. 
Clearing for Majuro 15 January 1944, she joined TF 
58 to begin the consistently high quality of war service 
which was to win her a Presidential Unit Citation. From 
4 February to 4 March 1944 she launched her planes in 
strikes on Roi, Namur, and the island stronghold of 
Truk, aiding in the neutralization of these Japanese 
bases as her part in the invasion of the Marshalls. 

Cabot returned to Pearl Harbor for a brief repair 
period, but was back in action from Majuro for the 
pounding raids on the Palaus, Yap, Ulithi, and Woleai 
at the close of March 1944. She sailed to provide valu- 
able air cover for the Hollandia operation from 22 to 25 
April, and 4 days later began to hurl her air power at 
Truk, Satawan, and Ponape. She cleared Majuro again 
6 June for the preinvasion air strikes in the Marianas, 
and on 19 and 20 June launched sorties in the key Battle 
of the Philippine Sea, the famous “Marianas Turkey 
Shoot,” which hopelessly crippled Japanese naval avi- 
ation. Cabot’s air units pounded Japanese bases on Iwo 
Jima, Pagan, Rota, Guam, Yap and Ulithi as the carrier 
continued her support of the Marianas operation until 
9 August. 

Preinvasion strikes in the Palaus in September 1944 
along with air attacks on Mindanao, the Visayas, and 
Luzon paved the way for the long-awaited return to 
the Philippines. On 6 October Cabot sailed from Ulithi 
for raids on Okinawa, and to provide air cover for her 
task group during the heavy enemy attacks off Formosa 
on 12 and 13 October. Cabot joined the group which 
screened “Cripple Division 1,” the cruisers Canberra 
(CA-70) and Houston (CL-81) which had been tor- 
pedoed off Formosa, to the safety of the Carolines, then 
rejoined her group for continued air strikes on the 
Visayas, and the Battle for Leyte Gulf on 25 and 26 
October. 

Cabot remained on patrol off Luzon, conducting strikes 
in support of operations ashore, and repelling desperate 
suicide attacks. On 25 November a particularly vicious 
one occurred. Cabot had fought off several kamikazes 
when one, already flaming from hits, crashed the flight 
deck on the port side, destroying the still-firing 20 mm. 
gun platform, disabling the 40 mm. mounts and a gun 
director. Another of Cabot’s victims crashed close 
aboard and showered the port side with shrapnel and 
burning debris. Cabot lost 62 men killed and wounded, 
but careful training had produced a crew which handled 
damage control smoothly and coolly. While she con- 
tinued to maintain her station in formation and operate 


4 


effectively, temporary repairs were made. On 28 No- 
vember she arrived at Ulithi for permanent repairs. 

Cabot returned to action 11 December 1944, steaming 
with the force striking Luzon, Formosa, Indo-China, 
Hong Kong, and the Nansei Shoto in support of the 
Luzon operations. From 10 February to 1 March 1945, 
her planes pounded the Japanese homeland and the 
Bonins to suppress opposition to the invasion of Iwo 
Jima. Continued strikes against Kyushu and Okinawa 
in March prepared for the invasion of the latter island. 
After these prolonged, intensive operations, Cabot was 
homeward bound for San Francisco for a much-needed 
overhaul completed in June. 

After refresher training at Pearl Harbor, the carrier 
launched strikes on Wake Island on 1 August while en 
route to Eniwetok. Here she remained on training duty 
until the end of the war. Sailing 21 August, she joined 
TG 38.3 to support the landings of occupation troops in 
the Yellow Sea area in September and October. Em- 
barking homeward-bound men at Guam, Cabot arrived 
at San Diego 9 November, then sailed for the east coast. 
Cabot was placed out of commission in reserve at Phila- 
delphia 11 February 1947. 

Recommissioned 27 October 1948, Cabot was assigned 
to the Naval Air Reserve training program. She oper- 
ated out of Pensacola, then Quonset Point, on cruises to 
the Caribbean, and had one tour of duty in European 
waters from 9 January to 26 March 1952. Cabot was 
again placed out of commission in reserve 21 January 
1955. She was reclassified AVT-3 on 15 May 1959. 

In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation, Cabot 
received nine battle stars for World War II service. 

Cabrilla 

An edible fish inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea and 
waters off the coast of California. 

(SS-288 : dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 

20 k.; cpl. 66; a. 1 4", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Cabrilla (SS-288) was launched 24 December 1942 
by Portsmouth Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. L. B. 
Combs; commissioned 24 May 1943, Commander D. T. 
Hammond in command; and reported to the Pacific 
Fleet. 

Cabrilla arrived at Pearl Harbor 30 August 1943, and 
on 12 September cleared on the first of eight war patrols. 
After a daring exploit in which four Filipino guerrillas 
were taken off Negros Island, Cabrilla completed her 
patrol at Fremantle, Australia, her base for the next 
five patrols. During her second patrol, Cabrilla laid 
mines in the Gulf of Siam, and sank her first Japanese 
merchantman, then returned to Fremantle to prepare for 
her third patrol, a reconnaissance of Sunda Strait. Her 
fourth and fifth patrols, off Makassar, and in the Celebes 
and Sulu Seas, found her again striking with telling 
results against Japanese merchant shipping. Most suc- 
cessful of her patrols was the sixth, in the South China 
Sea and off Luzon from 13 September to 25 October 
1944. During this period, she sank a total of 24,557 tons 
of shipping, including a 10,059-ton tanker. Cabrilla made 
her seventh war patrol in vicious weather in the Kuriles 
of northern Japan, and her last patrol found her on 
lifeguard duty for aviators downed at sea while carrying 
out attacks on Japan. 

Homeward-bound after 2 arduous years, Cabrilla 
cleared Fremantle 31 August 1945 for the States. Fol- 
lowing overhaul at Philadelphia, she sailed for the 
Canal Zone for exercises (19 February-17 March 1946), 
then underwent preinactivation overhaul at Philadel- 
phia. Cabrilla was placed out of commission in reserve 
7 August 1946. 

Cabrilla received six battle stars for World War II 
service. Of her eight patrols, six were designated as 
“Successful War Patrols.” She is credited with having 
sunk a total of 38,767 tons of shipping. 


Cacapon 

A river in West Virginia. 

(AO-52: dp. 7,470; 1. 553'; b. 75'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 302; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

Cacapon (AO-52) was launched 12 June 1943 by 
Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrows 
Point, Md., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. A. V. Doherty ; acquired by the Navy 
21 September 1943; and commissioned the same day, 
Lieutenant Commander G. Eyth in command. 

On 22 October 1943 Cacapon sailed from Norfolk to 
load fuel at Aruba in the West Indies en route to Pearl 
Harbor, where she arrived 12 November. On 30 Novem- 
ber she rendezvoused with the 5th Fleet to deliver fuel 
at sea to the ships carrying out the Gilbert Islands 
operation. After a west coast overhaul, she returned to 
Pearl Harbor, from which she sailed 3 February 1945 to 
carry her vital logistic support to TF 50, then engaged 
in the Marshall Islands operation. She carried fuel on 
which all modern naval warfare depends to units of the 
3d Fleet from March into May, as the mighty task 
forces sent their strikes against Rabaul, Kavieng, Green, 
Emirau, and the Admiralties. During a part of this 
period, she served temporarily with the 7th Fleet’s serv- 
ice support group for the New Guinea operation. 

Cacapon served as station tanker successively at 
Efate and Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides; Port Purvis, 
Solomon Islands; and Manus, Admiralty Islands, until 
8 January, when she cleared Manus for Ulithi. Here 
she reported to the 3d Fleet, and between 12 and 27 Jan- 
uary her operations supported TF 38 during its series 
of strikes against Luzon and Formosa supporting the 
Philippine attacks and consolidation. Cacapon length- 
ened the list of operations to which she had given vital 
support as she steamed with the 5th Fleet during the 
Iwo Jima operation, from 15 to 26 February, and the 
Okinawa operation from 24 March to 30 June. Between 
these, she served briefly as station tanker in San Pedro 
Bay, P.I. 

Cacapon brought her essential aid to the 3d Fleet in 
its final devastating air attacks and bombardments on 
the Japanese home islands in July 1945, and on 20 Sep- 
tember entered Tokyo Bay. Ten days later she cleared 
for San Pedro, Calif., arriving for overhaul 11 October. 
She returned to the Far East in December, providing 
support to occupation forces with a shuttle service be- 
tween Yokohama and Shanghai and Tsingtao, China. 
In April 1946 she sailed to Bahrein in the Persian Gulf 
to load oil for delivery to Kwajalein Atoll, where her 
cargo was to be used during Operation “Crossroads”. 
However, on the first day at sea, 24 April, she ran on 
Shah Allum Shoal in the Persian Gulf. While the cur- 
rent pulled her clear, her engine and fire rooms began 
to flood and all power was lost. Aided by SS Fort Erie, 
SS Fort Stanwick, and Chikaskia (AO-54), Cacapon put 
back to Bahrein for temporary repairs, and proceeded to 
San Pedro, Calif., for permanent repairs. 

On 2 December 1946, Cacapon cleared San Pedro, 
Calif., for 10 weeks in the Antarctic in Operation “High- 
jump”. She called at Sydney, Australia, en route Long 
Beach, Calif., returning home 8 April 1947. Between 
1947 and 1950 she cruised in the Pacific on two extended 
Far Eastern tours. 

Far Eastern operations continued to be the rule for 
Cacapon when war broke out in Korea in June 1950; 
she completed four lengthy tours of duty there during 
the three years of fighting. Sailing with the 7th Fleet 
and the Formosa Patrol Force, she carried fuel and 
supplies to these sea forces. On her first tour, during 
which she helped to support the amphibious landing at 
Inchon on 15 September 1950, she earned the Navy Unit 
Commendation for her high performance of duty. 

From the end of hostilities in Korea through 1960, 
Cacapon made six more Far Eastern tours, continuing 
to sail with the 7th Fleet and the Taiwan Patrol Force. 


5 


During her 1955 tour she took part in the evacuation of 
the Tachen Islands from 6 to 14 February, and the 
Vietnam evacuation “Passage to Freedom” operation of 
6 to 15 March. From February to August of 1958, she 
joined in Operation “Hardtack” at Bikini. The intervals 
between deployments have found her operating locally 
from Long Beach. 

Cacapon received four battle stars for World War II 
service, and the Navy Unit Commendation and nine 
battle stars for Korean war service. 


Cachalot 

The sperm whale. 

Cachalot (SS-33) was renamed K-2 (q. v.) on 17 No- 
vember 1911 prior to her commissioning. 

I 

(SS-170: dp. 1,110; 1. 271'10''; b. 24'9"; dr. 12'10"; s. 

17 k. ; cpl 43; a. 1 3", 6 21" tt. ; cl. Cachalot) 

Cachalot (SS-170) was launched 19 October 1933 as 
V-8 (SC-4) by Portsmouth Navy Yard; sponsored by 
Miss K. D. Kempff; and commissioned 1 December 1933, 
Lieutenant Commander M. Comstock in command. 

After shakedown, further construction, tests, and 
overhaul, Cachalot sailed for San Diego, Calif., where on 
17 October 1934 she joined the Submarine Force, U.S. 
Fleet. Operating until 1937 principally on the west 
coast, she engaged in fleet problems, torpedo practice, 
antisubmarine, tactical, and sound training exercises. 
She cruised twice to Hawaiian waters and once to the 
Canal Zone to participate in large-scale fleet exercises. 

Cachalot cleared San Diego 15 June 1937, bound for 
New London, Conn., and duty in experimental torpedo 
firing for the Newport Torpedo Station, and sound train- 
ing for the New London Submarine School until 26 
October 1937 when she began a lengthy overhaul at 
New York Navy Yard. A year later she sailed for par- 
ticipation in a fleet problem, torpedo practice and sound 
training in the Caribbean and off the Canal Zone, and 
on 16 June 1939, reported at Pearl Harbor for duty with 
the Submarine Force and the Scouting Force. 

War came to Cachalot as she lay in Pearl Harbor 
Navy Yard in overhaul. In the Japanese attack of 7 
December 1941, one of her men was wounded, but the 
submarine suffered no damage. Yard work on her was 
completed at a furious pace, and on 12 January 1942 
she sailed on her first war patrol. After fueling at Mid- 
way, she conducted a reconnaissance of Wake, Eniwetok, 
Ponape, Truk, Namonuito, and Hall Islands, returning 
to Pearl Harbor 18 March with vitally needed intelli- 
gence of Japanese bases. Her second war patrol, for 
which she cleared from Midway on 9 June, was con- 
ducted off the Japanese home islands, where she dam- 
aged an enemy tanker. Returning to Pearl Harbor 26 
July, she cleared on her final war patrol 23 September, 
penetrating the frigid waters of the Bering Sea in sup- 
port of the Aleutians operations. 

Overage for strenuous war patrols, Cachalot still had 
a key role to play during the remainder of the war, 
which she spent as training ship for the Submarine 
School at New London. She served here until 30 June 
1945, when she sailed to Philadelphia where she was 
decommissioned 17 October 1945. She was sold 26 Janu- 
ary 1947. 

Cachalot received three battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Cache 

A river in Arkansas. 

(AO-67: dp. 5,730; 1. 523'6"; b. 68'; dr. 30'10"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 225; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Escambia) 


Cache (AO-67) was launched 7 September 1942 as 
Stillwater by Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Ches- 
ter, Pa., under a Maritime Commission contract; spon- 
sored by Mrs. J. Cook; acquired by the Navy 28 Septem- 
ber 1942; converted at Maryland Shipbuilding and Dry 
Dock Co., Baltimore, Md. ; commissioned 3 November 
1942, Lieutenant Commander P. Anderson, USNR, in 
command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

From 11 December 1942 to 25 February 1943, Cache 
carried oil from Gulf ports to Norfolk, Va., and Ar- 
gentia, Nfld. She cleared Norfolk 19 March for Bay- 
town, Tex., where she loaded diesel oil for Bora Bora, 
Society Islands, and Noumea. She returned from the 
South Pacific to San Pedro, Calif., for repairs 26 May. 

Returning to Noumea 8 July 1943, Cache operated 
between Espiritu Santo and Guadalcanal until 4 August. 
Duty as station tanker at Efate and Espiritu Santo con- 
tinued into December, when she sailed to refuel ships 
at sea. While returning to Espiritu Santo on 22 Janu- 
ary 1944, Cache was struck in the port side by a sub- 
marine torpedo. One man was killed, and Cache was 
severely damaged, but was able to make port under her 
own power. After temporary repairs, she sailed for San 
Pedro, Calif., for permanent repairs. 

Cache returned to duty at Eniwetok 20 June 1944 
to begin almost continuous participation in the opera- 
tions that forced the Japanese back across the Pacific to 
their homeland and ended the war. First came the 
Marianas operation, including the capture of Tinian, for 
which she fueled ships at sea in July and August 1944. 
Based at Manus from 26 August, Cache provided essen- 
tial fuel for the attacks on, and invasion of, the western 
Caroline Islands, then based at Kossol Roads and Ulithi 
to support the ships which brought the war back to the 
Philippines in the assaults on Leyte and Luzon in fall 
and winter 1944-45. Continuing to operate from Ulithi, 
she fueled TF 51 for the invasion of Iwo Jima, then 
put to sea for the great task force raids which prepared 
the way for, and supported, the Okinawa operation. 
Later she operated in Okinawan waters, bringing fuel 
through the hazards of kamikaze attacks unscathed. She 
ended her war service in July 1945 as she sailed with the 
mighty 3d Fleet in its final stunning blows against the 
Japanese home islands. After carrying fuel to Tokyo 
Bay in September, she returned to the west coast, and on 
14 January 1946 was decommissioned at San Francisco. 

Cache was transferred to the Maritime Commission in 
June 1946, but reacquired by the Navy 10 February 1948. 
Assigned to the Naval Transportation Service, she car- 
ried oil from Bahrein to Japan and the west coast until 
1 October 1949, when she was transferred to the Mili- 
tary Sea Transportation Service. She continued to 
operate in a noncommissioned status through 1960. 

Cache received eight battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cacique 

Cacique is the Spanish adaptation of an Indian word 
for prince or chieftain. 

(AK: t. 6,202; 1. 394'2"; b. 52'3"; dr. 27'11"; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 70; a. 1 5") 

Cacique (No. 2213), a freighter, was built in 1910 by 
Short Brothers Co., Sunderland, England; transferred 
to the Navy from the Shipping Board 19 August 1918; 
and commissioned the same day, Lieutenant Commander 
C. H. Winnett, USNRF, in command. 

Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Serv- 
ice, Cacique sailed from Norfolk, Va., 30 August 1918 
to begin her role in the mammoth task of supplying the 
Army in France. She made two voyages to Marseilles, 
France with general cargo, and returned to Baltimore, 
Md., 2 March 1919. Here she was decommissioned 24 
March 1919, and returned to the Shipping Board the 
same day. 


6 



Loading troops — 1898 


Cactus 

The well-known family of green, mostly leafless and 
spiny, plants of arid climates. 

(SwStr. : t. 176; 1. 110'; b. 22'6"; dr. 7'; s. 15 k.; a. 1 30- 
pdr., 2 12-pdr.) 

Cactus, an armed side-wheel steamer, was built dur- 
ing 1863 in Brooklyn, N.Y., as Polar Star; purchased at 
New York 9 December 1863; and commissioned 4 May 

1864, Acting Master N. Graham in command. 

Assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron 

with its task of isolating the Confederacy from overseas 
sources of supply, Cactus served as a supply ship and 
tender in Hampton Roads until 28 May 1864. She was 
then ordered up the York River to guard the Army’s 
lines of communication. On 20 June, with Morse, she 
fought an engagement with Confederate batteries along 
the Pamunkey River. After assisting in covering the 
withdrawal of the Army from White House, Va., the 
steamer returned to Hampton Roads 23 June. Until 
April 1865, Cactus operated in Hampton Roads and 
Chesapeake Bay towing launches and supply schooners. 
She then served in the Potomac Flotilla until placed out 
of commission at the Washington Navy Yard 8 June 

1865. Cactus was transferred to the Light House Board 
20 June 1865. 


Caddo Parish, see LST-515 
Cadiz see, PC-1081 

Cadmus 

A character in Greek mythology, the Phoenician 
prince Cadmus was said to have introduced the alphabet 
into Greece, and founded Thebes. 

( AR-14 : dp. 6,266; 1. 492'; b. 69'6" dr. 27'6"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 921; a. 2 5"; cl. Amphion) 

Cadmus (AR-14) was launched 5 August 1945 by 
Tampa Shipbuilding Co., Inc., Tampa, Fla.; sponsored 
by Mrs. B. P. Ward; and commissioned 23 April 1946, 
Captain J. M. Connally in command. 

Assigned to the Atlantic Fleet since commissioning, 
Cadmus has operated from her home port at Norfolk, 
Va., as repair ship. Calls to east coast ports, and cruises 
in the Caribbean, are part of a schedule which calls for 
service to the Fleet during major exercises. On 3 Sep- 
tember 1957, the repair ship cleared Norfolk on her first 


Atlantic crossing. After taking part in NATO exercises 
with TF 88 out of Rothesay, Scotland, she visited ports 
in Scotland, France, and Spain. Through the first half of 
1958 she sailed with TF 63 in replenishment missions 
during fleet exercises in the Mediterranean. From her 
return to Norfolk on 7 May 1958 through 1960, Cadmus 
has continued her program of east coast and Caribbean 
operations. 

Caelum 

A southern constellation. 

( AK-106: dp. 4,356; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; 
s. 12 k. ; cpl. 198; a, 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Crater) 

Caelum (AK-106) was launched 25 July 1943 as 
Wyatt Earp by California Shipbuilding Corp., Wilming- 
ton, Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. H. N. MacKusick; transferred to the 
Navy 10 August 1943; commissioned 22 October 1943, 
Lieutenant Commander E. Johnson in command; and 
reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Shouldering her share of the Navy’s great task of 
building up Pacific bases, Caelum carried cargo between 
Pearl Harbor and Tarawa, Majuro, Eniwetok, Kwaja- 
lein, and Ulithi in her first year of service. Her tireless 
operations included participation in the occupation of 
Kwajalein and Majuro in February 1944, and from June 
through October 1944 she was assigned to famed Service 
Squadron 10. 

A San Francisco overhaul late in 1944 was followed 
by Caelum’s assignment from 20 January 1945 as station 
ship at Ulithi, and from 8 May, at Guam. At these bases 
she controlled and issued cargo and provisions to the 
ships which carried out the massive operations in the 
Palaus, Philippines, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, and the 
task forces which pounded Japanese bases from the air. 

Returning to the States for overhaul in June and July 
1945, Caelum towed YF-741 to Ulithi in August, and 
sailed on to support the occupation of Korea in Septem- 
ber, and to provide logistic services to ships at Shanghai 
in early October. From 9 November, when she arrived 
at Samar, P.I., the cargo ship sailed from this and vari- 
ous Chinese ports until clearing for the United States 
15 April 1946. Decommissioned at Seattle 30 July 1946, 
Caelum was returned to the Maritime Commission the 
next day. 

Caelum received one battle star for World War II 
service. 


Caesar 

Caesar, title of the Roman emperors, has become 
principally identified with Gaius Julius Caesar (1027-44 
B.C.), general, statesman, and historian. 

(AC-16: dp. 5,920; 1. 322'1"; b. 43'11"; dr. 19'7"; s. 10 
k. ; a. 2 3-pdr.) 

Caesar (AC-16) was built in 1896 by Ropner and 
Sons, Stockton-on-Tees, England, as Kingtor; purchased 
21 April 1898; fitted out by New York Navy Yard; and 
commissioned 13 May 1898, Lieutenant Commander 
A. B. Speyers in command. 

Playing the same essential role in fleet operations as 
does a modern-day oiler, the collier Caesar sailed from 
Lambert’s Point, Va., 1 June 1898 laden with coal for the 
North Atlantic Squadron then blockading Cuba and 
Puerto Rico in the Spanish-American War. She con- 
tinued to carry fuel for this force until 8 July 1900, 
when she cleared Norfolk, Va., on the first of four voy- 
ages to the Far East. Sailing by way of the Suez Canal, 
Caesar brought cargo to the ships taking part in the 
suppression of the Philippine Insurrection, and aided in 
the establishment of bases in the new American ter- 
ritory. 


7 


In July 1903, Caesar returned to duty with the North 
Atlantic Fleet until decommissioned at Norfolk Navy 
Yard 23 May 1904. Recommissioned 27 December 1904, 
she ferried equipment and supplies for the solar eclipse 
expedition of 1905 to Valencia, Spain. At the close of 
the scientific program, she returned to Norfolk with the 
equipment 13 October 1905. While out of commission at 
Norfolk 28 October-4 November 1905, Caesar was fitted 
with towing machinery, and then joined Glacier (AF-4), 
Brutus (AC-15), and Potomac (AT-50) in a historic 
assignment. Together, the ships towed the Dewey Dry- 
dock by way of the Suez Canal to Olongapo, Luzon, P.I., 
a passage which took from 28 December 1905 to 10 July 
1906. This remains one of the sea’s great towing achieve- 
ments. Caesar made voyages to the Mediterranean from 
October 1915 to April 1916 and from July to September 
1916. On her first, she carried 135 refugees from Jaffa, 
Syria, to Alexandria, Egypt. 

Clearing New York for the Mediterranean once more 
on 19 December 1916, Caesar delivered Red Cross relief 
supplies for Syria at Alexandria, then sailed on to 
Olongapo. She served as cargo and passenger carrier 
for the Asiatic Fleet until August 1918, when she sailed 
for the Panama Canal and Norfolk, arriving 26 October. 
Three days later she sailed for France with Army cargo, 
returning to Norfolk 26 February. East coast operations 
preceded an extensive overhaul at Norfolk which began 
in September 1920. From May 1921 she resumed duty 
transporting coal and other supplies between the east 
and west coasts, and on 11 March 1922, she cleared 
Hampton Roads on her last voyage. After carrying 
cargo through the Panama Canal to Tutuila, American 
Samoa, she proceeded to Mare Island Navy Yard, where 
she was decommissioned 11 June 1922 and sold 22 De- 
cember 1922. 


Cahaba 

A river in Alabama. 

(AO-82: dp. 5,782; 1. 523'6"; b. 68'; dr. 30'10"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 225; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Escambia) 

Cahaba (AO-82) was launched 19 May 1943 as Lacka- 
wapen (later changed to Lackawaxen) by Marinship 
Corp., Sausalito, Calif., under a Maritime Commission 
contract; sponsored by Mrs. B. Bloomquist; transferred 
to the Navy 15 August 1943; commissioned 14 January 
1944, Commander E. H. Danesi, USNR, in command; 
and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Cahaba cleared San Pedro, Calif., 11 February 1944 
for Pearl Harbor and Majuro, arriving 1 April. After 
2 weeks as station oiler there, she put to sea to fuel 
TF 58 from 13 April to 2 May, as the massive task 
force hurled air attacks against the Palaus, Truk, and 
Hollandia. Returning to Majuro, the oiler based there 
for two fueling runs to Kwajalein and one refueling 
voyage to Pearl Harbor between 3 May and 13 June. 

With the development of the Marianas operation, 
Cahaba’s base became Eniwetok from 28 June, as she 
fueled 5th Fleet ships for their strikes on Guam, Saipan, 
and Tinian. As the fleet she served moved westward, 
Cahaba followed, serving as station oiler at Ulithi from 
13 October to 27 December, along with refueling 3d 
Fleet units at sea from 14 to 30 October. Supporting 
the Lingayen Gulf Covering Force, the oiler took sta- 
tion in Kossol Roads from 28 December 1944 to 26 Jan- 
uary 1945, then returned to Ulithi. She contributed to 
the successful assault on Iwo Jima by fueling TF 58 
ships at sea from 23 February to 4 March. 

Following a much-needed overhaul, Cahaba sailed 
from San Pedro, Calif., to the kamikaze-ridden waters 
off Okinawa, delivering oil to the station tanker at 
Kerama Retto late in June 1945. Through the close of 
the war, she sailed out of Ulithi refueling the 3d Fleet 


at sea as it carried out its final smashing raids on the 
Japanese homeland. Clearing Ulithi 3 September, the 
oiler paused at Okinawa, then sailed on to Shanghai to 
aid in the reoccupation by Chinese Nationalists of areas 
held by the Japanese during the war. Occupation duty 
at Okinawa, Formosa, Hong Kong, and Amoy continued 
until 16 March 1946, when she cleared for the Panama 
Canal and New York City, arriving 28 April. Cahaba 
was decommissioned 15 May 1946, and transferred to 
the Maritime Commission 8 May 1947. 

Reacquired in March 1948 and transferred to the 
Military Sea Transportation Service 31 July 1950, Ca- 
haba served in a noncommissioned status until 20 
January 1958 when she was returned to the Maritime 
Administration. 

Cahaba received eight battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Cahill, Winfield S., see Winfield S. Cahill 


Cahokia 

An Indian tribe belonging to the Illinois Confederacy. 

I 

(AT-61 : dp. 510; 1. 141'; b. 27'7"; dr. 10'7") 

The first Cahokia (AT-61) was built in 1920 by Provi- 
dence Engineering Corp., City Island, N.Y. ; transferred 
to the Navy from the Coast Guard 14 May 1936; and 
commissioned 6 November 1936, Chief Boatswain W. C. 
Kasmire in command. She was reclassified YT-135, 
1 January 1938. 

Assigned to duty in the 12th Naval District, Cahokia 
operated as a harbor tug at Mare Island Navy Yard. 
She was reclassified YTB-135, 13 April 1944 and placed 
in service. She was transferred to the Maritime Com- 
mission for disposal 8 August 1947. 

II 

(ATA-186: dp. 835; 1. 143'; b. 33'10"; dr. 13'2"; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 45; a. 1 3") 

The second Cahokia (ATA-186) was laid down as 
ATR-113, reclassified ATA-186 on 15 May 1944, and 
launched 18 September 1944 by Levingston Shipbuilding 
Co., Orange, Tex.; and commissioned 24 November 1944, 
Lieutenant J. T. Dillon, USNR, in command. She was 
assigned the name Cahokia 16 July 1948. 

Cahokia sailed from Galveston, Tex., 23 December 
1944, for the Canal Zone, San Francisco, and then for- 
Pearl Harbor 4 March 1945, and assumed towing duty 
between Ulithi, Manus, Leyte, the Russell Islands, and 
Okinawa, until 8 September when she arrived in Tokyo 
Bay. She supported the occupation of Japan until 14 
October, when she sailed from Yokosuka for Okinawa, 
arriving 17 October. She had duty at Okinawa, with a 
brief period at Shanghai and Jinsen until 22 April 1946. 
On 4 May Cahokia departed Sasebo for Manus and Pearl 
Harbor. After almost a month in Pearl, she sailed for 
San Francisco, arriving 15 July for duty with the 12th 
Naval District. 

Cahokia undertook a variety of assignments through 
1950. In January 1951, she assisted in the sinking of 
Independence (CVL-22) in an experimental underwater 
explosion test off San Francisco. Between 16 and 18 
June 1954, she delivered water to Alcatraz Penitentiary 
when the prison’s water system failed, and on 1 April 
1955, she assisted in quelling a serious fire in San Fran- 
cisco’s Ferry Building. Her duties since have included 
coastal towing duty, search and rescue operations, target 
towing, and dumping atomic waste material for the U.S. 
Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory at San Fran- 
cisco. 


8 


Cahto 

An Indian word meaning “fish.” 

Cahto was laid down as YT-215 and reclassified 
YTB-215 on 15 May 1944 prior to being placed in service 
on 1 June for duty in the 3d Naval District. She re- 
mained in operation there until 5 July 1956 when she 
was transferred to the 6th District, remaining active 
until her disposal on 6 May 1957. 

Cahuilla 

An Indian tribe of southeastern California. 

(ATF-152 : dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 
k.; cpl. 85; a. 1 3”; cl. Cherokee) 

Cahuilla (ATF-152) was launched 2 November 1944 
by Charleston Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Charles- 
ton, S.C.; sponsored by Mrs. W. V. Ballew; commis- 
sioned 10 March 1945, Lieutenant A. C. Schoelpple in 
command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Cahuilla’ s first service to the Navy was a brief tour as 
antisubmarine attack teacher at Norfolk, Va. From 
there she sailed 18 April 1945 towing Pegasus (AK-48) 
for Pearl Harbor. After delivering her tow 24 May, the 
fleet tug sailed for Guam, where she took a string of 
pontoon barges in tow for Okinawa. From 26 July to 6 
August, she served to escort convoys and as rescue tug 
for the ships passing through the dangerous waters off 
Okinawa, subject to the desperate suicide attacks of 
Japanese aircraft. The end of the war found Cahuilla 
at sea, bound for salvage operations at Eniwetok, from 
which she returned to take part in the occupation of 
Nagasaki, Japan, until 16 October. From that time she 
was based on Okinawa for rescue and tow operations 
until 14 February 1946. 

Cahuilla continued to offer towing service to fleet 
units, and rescue work to naval and merchant ships, 
calling at Pearl Harbor, Kwajalein, and ports of the 
west coast and Panama Canal Zone until January 1947. 
She was decommissioned at San Diego, Calif., 27 June 
1947, and placed in reserve. Cahuilla was transferred 
to Argentina on 9 July 1961; she serves as Comandante 
General Irigoyen. 


Caiman 

A salt water fish inhabiting the waters off Florida and 
of the West Indies. 

(SS-323: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3''; s. 20 k.; 
cpl. 66; a. 1 5", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Caiman, originally Blanquillo, was renamed 24 Sep- 
tember 1942 and launched 30 March 1944 by Electric 
Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. R. C. Bon- 
jour; commissioned 17 July 1944, Commander J. B. Azer 
in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Caiman sailed from Pearl Harbor on her first war 
patrol 13 November 1944. Pausing at Saipan to put 
ashore her severely ill commanding officer and embark 
his relief, the submarine pushed on to the South China 
Sea, where she combined offensive patrol with lifeguard 
duty to rescue aviators downed in air strikes on enemy- 
held territory. Aggressive American submarine and 
naval air attack had already greatly reduced the Japa- 
nese merchant fleet; hence Caiman made no contacts on 
this patrol, from which she returned to Fremantle, 
Australia, on 22 January 1945 to refit. Her second 
patrol, performed in the South China Sea and off the 
Gulf of Siam, from 18 February to 6 April, also yielded 
no contacts, but on her third, which began at Subic Bay 
in the Philippines on 28 April, she sank two small 
schooners. Their use illustrated graphically the almost 
complete loss of modern merchant ships which the Japa- 
nese had suffered largely at the hands of the U.S. Navy. 


Returning to Fremantle 27 June from her patrol area off 
southern Indo-China and western Borneo, the submarine 
refitted for her fourth war patrol, during which she per- 
formed three dangerous special missions, landing and 
later evacuating agents from the coast of Java. On this 
patrol, which took place from 22 July to the end of hos- 
tilities, she sank another Japanese schooner. She re- 
turned to Subic Bay 19 August, then sailed for the west 
coast. 

Caiman operated out of San Diego, Guam, and Pearl 
Harbor in 1946. In 1947 she made an Arctic familiariza- 
tion cruise out of Seattle. Thereafter, based on Seattle, 
she served as reserve training ship until 23 April 1951, 
when she began a snorkel conversion at Mare Island 
Naval Shipyard. Since then based at Pearl Harbor and 
San Diego, Caiman has alternated local operations and 
fleet exercises with tours of duty in the Far East at 18- 
month intervals. On her 1957 cruise, Brisbane, Aus- 
tralia, was added to her more usual itinerary of Japa- 
nese and Philippine ports. 

Of Caiman’s four war patrols, the last was designated 
“successful.” She received two battle stars for service 
in World War II. 


Cairo 

A city in Illinois. 

(IrcGbt: t. 512; 1. 175'; b. 51'2"; dr. 6'; s. 8 k.; cpl. 251; 
a. 4 42-pdr. r. 3 8" sb., 6 32-pdr. sb.) 

Cairo, an ironclad river gunboat, was built in 1861 by 
James Eads and Co., Mound City, 111., under an Army 
contract; and commissioned as an Army ship 25 January 
1862, naval Lieutenant James M. Prichett in command. 

Cairo served with the Army’s Western Gunboat Fleet, 
commanded by Flag Officer A. H. Foote, on the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio Rivers and their tributaries until trans- 
ferred to the Navy 1 October 1862 with the other river 
gunboats. Active in the occupation of Clarksville, Tenn., 
17 February 1862, and of Nashville, Tenn., 25 February, 
Cairo stood down the river 12 April escorting mortar 
boats to begin the lengthy operations against Fort Pil- 
low, Tenn. An engagement with Confederate gunboats 
at Plum Point Bend on 11 May marked a series of 
blockading and bombardment activities which culmi- 
nated in the abandonment of the Fort by its defenders 
on 4 June. 

Two days later, 6 June 1862, Cairo joined in the 
triumph of seven Union ships and a tug over eight 
Confederate gunboats off Memphis, Tenn., an action in 
which five of the opposing gunboats were sunk or run 
ashore, two seriously damaged, and only one managed 
to escape. That night Union forces occupied the city. 
Cairo returned to patrol on the Mississippi until 21 
November when she joined the Yazoo Expedition. On 
12 December 1862, while clearing mines from the river 
preparatory to the attack on Haines Bluff, Miss., Cairo 
struck a torpedo and sank. 

Calabash 

Former name retained. 

Calabash (No. 108), a motor boat, commissioned 25 
July 1917, served on patrol duty in the 7th Naval Dis- 
trict during July and August 1917. 


Caladesi 

An island off the coast of Florida. 

Caladesi (YFB-39), formerly Seven Seas, placed in 
service 10 August 1942, served in the 7th Naval District 
from 1942 to 1946. 


9 


Calamares 

Former name retained. 

(AP: dp. 13,750; 1. 486'6"; b. 55'; dr. 27'4"; s. 14 k., 
cpl. 60; a. 4 5") 

Calamares (No. 3662) was built in 1913 by Workman, 
Clark and Co., Belfast, Ireland; chartered by the Army 
from United Fruit Co.; transferred to the Navy 1 April 
1918; outfitted at New York; commissioned 10 April 
1918, Commander C. L. Arnold in command; and re- 
ported to the U.S. Cruiser and Transport Force. 

Between April and October 1918 Calamares made five 
voyages to France as her part of the Navy’s vast re- 
sponsibility to transport to the American Expeditionary 
Force reinforcements, munitions, and supplies. On 11 
October 1918 she was transferred to the Naval Overseas 
Transportation Service at New York, and converted to 
a refrigerator ship. 

Calamares carried perishable provisions on three voy- 
ages to France from 8 November 1918 to 12 March 1919, 
and then was reassigned to the Cruiser and Transport 
Force for service as a troop carrier. On five transatlan- 
tic voyages between 25 March and 17 August Calamares 
brought home more than 10,000 troops from St. Nazaire 
and Brest. 

Calamares was decommissioned 18 September 1919, 
and returned to her civilian peacetime operations. 

World War II again required the services of every 
available ship, and Calamares was once more called. 
On 12 December 1941 the veteran ship was reacquired 
by the Navy, classified AF-18, and converted to a pro- 
visions storeship. She was recommissioned on 10 April 
1943, Lieutenant Commander D. R. Phoebus, USNR, in 
command, and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Destined for a dual role as food carrier and issuing 
ship, Calamares cleared San Francisco 23 April 1943 
for Noumea, New Caledonia, where from 13 May to 11 
June she issued provisions to the fleet units operating 
from this headquarters of the South Pacific. In June, 
she sailed to Auckland, New Zealand, for fresh stores, 
and from Noumea Calamares made a cruise of the South 
Pacific bases, supplying Navy and Army forces ashore. 
Returning to San Francisco in August, the storeship 
operated between the west coast and Pearl Harbor until 
22 November, when she sailed for the South Pacific 
again, carrying Christmas delicacies as well as the usual 
stores for ships based on Funafuti, Ellice Islands, and 
Noumea. 

On 1 January 1944 Calamares reported to Commander, 
Service Force 7th Fleet, at Sydney, Australia, and until 
June 1945, provided vital logistic support for operations 
.n New Guinea and the Philippines, carrying provisions 
from Australia, and on two occasions from San Fran- 
cisco, to the operation areas. 

After hostilities ended Calamares continued to sup- 
port Far East operations into 1946. Returning to Nor- 
folk, Va., 1 April 1946, Calamares was decommissioned 
at Baltimore 25 April 1946, and returned to the War 
Shipping Administration. 

Calamianes 

One of the Philippine Islands. 

(PG: dp. 173; 1. 100'; b. 17'6"; dr. 6’9''; s. 8 k.; cpl. 27; 
a. 1 3-pdr., 2 1-pdr.) 

Calamianes, a small gunboat, was built in 1888 by 
Cavite Naval Dockyard, Luzon, Philippine Islands; 
captured from the Spanish in the Philippines during the 
Spanish- American War; transferred from the Army in 
1899; and commissioned 25 July 1899, Ensign R. C. 
Bulmer in command. 

From 1899 to 1902, Calamianes cruised off Panay, 
Luzon, Negros, and Mindanao, patrolling to block ship- 
ment of arms and supplies to the Filipino guerillas then 


in insurrection. On 26 February 1901, she fought two 
engagements on the Agusan River, Mindanao. For this 
skillful protection of Army movements ashore, Cala- 
mianes received a commendation. Decommissioned 7 
August 1902, at Cavite, the gunboat was sold there in 
1907. 


Calamus 

A river in Nebraska. 

(AOG-25 : dp. 845; 1. 220'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13' 11''; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 62; a. 1 3"; cl. Mettawee) 

Calamus (AOG-25) was launched 4 May 1944 by East 
Coast Shipyard, Inc., Bayonne, N.J., under a Maritime 
Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. A. H. Moore; 
transferred to the Navy 7 July 1944; and commissioned 
the same day, Lieutenant W. Hord, USCGR, in com- 
mand. 

Calamus sailed from Norfolk 13 September 1944, 
bound for Pearl Harbor and Ulithi, where she arrived in 
mid-December and began her work as station tanker, 
fueling ships of the fleet as they brought the war ever 
closer to the Japanese homeland. Calamus cleared for 
Eniwetok 20 January 1945, and until February, pumped 
her vital gasoline into the ships readying there for the 
assault on Iwo Jima. Following the fleet she served 
westward, Calamus did station duty at Saipan from 11 
February until 26 April, when she anchored off Okinawa 
to support the 3-week old assault. The tanker provided 
essential fueling service through the entire period of the 
island’s assault and occupation, enduring the violent 
Japanese air attacks which marked the campaign as 
steadfastly as did the combatant ships. 

Following occupation service, Calamus returned to 
San Francisco 20 March 1946. She was decommissioned 
15 May 1946, and transferred to the Maritime Commis- 
sion 4 September 1946. 

Calamus received one battle star for service in World 
War II. 

Calaveras County, see LST—516 
Calaveras, Marian, see Marian Calaveras 

Calcaterra 

Born 7 April 1920 at Escalon, Calif., Herbert A. Cal- 
caterra enlisted in the Navy 14 December 1939. Motor 
Machinist’s Mate First Class Calcaterra was commended 
7 July 1942 for his performance as a member of the 
crew of Pompano (SS-181), and was awarded the Silver 
Star Medal posthumously for conspicuous gallantry as 
a member of a 3" gun crew until fatally wounded dur- 
ing an action against an armed enemy patrol ship 4 
September 1942. 

(DE-390 : dp. 1,200; 1. 306'; b. 36'7"; dr. 8'7"; s. 21 k.; 

cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct. ; 
cl. Edsall) 

Calcaterra (DE-390) was launched 16 August 1943 
by Brown Shipbuilding Co., Houston, Tex.; sponsored 
by Mrs. G. M. Stites; commissioned 17 November 1943, 
Commander H. J. Wuensch, USCG, in command; and 
reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Assigned to the vital duty of escorting convoys be- 
tween the United States and the Mediterranean, Cal- 
caterra made eight round trips between 13 February 
1944 and 10 June 1945. The ships she guarded provided 
the men and equipment which insured the success of the 
invasions of Italy and southern France. Twice the escort 
vessel met the challenge of enemy opposition when she 
depth charged a suspected submarine contact and fired 
on two aircraft. Her alert action helped prevent damage 
or loss to the ships under convoy. 


10 


On 9 July 1945 Calcaterra headed for the Pacific to 
tackle a new job, but the war ended shortly before her 
arrival at Pearl Harbor. She lifted passengers back to 
the west coast, then sailed on to the Atlantic. Calcaterra 
was placed out of commission in reserve at Green Cove 
Springs, Fla., 1 May 1946. 

Reclassified DER-390, 28 October 1954, Calcaterra 
was converted to a radar picket ship at Norfolk and 
recommissioned 12 September 1955. Based on Newport, 
the radar picket ship has almost continuously served in 
the violent weather of the North Atlantic to maintain 
her link in the extension of the Distant Early Warning 
system. Except for exercises with the fleet in the Atlan- 
tic and Caribbean, and a cruise to Europe (August- 
October 1958), Calcaterra continued this duty through 
1960. 

Caldicelt 

James R. Caldwell was appointed a midshipman 22 
May 1798 and commissioned a lieutenant in 1800. He 
served in the West Indies during the Quasi-War with 
France, and in Siren during the Barbary Wars. Lieu- 
tenant Caldwell was killed when Gunboat No. 9 blew up 
in action in Tripoli Harbor 7 August 1804. 

I 

(DD-69: dp. 1,020; 1. 315'6”; b. 31'2"; dr. 11'6"; s. 32 k.; 
cpl. 100; a. 4 4", 12 21” tt.; cl. Caldwell) 

Caldwell (DD-69) was launched 10 July 1917 by Mare 
Island Navy Yard; sponsored by Miss C. Caldwell; and 
commissioned 1 December 1917, Lieutenant Commander 
B. McCandless in command. 

Ordered to join the Atlantic Fleet, Caldwell reached 
Norfolk, Va., 8 January 1918, and Queenstown, Ireland, 
5 March. Alertness and skill marked her operations on 
patrol and convoy escort duty, which were interrupted 
when Caldwell aided in urgent experimental work on 
underwater listening devices to employ against the 
menace of German submarines. After the close of World 
War I, Caldwell transported troops to Brest, France, 
and while there joined the escort for President Woodrow 
Wilson in Washington as he entered the harbor. 

Caldwell returned home for operations with the Nor- 
folk Division, Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet, and with 
Destroyer Squadron 3 along the east coast during 1919. 
Placed in reserve in August 1920, she operated with a 
reduced complement out of Charleston, S.C., and New- 
port, R.I., until decommissioned at Philadelphia Navy 
Yard 27 June 1922. She was sold there 30 June 1936. 

II 

(DD-605 : dp. 1,620; 1. 348'4”; b. 36'1”; dr. 17'4"; s. 38 
k. ; cpl. 257; a. 4 5”, 5 21” tt. ; cl. Benson ) 

The second Caldwell (DD-605) was launched 15 Jan- 
uary 1942 by Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif.; 
sponsored by Miss A. Caldwell; and commissioned 10 
June 1942, Lieutenant Commander J. F. Newman, Jr., 
in command. 

On 11 September 1942 Caldwell turned her bow north- 
ward from San Francisco and joined the screen of an 
Aleutians-bound convoy. For the next 9 months the 
destroyer battled foul weather as she shepherded ship- 
ping and cruised with TG 8.6 in unrewarded search for 
the enemy in Alaskan waters. Her guns pounded Attu 
twice in preparation for the assault which would recap- 
ture that American outpost. When soldiers of the 17th 
and 32d Infantry stormed ashore on 11 May 1943, they 
were covered to the southward by Caldwell and the other 
ships of TG 16.6. With Attu taken, the destroyer re- 
turned to the tedious but vital work of convoy escort; 
Caldwell sailed in the screen of the force which carried 
reinforcements to Kiska on 16 August 1943, the day 
after the first landings on that rugged island. 


Caldwell left the fog, mists, and cold of the Aleutians 
behind in September 1943 and steamed south to join 
TF 15 for the 18 September air strikes which destroyed 
half of the enemy airplanes on Tarawa. Action fol- 
lowed thick and fast for the next month as the destroyer 
joined TF 14, the largest fast carrier force yet organ- 
ized, in blasting Wake Island. Caldwell bombarded 
Peale and Wake Islands and screened carriers launching 
air attacks against those islets. 

The destroyer’s next mission found her covering LSTs 
in the followup to the invasion of Makin, Gilbert Islands. 
Her charges safely delivered on 21 November, Caldwell 
took station on antisubmarine and air defense patrol for 
the next week. A well-earned rest came in the form of 
duty escorting a San Francisco-bound convoy. After a 
brief overhaul, the destroyer returned to action with 
TF 52 in the invasion of Kwajalein and Majuro 31 Jan- 
uary 1944. During the continual maneuvering, charac- 
teristic of carrier task forces, Caldwell and White Plains 
(CVE-66) collided; the destroyer remained with the 
task force another week, then returned to Pearl Harbor 
for repairs. At sea again, Caldwell joined the renowned 
TF 58 in the Palau-Yap-Ulithi-Woleai raids (30 March- 
1 April) ; strikes on New Guinea in support of Army 
landings on that island (22-24 April) ; and the Truk- 
Satawan-Ponape raids (29 April-1 May). She remained 
on patrol in the Marshall Islands until mid-August when 
she sailed to Pearl Harbor for much-needed upkeep. 

Caldwell’s next assignment sent her by way of Ulithi 
and Manus to screen convoys supplying the forces which 
had landed in the Philippines. On 12 December while 
escorting landing craft to Ormoc Bay Caldwell bore the 
brunt of a fierce air attack. Hit on the bridge simul- 
taneously by a suicide plane and fragments from a two- 
bomb straddle, the destroyer suffered 33 killed and 40 
wounded including the commanding officer. Despite the 
heavy damage, Caldwell’s after guns continued to fire 
on enemy planes, while her well-trained damage control 
parties saved the ship. 

Temporary repairs made at San Pedro Bay, P.I., fitted 
Caldwell for the voyage to San Francisco where she was 
again put in fighting trim. April 1945 saw the destroyer 
once more in her familiar role as convoy escort, this time 
in support of the invasion of Tarakan, Borneo. Caldwell 
bombarded Tarakan (11-12 May), then moved to cover 
the minesweeping operations off Brunei Bay. Here, on 
27 June, she detonated an influence-type mine, but 
escaped with moderate damage and no casualties. After 
temporary repairs at Victoria, Australia, she sailed to 
San Pedro Bay, P.I., for final repairs. She was there 
when hostilities ended. Escort of landing craft convoys 
to Okinawa and Leyte followed in September and Oc- 
tober 1945. After a visit to Tokyo Bay, Caldwell re- 
turned to the States; she was placed out of commission 
in reserve at Charleston, S.C., on 24 April 1946. 

Caldwell received eight battle stars for service in 
World War II. 


Caledonia 

Caledonia, the ancient name for Scotland, is also the 
name of a county in Vermont. 

I 

(Brig: t. 85: cpl. 53; a. 2 24-pdr., 1 32-pdr. car.) 

The first Caledonia, a brig, was built by the British 
at Malden, Ontario; captured off Fort Erie, Ontario, 8 
October 1812 by a boarding party of American sailors 
under Lieutenant J. D. Elliott; and purchased at Black 
Rock, N.Y., 6 February 1813. 

Commanded by Lieutenant D. Turner, Caledonia 
played a key role in the operations of Commodore O. H. 
Perry’s squadron on Lake Erie during 1813 and 1814. 
In the decisive Battle of Lake Erie (10 September 1813), 
which sundered British control of the Great Lakes, 


11 


gallant little Caledonia’s long guns were the only ones 
of the fleet which could reach the enemy’s three heaviest 
units as they pounded the American flagship Lawrence. 
Caledonia also took part in the expedition to Lakes 
Huron and Superior ( July-September 1814). The brig 
was sold at Erie, Pa., in May 1815. 

II 

(AK-167 : dp. 2,382; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 11 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Alamosa) 

The second Caledonia (AK-167) was launched 1 Jan- 
uary 1945 by Kaiser Cargo, Inc., Richmond, Calif., under 
a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. V. 
Brown; acquired by the Navy 13 March 1945; commis- 
sioned the same day, Lieutenant F. G. Stelte in com- 
mand; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Assigned to a role in the Navy’s gigantic logistic task 
of supplying military forces in the Pacific while still 
carrying out naval, air, and amphibious warfare, Cale- 
donia sailed from San Francisco 1 May 1945, laden with 
cargo for the base at Manus, where she began dis- 
charging 23 May. The cargo ship completed offloading 
at Samar, P.I., on 22 June, then steamed to Darwin, 
Australia, and Milne Bay, New Guinea, to reload sup- 
plies essentially needed in the Philippines. After off- 
loading at Samar and Subic Bay in August and Septem- 
ber, Caledonia made another voyage to Noumea, New 
Caledonia, for cargo, returning to Samar, from which 
she cleared 30 December for Baltimore, Md. Caledonia 
was decommissioned there 25 March 1946, and was re- 
turned to the Maritime Commission four days later. 

Caledonia, see Mohawk 

Calhoun 

John C. Calhoun (1782-1850), of South Carolina, was 
a leading proponent of States’ rights. He served his 
State and country with distinction in the House of 
Representatives 1811-17, and as Secretary of War 
1817-25, Vice President 1825-32, Senator 1832-44 and 
1845-50, and Secretary of State 1844-45. 

(SwStr: t. 508; a. 2 32-pdr., 1 30 pdr. r.) 

Calhoun was built in 1851 at New York as Cuba, was 


commissioned as a privateer by the Confederates on 15 
May 1861 and while operating as a Confederate priva- 
teer and blockade runner, was captured by Colorado 
off Southwest Pass, La., 23 January 1862. Commis- 
sioned for Federal service under Lieutenant J. E. De- 
Haven, she joined the West Gulf Blockading Squadron 
19 March 1862. 

In her service on patrol off the Passes of the Missis- 
sippi River Calhoun established herself as one of the 
most successful blockading ships, taking part in the 
capture of 13 ships before 5 May 1862, when she steamed 
up the Mississippi for duty in Lake Ponchartrain. Here 
she continued to add to her score, chasing and capturing 
a steamer, a gunboat, two schooners, and a sloop. Later 
in the year, she sought out and captured another sloop 
in Atchafalaya Bay. 

In early November, Calhoun stood up Berwick Bay 
and Bayou Teche with two other steamers to engage 
Confederate shore batteries and the steamer CSS Cotton, 
barricaded on the Teche. Remaining in the Berwick 
Bay area on patrol, Calhoun and her consorts climaxed 
their extremely successful operations 14 April 1863 
when they attacked the cotton-clad steamer CSS Queen 
of the West. One shot at long range from Calhoun 
turned the Confederate ship into a torch, and a major 
threat to Union forces in the area was destroyed. 
Calhoun continued to add to her distinguished record 
with her participation in the attack on Fort Butte-a-la- 
Rose on 20 April, and in August, was ordered to base on 
Ship Island, from which she continued her active and 
aggressive bombardments of shore positions, and took 
four more prizes. In the furious assault on Fort Powell 
the last 2 weeks of February 1864, Calhoun flew the 
flag of Admiral D. G. Farragut. 

Turned over to the United States Marshal at New 
Orleans on 6 May 1864, Calhoun was sold on 4 June to 
the U.S. Army. 

Calhoun County, see LST—519 
Calibogue 

A sound off the coast of South Carolina. 

Calibogue was the name assigned to AV-19 which was 
canceled on 28 October 1944 during construction. 



USS Caliente (AO-53) 


12 



Caliente 

A river in New Mexico. 

(AO-53: dp. 7,236; 1. 553’; b. 75'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 304; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

Caliente (AO-53) was launched 25 August 1943 by 
Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrows 
Point, Md., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. H. Kasary; commissioned 22 October 
1943, Commander E. G. Genthner, USNR, in command, 
and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Caliente departed Norfolk 11 December 1943 and ar- 
rived at Majuro 2 months later to support the fast- 
moving TF 58 at sea during the Marshalls and Hollandia 
operations, and the raids on Palau, Yap, Ulithi, Woleai, 
Truk, Satawan, and Ponape. Shifting to Eniwetok in 
June 1944, she provided vital support for the invasion of 
the Marianas, then in August moved to Manus to assist 
the westward advance of the fleet in the Western Caro- 
lines. On 2 October Caliente arrived at the newly won 
base of Ulithi and for the next 4 months, the oiler was 
actively engaged in providing fuel to keep the 3d Fleet 
at sea for strikes against northern Luzon and Formosa, 
and in support of Leyte and Luzon landings in the 
Philippines. 

After overhaul at San Pedro, Calif., Caliente returned 
to Ulithi in May 1945, and from this base rendered 
invaluable service during the Okinawa assault and the 
smashing 3d Fleet raids on the Japanese homeland until 
the end of the war, then sailed for Tokyo Bay where she 
supplied fleet and occupation units until late 1946. Dur- 
ing her stay in the Far East, she made two voyages to 
oil-rich Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, visiting Singapore; 
Colombo, Ceylon; and the Chinese ports of Tsingtao and 
Shanghai. 

Caliente kept busy carrying fuel to Pacific ports and 
the west coast until the outbreak of war in Korea. Re- 
turning again to wartime operations, Caliente serviced 
fleet units at sea, operating with the Formosa Patrol 
Force for the last 4 months of 1950 and with the 7th 
Fleet for the first half of 1951. During the next year 
she provided support for United Nations forces blockad- 
ing and patrolling the east coast of Korea. Since 1952 
she has made cargo runs between United States and 
Japan, operating with the 7th Fleet while in the Far 
East, and exercised on the west coast. This schedule 
continued for Caliente through 1960. 

Caliente received 10 battle stars for World War II 
and 4 for Korean war service. 

California 

California was admitted to the Union 8 September 
1850 as the 31st State. 


I 

(ScSlp: t. 2,354; 1. 313'6"; b. 46’; dr. 17’2"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 325; a. 2 100-pdr. r., 18 9" s.b., 1 60-pdr. r., 2 
20-pdr. r.) 

The first California, a screw sloop, was launched 3 
July 1867 as Minnetonka at Portsmouth Navy Yard; 
sponsored by Miss M. Bailey; renamed California on 15 
May 1869; and commissioned 12 December 1870, Captain 
J. M. B. Clitz in command. 

Clearing New York 13 March 1871, California beat 
her way through the storm-ridden Straits of Magellan 
and sailed north to San Francisco, where she arrived 
30 July for the first of two Pacific cruises. As flagship 
for Rear Admiral J. A. Winslow, commanding the Pa- 
cific Fleet, she steamed from Mare Island Navy Yard 
28 November 1871 for a cruise to Honolulu, Hawaii; 
Valparaiso, Chile; and Panama, Colombia, putting back 
into San Francisco 13 November 1872. On California’s 
second cruise, 30 December 1872 to 25 May 1873, she 
flew the flag of Rear Admiral A. M. Pennock, command- 
ing the North Pacific Station, and sailed to Honolulu to 
supervise the protection of American interests in the 
then independent island group. California was decom- 
missioned at Mare Island 3 July 1873, and sold there in 
May 1875. 

II 

(ACR: dp. 13,680; 1. 503'11"; b. 69'7"; dr. 24'1"; s. 22 
k.; cpl. 829; a. 4 8", 14 6", 18 3", 2 18" tt.; cl. 

Pennsylvania) 

The second California (Armored Cruiser 6) was 
launched 28 April 1904 by Union Iron Works, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif.; sponsored by Miss F. Pardee; and commis- 
sioned 1 August 1907, Captain V. L. Cottman in com- 
mand. 

Joining the 2d Division, Pacific Fleet, California took 
part in the naval review at San Francisco in May 1908 
for the Secretary of the Navy. Aside from a cruise to 
Hawaii and Samoa in the fall of 1908, the cruiser oper- 
ated along the west coast, sharpening her readiness 
through training exercises and drills, until December 

1911, when she sailed for Honolulu, and in March 1912 
continued westward for duty on the Asiatic Station. 
After this service representing American power and 
prestige in the Far East, she returned home in August 

1912, and was ordered to Corinto, Nicaragua, then em- 
broiled in internal political disturbance. Here she pro- 
tected American lives and property, then resumed her 
operations along the west coast; she cruised off Cali- 
fornia, and kept a watchful eye on Mexico, at that time 
also suffering political disturbance. 

California was renamed San Diego on 1 September 
1914, and served as flagship for Commander-in-Chief, 



USS California (Armored Cruiser No. 6) 


13 


Pacific Fleet, intermittently until a boiler explosion 
put her in Mare Island Navy Yard in reduced commis- 
sion through the summer of 1915. San Diego returned 
to duty as flagship through 12 February 1917, when she 
went into reserve status until the opening of World 
War I. Placed in full commission 7 April, the cruiser 
operated as flagship for Commander, Patrol Force, 
Pacific Fleet, until 18 July, when she was ordered to the 
Atlantic Fleet. Reaching Hampton Roads, Va., 4 Au- 
gust, she joined Cruiser Division 2, and later broke the 
flag of Commander, Cruiser Force, Atlantic, which she 
flew until 19 September. 

San Diego’s essential mission was the escort of con- 
voys through the first dangerous leg of their passages 
to Europe. Based on Tompkinsville, N.Y., and Halifax, 
N.S., she operated in the weather-torn, submarine- 
infested North Atlantic safely convoying all of her 
charges to the ocean escort. On 19 July 1918, bound 
from Portsmouth, N.H., to New York, San Diego was 
torpedoed by the German submarine U-156 southeast of 
Fire Island. The cruiser sank in 28 minutes with the 
loss of 6 lives, the only major warship lost by the 
United States in World War I. 

III 

California (No. 249), see Haiioli 

IV 

The fourth California (No. 647), motor boat, served 
in the Navy during 1917-18. 

V 

(BB-44 : dp. 32,300; 1. 624'6"; b. 97'4"; dr. 30'3"; s. 21 
k.; cpl. 1,083; a. 12 14", 14 5", 4 3", 2 21" tt.; cl. 

Tennessee) 


The fifth California (BB-44) was launched 20 No- 
vember 1919 by Mare Island Navy Yard; sponsored by 
Mrs. R. T. Zane; and commissioned 10 August 1921, 
Captain H. J. Ziegemeier in command; and reported to 
the Pacific Fleet as flagship. 

For 20 years from 1921 until 1941, California served 
first as flagship of the Pacific Fleet, then as flagship of 
the Battle Fleet (Battle Force), U.S. Fleet. Her annual 
activities included joint Army-Navy exercises, tactical 
and organizational development problems, and fleet con- 
centrations for various purposes. Intensive training 
and superior performance won her the Battle Efficiency 
Pennant for 1921-22, and the Gunnery “E” for 1925-26. 

In the summer of 1925 California led the Battle Fleet 
and a division of cruisers from the Scouting Fleet on a 
very successful good-will cruise to Australia and New 
Zealand. She took part in the Presidential reviews of 
1927, 1930, and 1934. She was modernized in late 1929 
and early 1930 and equipped with an improved anti- 
aircraft battery. 

In 1940 California switched her base to Pearl Harbor. 
On 7 December 1941 she was moored at the southern- 
most berth of “Battleship Row” and was with other 
dreadnoughts of the Battle Force when the Japanese 
launched their aerial attack. As she was about to 
undergo a material inspection, watertight integrity was 
not at its maximum; consequently the ship suffered 
great damage when hit. At 0805 a bomb exploded below 
decks, setting off an antiaircraft ammunition magazine 
and killing about 50 men. A second bomb ruptured her 
bow plates. Despite valiant efforts to keep her afloat, 
the inrushing water could not be isolated and California 
settled into the mud with only her superstructure re- 
maining above the surface. When the action ended, 98 
of her crew were lost and 61 wounded. 

On 25 March 1942 California was refloated and dry- 


/f 









USS California (BB-44). FADM Nimitz served in California as Aide and Assistant Chief of Staff to Commander 

in Chief, U.S. Fleet 


14 


docked at Pearl Harbor for repairs. On 7 June she 
departed under her own power, for Puget Sound Navy 
Yard where a major reconstruction job was accom- 
plished, including improved protection, stability, AA 
battery, and fire control system. 

California departed Bremerton 31 January 1944 for 
shakedown at San Pedro, and sailed from San Francisco 
5 May for the invasion of the Marianas. Off Saipan in 
June, she conducted effective shore bombardment and 
call fire missions. On 14 June she was hit by a shell 
from an enemy shore battery which killed one man and 
wounded nine. Following Saipan, her heavy guns helped 
blast the way for our assault force in the Guam and 
Tinian operations (18 July-9 August). On 24 August 
she arrived at Espiritu Santo for repairs to her port 
bow damaged in a collision with Tennessee (BB-43). 

On 17 September 1944 California sailed to Manus to 
ready for the invasion of the Philippines. From 17 
October to 20 November she played a key role in the 
Leyte operation, including the destruction of the Japa- 
nese fleet in the Battle of Surigao Strait (25 October). 
On 1 January 1945 she departed the Palaus for the 
Luzon landings. Her powerful batteries were an im- 
portant factor in the success of these dangerous opera- 
tions driven home into the heart of enemy-held territory 
under heavy air attack. On 6 January while providing 
shore bombardment at Lingayen Gulf she. was hit by a 
kamikaze plane; 44 of her crew were killed and 155 
were wounded. Undeterred she made temporary repairs 
on the spot and remained carrying out her critical mis- 
sion of shore bombardment until the job was done. She 
departed 23 January for Puget Sound Navy Yard, 
arriving 15 February, for permanent repairs. 

California returned to action at Okinawa 15 June 
1945 and remained in that embattled area until 21 July. 
Two days later she joined TF 95 to cover the East China 
Sea minesweeping operations. After a short voyage to 
San Pedro Bay, P.I., in August, the ship departed 
Okinawa 20 September to cover the landing of the 6th 
Army occupation force at Wakanoura Wan, Honshu. 
She remained supporting the occupation until 15 Oc- 
tober, then sailed via Singapore, Colombo, and Cape- 
town, to Philadelphia, arriving 7 December. She was 
placed in commission in reserve there 7 August 1946: 
out of commission in reserve 14 February 1947 ; and 
sold 10 July 1959. 

California received seven battle stars for World War 
II service. 

California State, see Henry County 
Californian 

A resident of California. 

(AK: t. 5,658; 1. 413'; b. 51'; dr. 26'2"; s. 10 k.; cpl. 78) 

Californian, a cargo vessel, was launched 12 May 
1900, by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif., trans- 
ferred from the Shipping Board 13 May 1918; and com- 
missioned the following day, Lieutenant Commander D. 
Malman, USNRF, in command. 

Californian immediately loaded a cargo of coal, fuel 
oil, and general supplies for the American troops in 
France and sailed on the last day of May 1918 to join a 
convoy off New York. On 22 June while proceeding 
through the dangerous waters of the Bay of Biscay she 
struck a mine. Although a gallant attempt was made 
to tow the stricken ship to port, she sank later that day. 
Her crew abandoned in good order to be picked up by 
Corsair without suffering any casualties. 

Caliph 

Former name retained. 

Caliph (No. 272), a motor boat free leased to the Navy 


in May 1917, was placed in service in the 4th Naval Dis- 
trict where she performed patrol duty until December of 
that year. Caliph was commissioned on 1 April 1918 and 
assigned to duty with the District Communication Super- 
intendent at Marcus Hook. She was decommissioned on 
2 December 1918 and returned to her owner. 


Calistoga 

Former name retained. 

Calistoga (YFB-21), a ferryboat, placed in service 18 
September 1941, served in the 12th Naval District, hous- 
ing personnel at the Mare Island Navy Yard, during 
World War II. 


Callaghan 

Born in San Francisco, Calif., 26 July 1890, Daniel 
Judson Callaghan graduated from the Naval Academy 
in 1911. His prewar service included command of 
Truxtun (Destroyer No. 14), staff duty afloat and 
ashore, and duty as Naval aide to the President. He 
commanded San Francisco (CA-38) from May 1941 to 
May 1942, then served as chief of staff to Commander, 
South Pacific area and South Pacific Force. Rear Ad- 
miral Callaghan was killed in action in the bitter naval 
Battle of Guadalcanal 13 November 1942 while com- 
manding forces that helped turn back a far stronger 
Japanese fleet. He was posthumously awarded the 
Congressional Medal of Honor for extraordinary hero- 
ism during the action in which he gave his life. 

(DD-792 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 

k. ; cpl. 320; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

, Fletcher) 

Callaghan (DD-792) was launched 1 August 1943 by 
Bethlehem Steel Co., San Pedro, Calif.; sponsored by 
Mrs. D. J. Callaghan; commissioned 27 November 1943, 
Commander F. J. Johnson in command; and reported to 
the Pacific Fleet. 

Callaghan sailed from the west coast 5 February 1944 
to plunge into action with fast-striking 5th Fleet in 
smashing air raids on the Palaus, Yap, Ulithi, and 
Woleai from 30 March to 1 April. Based on Manus in 
April, Callaghan supported the Hollandia operation 
through important services as picket ship during air 
strikes, and screening the valuable tankers. 

From June to August 1944 Callaghan provided screen 
for escort carriers softening up, and later supporting 
the invasions of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. At Saipan, 
Callaghan's guns joined in driving off a heavy Japanese 
air attack on 17 June, helping splash three enemy 
planes. Fanshaiv Bay (CVE-70) was struck by a bomb 
in this attack, and Callaghan shielded the crippled 
escort carrier safely back to Eniwetok. Late in August 
Callaghan began operations as escort for air strikes on 
the Palaus, Mindanao, Luzon, and the Central Philip- 
pines in support of the invasion of the Palaus, a step- 
ping stone to the Philippines. 

With the long-awaited return to the Philippines 
scheduled for mid-October 1944, Callaghan steamed in 
the screen of the carrier force conducting essential 
preliminary neutralization of Japanese airfields in 
Formosa and Okinawa. During a heavy enemy air at- 
tack on 14 October, Callaghan joined in downing several 
planes. Sailing on to stand guard off the invasion area 
on Leyte, Callaghan’s force contributed air power in the 
decisive Battle for Leyte Gulf, which insured the Allied 
advance in the Philippines against the desperate Japa- 
nese efforts to break up the landings. After pursuing 
Japanese cripples fleeing north, Callaghan returned to 
support the Philippine operations, in company with the 
3d Fleet, for air strikes on Luzon. En route, on 3 No- 
vember, Reno (CL-96) was torpedoed, and Callaghan 


15 


stood by to protect the stricken cruiser until relief 
forces arrived, when Callaghan was able to rejoin her 
group for the strikes. Through December, she partici- 
pated in more air strikes on the Central Philippines, and 
in January 1945, the destroyer sailed with the 3d Fleet 
for air raids on Formosa, Luzon, Indo-China, Hong 
Kong, and the Nansei Shoto. 

Through the following months, Callaghan operated at 
the same active pace, screening carrier strikes pounding 
Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the Tokyo area. Callaghan 
assisted in sinking a Japanese picket boat on 18 Febru- 
ary, and on 3 March joined the bombardment of Parece 
Vela. In late March she joined a battleship force at 
Ulithi, and from this base sailed for the preinvasion 
bombardment of Okinawa, where she threw harassing 
fire ashore during the night of 26 March. This initiated 
prolonged fire support and screening duty in the danger- 
ous waters off Okinawa during which, in addition to 
invaluable aid to the troops, Callaghan joined in the 
sinking of a Japanese midget submarine and in the kill 
of three dive bombers. 

On 9 July 1945, Callaghan took station on the em- 
battled radar picket line, where on 28 July she drove off 
a biplane intent on suicide with well-directed fire, but 
the plane, skimming low and undetected, returned to 
strike Callaghan on the starboard side. It exploded and 
one of the plane’s bombs penetrated the after engine 
room. The destroyer flooded, and the fires which ignited 
antiaircraft ammunition prevented nearby ships from 
rendering aid. Callaghan sank at 0235, 28 July 1945, 
with the loss of 47 members of her valiant crew. 

Callaghan received eight battle stars for World War 
II service. 

Callan, General R. E., see General R. E. Callan 

Callao 

Spanish name retained; a seaport in Peru. 

I 

(PG: dp. 243; 1. 121'; b. 17'10"; dr. 6'6"; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 31; a. 4 3-pdr. rf., 2 1-pdr. rf.) 

The first Callao was built at Cavite as a Spanish 
gunboat; captured in Manila Bay 12 May 1898; imme- 
diately put in service, Lieutenant B. Tappan in com- 
mand; and commissioned 2 July 1898, Lieutenant Tap- 
pan remaining in command. 

Callao served through the remainder of the Spanish- 
American War as tender to Admiral G. Dewey’s flagship 
Olympia. Until decommissioned for repairs at Cavite 
21 February 1901, she ranged throughout the Philip- 
pines, patrolling to suppress smuggling, covering Army 
scouting parties operating against insurgents, trans- 
porting troops, and firing on insurgent positions. 

Upon her recommissioning 20 December 1902, Callao 
carried supplies among the Philippines until February 
1903, when she arrived at Hong Kong to begin 13 years 
of service patrolling the coast and rivers of China. 
Along with her participation in the exercises, maneu- 
vers, and visits of the Asiatic Fleet, she gave essential 
protection to American citizens and interests, often 
threatened by political disturbance in volatile China. 
She was decommissioned at Hong Kong 31 January 
1916, and next sailed for Olongapo, Luzon, where she 
laid up. Classified PG-37 on 17 July 1920, she was 
redesignated and returned to service as YFB— 11 in June 
1921, and served in the 16th Naval District as a ferry- 
boat until sold at Manila 13 September 1923. 

II 

(AP: dp. 13,269; 1. 455'9"; b. 55'9"; dr. 26'; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 184) 

The second Callao (No. 4036), a transport, was built 


in 1913-1914 by Vulkan Werke, Stettin, Germany, as 
Sierra Cordoba; chartered by the shipping board from 
the Peruvian Government and transferred to the Navy 
26 April 1919; and commissioned the same day, Lieu- 
tenant Commander T. H. McKellum, USNRF, in com- 
mand. 

Assigned to the Cruiser and Transport Force, Callao 
made two voyages from New York and Norfolk to St. 
Nazaire and Brest, France, between 27 June and 3 Sep- 
tember 1919, to return soldiers and welfare workers to 
the United States. She was decommissioned at Norfolk 
20 September 1919 and returned to the Shipping Board. 

Ill 

(IX-205: dp. 1,015; 1. 183'; b. 30'10"; dr. 13'11"; s. 10 
k.; cpl. 78) 

The third Callao (IX-205) was built in 1943-1944 by 
P. Smit, Jr., Shipyard, Rotterdam, Holland, as Extem- 
steine for the German Navy; captured on the night of 
15-16 October 1944 by the Coast Guard Cutter Eastwind 
off Greenland; and commissioned 24 January 1945, Lieu- 
tenant D. O. Newton, USNR, in command. 

Callao was commissioned at Boston, where a prize 
crew had brought her by way of Reykiavik and Argen- 
tia. Between 30 January 1945 and 4 February she was 
outfitted at Philadelphia Navy Yard for special experi- 
mental work for the Bureau of Ships, and for the next 
5 years carried out tests in the area of Cape May, N.J., 
and Cape Henlopen, Del. She was decommissioned 10 
May 1950, and sold 30 September 1950. 

Callatvay 

A county in Missouri. 

( APA-35 : dp. 8,920; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 26'6"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 575; a. 2 5"; cl. Bayfield) 

Callaway (APA-35) was launched 10 October 1942 as 
Sea Mink by Western Pipe and Steel Co., San Francisco, 
Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; spon- 
sored by Mrs. W. Manuell; acquired by the Navy 24 
April 1943 ; and commissioned the same day, Captain D. 
C. McNeil, USCG, in command. 

Callaway sailed from Norfolk 23 October 1943 for 
San Diego and training with Marines in preparation for 
the first of her five assault landings. Joining TF 53 at 
Lahaina Roads, Hawaii, Callaway sailed for her bap- 
tism of fire at Kwajalein, where she landed troops in 
the assault that overwhelmed the defenders 31 January 
1944. After staging at Guadalcanal, she proceeded 
combat-loaded for the occupation of Emirau where her 
troops landed 20 March. Transfers of troops and cargo 
in the Solomons and Ellices, and training at Pearl Har- 
bor continued until 29 May, when Callaway got under- 
way for her third assault invasion, the bloody inferno 
of Saipan, on 15 June. Laden with casualties, Callaway 
returned to Pearl Harbor to embark army troops for 
rehearsal landings at Guadalcanal, for which she sailed 
12 August. On 17 September, with battle-tried skill the 
transport launched her troops in the assault on Angaur 
in the Palaus, then returned to Manus and New Guinea 
to prepare for her assignment to the first reinforcement 
echelon for the northern Leyte landings. Arriving in 
Leyte Gulf 22 October, Callaway landed her troops with 
the speed and ease bom of experience, then retired 
through the raging Battle for Leyte Gulf for a month 
of operations supporting the Leyte campaign. These 
brought the transport back to Leyte 23 November, 
where she joined in driving off enemy air attacks as she 
disembarked her troops. 

Preparations in New Guinea preceded in the Lingayen 
assault, in which Callaway distinguished herself as a 
member of the Blue Beach Attack Group. As the in- 
vasion force sailed north, desperate Japanese kamikaze 
attacks were launched in a determined effort to break 


16 


up the landings, and on 8 January 1945, a suicide plane 
broke through heavy antiaircraft fire to crash on the 
starboard wing of Callaway’s bridge. Cool and skillful 
work against resulting fires kept material damage to a 
minimum, but 29 of Callaway’s crew were killed and 22 
wounded. Despite this loss, the attack transport carried 
out her mission the next day with her usual competence. 
Temporary repairs at Ulithi put her back in action by 
early February, when she carried Marine reinforcements 
from Guam to Iwo Jima, and wounded from that battle 
scarred island back to Guam, arriving 8 March. 

For the next 3 months, Callaway transported men 
and equipment between the bases and operating areas 
of the western Pacific, then embarked Japanese prison- 
ers of war at Pearl Harbor, whom she carried to San 
Francisco, arriving 16 June 1945. After overhaul, she 
returned to Pearl Harbor 27 August, loaded occupation 
troops, and sailed to disembark them at Wakayama, 
Japan. Two transpacific voyages carrying homeward 
bound veterans ended with Callaway’s own return to 
San Francisco .12 March 1946. The transport then sailed 
to New York where she was decommissioned 10 May 
1946. 

For service in World War II, Callaway received six 
battle stars. 


Callisto 

In Greek mythology, Callisto is a nymph attendant on 
Artemis. 

(AGP-15: dp. 2,179; 1. 328'; b. 50'; dr. 11'2"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 119; a. 8 40 mm.; cl. Portunus) 

LST-966 was reclassified AGP-15, 14 August 1944, 
and assigned the name Callisto. She was launched 29 
November 1944 by Bethlehem-Hingham Shipbuilding 
Co., Baltimore, Md.; and commissioned 12 June 1945, 
Lieutenant Commander C. W. Brooks, USNR, in com- 
mand. 

Callisto sailed from Yorktown, Va., 23 July 1945, 
bound for the Pacific and service with the 7th Fleet. De- 
layed at Pearl Harbor by the cessation of hostilities, she 
reported at San Pedro Bay, P.I., 15 October to serve as 
tender to Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 9, busy with 
the varied tasks given these speedy craft as normal life 
was restored to the Philippines. Callisto provided berth- 
ing, maintenance, and supply facilities for her assigned 
squadron until 20 December when she cleared for San 
Francisco. She was decommissioned 9 May 1946, and 
transferred to the Maritime Commission 14 May 1948. 

Caloosahatchee 

A river in Florida. 

(AO-98: dp. 7,295; 1. 553'; b. 75'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 304; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

Caloosahatchee (AO-98) was launched 2 June 1945 by 
Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrows 
Point, Md., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. C. L. Andrews; acquired by the Navy 

10 October 1945; commissioned the same day, Com- 
mander H. R. Livingston, USNR, in command; and 
reported to Commander, Service Force, Atlantic Fleet. 

Caloosahatchee cruised off the east coast, transporting 

011 and fueling ships at sea, and made a voyage to Ice- 
land from Norfolk during her first two years of opera- 
tions. On 14 August 1947, she sailed for her first tour of 
duty with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean, a deploy- 
ment that marked almost every year of her operations 
from that time into 1960. In this era when the U.S. 
Navy had perfected at-sea replenishment to greatly in- 
crease mobility, flexibility and efficiency, Caloosahatchee 
played a key role in increasing the enormous power 
for peace represented by the mighty 6th Fleet. Among 


other widespread operations, Caloosahatchee partici- 
pated in NATO Operation “Mariner” off Greenock, 
Scotland, from 16 September to 20 October 1953, and 
provided summer training for future naval officers in 
midshipman cruises to LeHavre, France, in 1954, and to 
Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1956. In fall 1957 and again 
in summer 1958, the oiler sailed with forces calling at 
ports in England, Scotland, France, and Portugal. 

Caloosahatchee’ s constant readiness for emergency 
deployments or other challenges to her operational 
capability was developed and maintained through train- 
ing operations along the east coast, and participation in 
such large-scale Atlantic Fleet exercises as Operation 
“Springboard” held in the Caribbean, which operations 
continued through 1960. 

Calumet 

Calumet is a peace pipe of the North American In- 
dians; it is also the name of several cities and towns 
in the United States. 

I 

The first Calumet, a harbor cutter, was built at 
Buffalo, N.Y., and accepted for service by the Coast 
Guard in October 1894. During the Spanish-American 
War she operated with the Navy, serving as a part of 
the North Atlantic Squadron, and performing patrol 
duties along the coast. Temporarily transferred to the 
Navy again during World War I she was assigned to 
the 3d Naval District under the command of Com- 
mander, New York Division, United States Coast Guard. 
Again she operated on vital coastal patrol duty, guard- 
ing against the possible approach of enemy ships. 
Calumet, was returned to the Treasury Department 28 
August 1919. 

II 

(PY: t. 153; 1. 147'; b. 17'5"; dr. 7'9”; s. 11 k.; cpl. 42; 
a. 2 6-pdr.) 

The second Calumet (No. 723), an armed yacht, was 
built in 1903 by George Lawley and Sons, Neponset, 
Mass.; free leased by the Navy 9 September 1917; 
commissioned 7 December 1917, Ensign J. J. Phelps, 
USNRF, in command; and reported to the 3d Naval 
District. 

Calumet served as a harbor entrance patrol and guard 
vessel, protecting against possible surprise attacks from 
the sea. She also sailed in the antisubmarine screen of 
inshore convoys, as critical war supplies and material 
were shipped along the east coast. She was decommis- 
sioned at New York 11 January 1919 and returned to 
her owner. 


Calvert 

A county in Maryland. 

I 

The first Calvert (No. 2274), a motor boat, served in 
the Navy during 1917-1918. 

II 

(A P-65 : dp. 8,889; 1. 491'; b. 65'6”; dr. 25'8"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 558; a. 1 5", 3 3"; cl. Crescent City) 

The second Calvert (AP-65) was launched 22 May 
1942 as Del Orleans by Bethlehem-Sparrows Point 
Shipyard, Inc., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. M. G. Fitch; acquired by the Navy 
30 September 1942; and commissioned the next day, 
Captain D. W. Loomis in command. She was reclassi- 
fied APA-32, 1 February 1943. 


17 



USS Calvert (APA-32) 


Calvert began the consistently superior service which 
was to win her a Navy Unit Commendation when she 
sailed from Norfolk 25 October 1942 for the invasion 
of North Africa. She competently landed her troops at 
Safi, French Morocco on 8 November, and 6 days later 
sailed for Norfolk to train troops in Chesapeake Bay for 
other invasions. On 8 June 1943 she departed for the 
Mediterranean and her second major assault landing, at 
Scoglittli, Sicily, where she skillfully put her troops 
ashore on 12 July. 

By 3 August 1943, Calvert was back at Norfolk, a 
veteran of assault landings in the Atlantic, and now 
Pacific bound for stepping stone invasions to the Japa- 
nese homeland. She arrived at Pearl Harbor on 26 
September to train and land troops of the 27th Division, 
USA, on Makin, Gilbert Islands, 20 November. Her 
busy schedule took the transport back to the west coast 
the following month to train troops for forthcoming 
amphibious assaults, and in January 1944 she was 
underway for the Marshalls where on 1 February her 
troops stormed ashore on Kwajalein for another suc- 
cessful invasion. 

Calvert’s next well-planned, well-executed operation 
was in the Marianas where she conducted diversionary 
landings off Tanapag Harbor at Saipan (15-24 June) 
and Tinian (24 July), an effort which added immeasur- 
ably to the success of the main assault. She returned to 
Pearl Harbor in August carrying 420 Japanese and 
Korean prisoners of war, and the following month was 
again westward bound to take part in the all-important 
invasion of the Philippines. 

On 20 October 1944 Calvert was off Leyte dispatching 
her troops for the initial landings. She made a quick 
turn around and was back on 18 November to pour 
more men and equipment from New Guinea into the 
Philippines to ensure the Allied advance. At Cape 
Gloucester she embarked troops for another assault on 


the Philippines (9 January 1945) at Lingayen Gulf to 
begin the capture of Luzon. The following month, with 
troops embarked at Biak, Calvert successfully landed 
her assault waves at Mindoro on 9 February. The vet- 
eran Calvert was now ordered to the west coast for 
overhaul and conversion to an amphibious flagship, ar- 
riving Bremerton 26 March. 

Calvert completed her conversion as the war ended in 
the Pacific, and on 24 August 1945 cleared for the 
Philippines to lift troops to Hiro Wan for the occupa- 
tion of Japan. “Magic Carpet” duty, returning troops 
home to the west coast, was her assignment between 7 
November 1945 and 31 May 1946 prior to arrival at 
Norfolk where she was placed out of commission in 
reserve 26 February 1947. 

With the outbreak of war in Korea in the summer of 
1950 Calvert was recalled to active service and recom- 
missioned 18 October 1950. During her two tours in the 
Far East she trained troops in Japan and Korea, rede- 
ployed Korean troops, and transported troops to and 
from Korea from the west coast. Following this war 
Calvert remained on active service with the fleet, alter- 
nating west coast operations with cruises to the western 
Pacific. During this service she took part in the “Pas- 
sage to Freedom” operation in the summer of 1954 
when she lifted over 6,000 Indochinese civilians from 
Communist-surrounded Haiphong to southern Viet Nam. 
In 1958 during the Middle East crisis and Lebanon 
landings by the 6th Fleet, Calvert, combat-loaded, stood 
ready with the 7th Fleet, alert for any extension of 
trouble in the Pacific. Alternating west coast operations 
with cruise to the western Pacific continued through 
1960. 

In addition to her Navy Unit Commendation, Calvert 
received eight battle stars for service in World War II, 
and two for service in Korea. 


18 




Calypso 

In Greek mythology, Calypso, daughter of Atlas, 
detained the ship-wrecked Ulysses on the isle of Ogygia. 

I 

(ScStr. t. 630; 1 175'2"; b. 26'6"; dr. 12'; s. 12 k.; cpl. 70; 
a. 2 30-pdr. r., 4 24-pdr. r.) 

The first Calypso, an armed streamer, was captured 
11 June 1863 off Wilmington, N.C., by Florida; pur- 
chased from the prize court 12 October 1863; and com- 
missioned 24 September 1863, Acting Master F. D. 
Stuart in command. 

Calypso joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squad- 
ron off Wilmington, N.C., and on 24 October 1863, took 
her first prize off Frying Pan Shoals, the schooner 
Herald. Returning to Norfolk, Va., in November for 
repairs, the steamer was back on duty off Wilmington 
31 March 1864. In June she joined with Nansemond in 
sailing to New River Inlet to support the Army in an 
expedition to cut the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. 
The troops were successfully landed from Nansemond 
in boats from both ships on 21 June, and through the 
next days, Calypso’s boats patrolled up the river and 
carried supplies to the Army. When Confederate oppo- 
sition prevented the linkup of the landing party with a 
force moving overland, Calypso swiftly evacuated the 
soldiers. 

Through the summer. Calypso patrolled the track of 
ships attempting to run the blockade from Nassau, and 
on 28 October 1864, after a long chase and last minute 
aid from Eolus and Fort Jackson, took the steamer Lady 
Sterling. Calypso was sent north with her prize 6 No- 
vember, and after receiving repairs at New York, re- 
turned late in spring 1865 to cruising from Chesapeake 
Bay to the coast of Florida. She was decommissioned 
at the Washington Navy Yard 15 August 1865, and was 
sold at New York 30 November 1865. 

II 

The second Calypso (No. 632), a motor boat, served 
in the Navy during 1917-1919. 

III 

(AG-35: dp. 357; 1. 165'; b. 25'3"; dr. 13'2"; s. 16 k.; 
cl. Potomac) 

The third Calypso (AG-35) was launched 6 January 
1932 for the Coast Guard by Bath Iron Works Corp., 
Bath, Maine; transferred from the Coast Guard to the 
Navy 17 May 1941; commissioned the same day, Chief 
Boatswain J. H. Keevers in command. 

Calypso was based at the Washington Navy Yard as 
a tender to her sister ship, the Presidential yacht 
Potomac (AG-25). In this capacity, her operations 
were confined largely to the Potomac River and Chesa- 
peake Bay until 22 July 1941, when she put out for a 
cruise to Nova Scotia. During a portion of this cruise 
she had on board President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
bound for the famous Atlantic Conference in Argentia 
Bay, Newfoundland, with Prime Minister Winston 
Churchill of Great Britain. Her other movements were 
to provide cover for the President’s travels. Returning 
to Washington 23 August, Calypso was decommissioned 
20 January 1942 and returned to the Coast Guard. 


Camanche 

An archaic spelling of Comanche, the Indian tribe 
of Texas. 

I 

(Monitor: t. 800; 1. 200'; b. 46'; dr. 11'; cpl. 76; a. 2 15" 
sb. ; cl. Passaic) 


Camanche, a monitor, was built in 1863 by Secor 
Brothers, Jersey City, N.J. and disassembled and 
shipped to California on board Aquila, which sank at 
her dock in San Francisco 14 November 1863. Salvaged 
from Aquila’s hulk, Camanche was assembled at San 
Francisco, launched 14 November 1864; and commis- 
sioned 22 August 1865, Lieutenant Commander C. J. 
McDougal in command. 

Laid up at Mare Island throughout most of her career, 
Camanche served as a training ship for the California 
Naval Militia in 1896 and 1897. She was sold at Mare 
Island 22 March 1899. 

II 

ACM-11 (q.v.) was reclassified MMA-11, 7 February 
1955, and assigned the name Camanche 1 May 1955. 

Camanche, see Comanche 

Camanga 

One of the Philippine Islands. 

(AG-42: dp. 5,200, 1. 300'; b. 44'; dr. 18'3"; s. 9 k.; 
cpl. 60; a. 2 3"; cl. Camanga) 

Camanga (AG-42) was built as Point Bonita in 1918 
by Albina Engine and Machine Works, Portland, Oreg. ; 
acquired as Oliver Olson 25 April 1942 from the War 
Shipping Administration; and commissioned the same 
day, Lieutenant R. M. Baughman, USNR, in command. 

Illustrating graphically the need for all available 
shipping in meeting the Navy’s enormous logistic assign- 
ment in the Pacific, Camanga, already 24 years old, 
sailed from Pearl Harbor 1 June 1942 for Pago Pago, 
Samoa, where she took up duty carrying cargo and fuel 
drums between the Samoan and Ellice Islands. After 
overhaul at San Francisco between 30 March and 6 June 
1943, Camanga returned to Noumea for operations 
throughout the South Pacific. She continued this essen- 
tial back-area support of fleet operations from Guadal- 
canal to the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago be- 
tween April and October 1944, returning then to base at 
Noumea. An overhaul at Auckland, New Zealand, from 
November 1944 to January 1945 was the only further 
interruption to her busy schedule in the New Caledonia 
area until 1 October 1945 when she cleared for the west 
coast. Camanga, was decommissioned at San Francisco 
10 December 1945 and returned to the War Shipping 
Administration the same day. 

Camano 

An island off the State of Washington. 

(AG-130: dp. 520; 1. 177'; b. 33'; dr. 10'; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 26; cl. Camano) 

Camano (AG-130) was built in 1944 by Wheeler 
Shipbuilding Corp., Long Island, N.Y.; acquired as the 
Army FS-256 at Apra, Guam, 16 July 1947 ; and com- 
missioned the same day, Lieutenant (junior grade) J. J. 
Daly in command. 

Following the completion of her conversion 8 October 
1947, Camano began cargo and passenger duty out of 
Guam to the Caroline Islands. She was reclassified 
AKL-1, 31 March 1949. On 2 June 1949 she sailed to 
Pearl Harbor for overhaul, then resumed duty at 
Guam 24 September and remained there, except for 
another overhaul at Pearl Harbor, until 26 July 1951 
when she was decommissioned and transferred to the 
Department of the Interior. Camano was returned to 
the Navy 22 December 1952. 


19 


Cambria 

A county in Pennsylvania. 

Cambria, see the “Stone Fleet’’ 

I 

(APA-36 : dp. 8,100; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 26'6"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 575; a. 2 5"; cl. Bayfield) 

Cambria (APA-36) was launched 10 November 1942 
as Sea Swallow by Western Pipe and Steel Co., San 
Francisco, Calif., under a Maritime Commission con- 
tract; sponsored by Mrs. W. Griffin; acquired by the 
Navy 4 May 1943; placed in partial commission the 
same day, Lieutenant Commander W. S. Baker in com- 
mand; sailed to New York for decommissioning and 
conversion to an attack transport; and recommissioned 
10 November 1943, Captain C. W. Dean, USCG, in 
command. 

Cambria departed Norfolk 11 December 1943 and 
arrived at Pearl Harbor on New Year’s Day. After 3 
weeks of intensive training, she sailed on 23 January 
1944 for the invasion of the Marshall Islands, where 
she served as flagship for Majuro Attack Group during 
the landings. 

After overhaul at San Francisco and refresher train- 
ing at Pearl Harbor, Cambria left 30 May 1944 for the 
Marianas invasion, again serving as flagship of an 
attack group. She took part in the assault on Saipan 
which began 15 June and during the next 24 days em- 
barked 715 casualties of the desperate fighting on the 
island. Flying the flag of Commander TF 52, she led 
the invasion of Tinian (24 July-1 August); here she 
handled another 613 casualties. 

Embarking Army troops and equipment at Honolulu, 
Cambria got underway 15 September 1944 for Manus, 
arriving 3 October to join the Southern Attack Group 
for the invasion of the Philippines. On 20 October she 
landed troops at Dulag, Leyte, in the first assault wave, 
then remained off Leyte as a casualty evacuation ship, 
receiving 70 wounded from the beach. Cambria lifted 
reinforcements from Oro Bay, New Guinea, to the Leyte 
area, then returned to New Guinea for rehearsal land- 
ings at Huon Gulf. She landed troops at Lingayen Gulf 
during the invasion landings 10 January 1945, and after 
a reinforcement mission from San Pedro Bay to Lin- 
gayen Gulf, got underway for Tulagi, Florida Island, 
to train for the invasion of Okinawa. 

Cambria staged at Ulithi, then put her troops ashore 
at Okinawa on 1 April 1945. She completed her unload- 
ing 2 days later and sailed for San Pedro, Calif., arriv- 
ing 3 May for an overhaul which lasted until the end of 
hostilities. For the remainder of the year she was 
engaged in the redeployment of forces in the Far East, 
and “Magic Carpet” operations of bringing back troops 
to the United States. 

Sailing from San Francisco 11 January 1946, Cambria 
arrived at Norfolk on the 27th for duty with the At- 
lantic Fleet. She operated from her new home port on 
local exercises and training assaults in the Caribbean 
until placed out of commission in reserve 30 June 1949. 

Recommissioned 15 September 1950 with the out- 
break of war in Korea, Cambria alternated local opera- 
tions and training in the Caribbean and off Labrador 
with three tours of duty with the 6th Fleet in the 
Mediterranean. On her 1956 cruise with the 6th Fleet 
Cambria landed United Nations troops at Gaza during 
the Suez crisis. 

Returning to Norfolk 2 February 1957, Cambria re- 
sumed operations and exercises in the Caribbean and 
along the eastern seaboard. This routine was interrupted 
in the summer of 1958, when, on 10 September, Cambria 
sailed to join the 6th Fleet in support of the American 
landings at Beirut, Lebanon. She remained at this port 
until 18 October 1958 and in the Mediterranean until the 
end of the year to complete a regular tour with the 6th 


Fleet. She returned to the States in March 1959, visited 
Great Lakes ports during June and July in connection 
with the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, and 
operated on the east coast. Cambria made another 6th 
Fleet cruise during the first half of 1960, then resumed 
east coast operations for the remainder of the year. 

Cambria received six battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cambridge 

Thirteen of the United States have cities named 
Cambridge. 

I 

(ScStr: t. 868; 1. 200'; b. 32'; dr. 13'6"; s. 10 k.; cpl. 96; 
a. 2 8'' r.) 

The first Cambridge, an armed steamer, was built in 
1860 by Paul Curtis, Medford, Mass.; purchased at 
Boston 30 July 1861; and commissioned 29 August 1861, 
Commander W. A. Parker in command. 

Assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron 
from 9 September 1861 to 5 October 1864, and to the 
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from 9 February 
1865 until the close of the war, Cambridge helped tighten 
the stranglehold on the Confederacy as she cruised off 
the coasts of Virginia and North and South Carolina. 
Determined vigilance and alert action won her 11 prizes, 
some of them taken under the guns of Confederate 
shore batteries. In a brief 5 days, she and two other 
ships in company took four blockade runners, and chased 
a fifth ashore. In one of her most daring exploits, Cam- 
bridge’s guns drove a schooner ashore near Masonboro 
Inlet, N.C., on 17 November 1862. Boat parties rowed 
through boiling surf, which swamped one of the boats, 
to burn the schooner, only to be made prisoner them- 
selves by a party of armed men who sprang out of the 
brush. 

Cambridge was decommissioned at Philadelphia, and 
sold there 20 June 1865. 


Cambridge, a screw sloop, was renamed Congress 
(q.v.) on 10 August 1869 prior to her commissioning. 

II 

The second Cambridge (No. 1651), a steamer, was 
purchased by the Navy on 22 October 1917, and turned 
over to the 3d Naval District for patrol service. She 
was found to be unsuitable for naval duty and was 
stricken from the Navy List on 1 March 1918 and sold 
a year later. 


Cambridge (CA-126) was canceled 12 August 1945, 
prior to launching. 

Camden 

Cities in New Jersey and Maine. 

(AK: dp. 6,075; 1. 403'8''; b. 47'8"; dr. 24'; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 345; a. 4 4", 2 3") 

Camden (No. 3143) was built in 1900 by Flensburger 
Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, Flensburg, Germany, as Kiel', 
seized by the United States on entrance into World 
War I; transferred from the Shipping Board 22 May 
1917 ; fitted out as a cargo ship and commissioned 15 
August 1917, Lieutenant Commander E. C. Jones, 
USNRF, in command. 

Clearing New York in September 1917, Camden car- 
ried coal between Cardiff, Wales, and French ports, with 
one voyage to the United States, until 25 April 1918, 


20 


when she again sailed for the States. She was decom- 
missioned at Philadelphia Navy Yard 3 May 1918 for 
conversion into a submarine tender. 

Camden began her many years of important service 
with submarines 21 February 1919, when she was re- 
commissioned as a submarine tender, AS-6. Based on 
New London, she was flagship for Commander, Sub- 
marine Flotilla, Atlantic, and Commander, Submarine 
Division 9 until 15 September 1920. After repairs at 
Norfolk, she followed her division to the Pacific, where 
she took up tender duties based on San Pedro 24 June 
1921. She briefly served as flagship of Commander, 
Submarine Flotilla, Pacific Fleet early in 1922, and in 
March 1923 returned to the Atlantic for duty. As flag- 
ship of Submarine Division 4 at New London, and later 
as flagship of Commander, Control Force, she led in 
large-scale maneuvers and exercises. Highlights of this 
period included her participation in determined efforts 
to raise S-5 (SS-110) in September and October 1925, 
and her presence at the presidential naval review in 
Hampton Roads in May 1927. Camden’s active career 
ended 26 May 1931 when she was decommissioned at 
Philadelphia. 

War called the veteran back from retirement, and 
on 17 September 1940, Camden was reclassified IX-42, 
and assigned to New York Navy Yard as a barracks 
ship. Towed by Alleghany (AT-19), the floating bar- 
racks arrived at New York 18 September, and performed 
her humble but essential role of berthing the war- 
swollen complement of the yard until 23 October 1946 
when she was sold. 


Camel 

The name camel is given both to the well-known 
Asiatic and African ruminants, and to wooden floats 
used especially to fend vessels off piers. 

I 

(Sip.: cpl. 40; a. 2 18-pdr., 2 24-pdr. car.) 

The first Camel, an armed sloop, was purchased in 
April 1813 and outfitted at Philadelphia Navy Yard. 
Throughout the war of 1812 she served with the Dela- 
ware Flotilla, joining in the protection of the upper 
Delaware and the operations to drive British blockaders 
out of the Bay. Camel was sold at Philadelphia on 12 
August 1816. 

II 

(IX-113 : dp. 3,665; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; s. 

11 k; cpl. 79; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Armadillo) 

The second Camel (IX-113), a tanker, was launched 
31 October 1943 as William H. Carruth by California 
Shipbuilding Corp., Wilmington, Calif., under a Mari- 
time Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. J. Low; 
acquired by the Navy 22 November 1943; and commis- 
sioned the same day, Lieutenant D. Dunham, Jr., USNR, 
in command. 

Camel sailed from San Pedro, Calif., 1 January 1944, 
for Tarawa, where she arrived 24 January to deliver 
aviation gasoline for use in the aerial reconnaissance 
missions then flown from that island. From February 
through August, Camel operated on shuttle service, sup- 
plying fleet units and shore installations throughout 
the Marshall and Mariana Islands with petroleum prod- 
ucts, lifeblood of modern war. At Saipan, while dis- 
charging, Camel discovered two Japanese stowaways, 
both of whom jumped overboard. One was killed. The 
surviving member of the once-proud Japanese garrison 
told of their hope to reach Hawaii or the United States. 

Camel continued to supply the forces on Saipan and 
Guam from Eniwetok until 27 March 1945, when she 
cleared Ulithi for the Ryukyus. After serving as station 
tanker at Kerama Retto from 2 April to 8 July, she 


sailed to Okinawa as headquarters ship for Service 
Division 104. During this period, her guns aided in 
driving off the massive effort of the Japanese to halt 
the operation by air attacks, and on 6 April she took 
part in splashing one enemy aircraft. 

The tanker returned to the east coast after occupation 
duty, was decommissioned at Norfolk, Va., 22 May 1946, 
and was returned to the Maritime Commission 24 May 
1946. 

Camel received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Cornelia 

An archaic spelling of camellia, an eastern tropical 
flowering shrub. 

(ScTug: t. 198; 1. Ill'; b. 19'6"; dr. 10'6"; s. 10 k.; cpl. 

40; a. 2 20-pdr. r.) 

Camelia, a screw tug, was built in 1862 at New York 
as Governor; purchased there 17 September 1863; and 
commissioned 28 November 1863 with Acting Ensign 
R. W. Parker assuming command the next day. 

From 21 January 1864 to 1 July 1865, Camelia served 
with the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off 
Charleston, S.C., and at Port Royal, S.C. In addition 
to playing a part in the blockade which kept critically 
needed war materials and civilian commodities from 
entering the Confederacy, Camelia contributed officers 
and men to the naval brigade which carried out success- 
ful operations ashore in the Broad River area of South 
Carolina in November and December 1864. Returning to 
New York, the tug was sold there 15 August 1865. 

Camellia 

Former name retained. 

Camellia (lighthouse tender) was mobilized for war 
service by executive order and transferred first to the 
War Department, and on 1 July 1917 to the Navy De- 
partment. She was thereafter attached to the 8th Naval 
District until 1 July 1919 when she was returned to 
her owner. 

Cameron, see LST-928 


Camia 

Former name retained. 

Camia (YFB-683) was a wooden working launch built 
at the Naval Station, Cavite, P.I. Launched on 15 No- 
vember 1906, she was assigned to the 16th Naval District 
where she served from 1908 to 1942. Camia was lost on 
2 January 1942 as Manila and Cavite succumbed to 
Japanese attacks, and was stricken from the Navy List 
on 24 July 1942. 

Camp 

Born 27 August 1916 in Jennings, La., Jack Hill Camp 
enlisted in the Naval Reserve 20 January 1941 and was 
appointed a naval aviator 29 December 1941. Attached 
to Patrol Squadron 44, Ensign Camp was killed in 
action 7 June 1942 during the Battle of Midway. 

(DE-251; dp 1,200; 1. 306'; b. 36'7"; dr. 8'7"; s. 21 k.; 

cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct. ; 

cl. Edsall) 

Camp (DE-251) was launched 16 April 1943 by Brown 
Shipbuilding Co., Houston, Tex.; sponsored by Mrs. 
O. H. Camp; commissioned 16 September 1943, Lieu- 
tenant Commander P. B. Mavor, USCG, in command; 
and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 


21 


After duty as school ship for precommissioning crews 
for other escort vessels, Camp cleared Norfolk, Va., 14 
December 1943, escorting a convoy bound for Casablanca 
with men and supplies for the operations in Italy. Camp 
returned to Norfolk 24 January 1944 to begin a year 
and a half of convoy escort operations from New York 
to ports of the United Kingdom, guarding convoys whose 
ships brought troops and mountains of equipment and 
supplies for the buildup and support of the assault on 
the European continent. Fighting the foul weather 
common in the North Atlantic, Camp’s alertness against 
submarine attack and diligence were rewarded by no 
losses in any of the convoys she accompanied. A colli- 
sion with a merchantman, in which one of Camp’s crew 
members was killed, required a repair period during 
which Camp received a new bow and acquired 5" guns; 
otherwise her escort duty was uninterrupted until 19 
June 1945. 

Camp cleared Charleston, S.C., 9 July 1945 for the 
Pacific, and after serving as a training ship at Pearl 
Harbor, proceeded to Eniwetok for occupation duty. 
She supervised the evacuation of the Japanese garrison 
from Mili, then took on air-sea rescue duties off Kwaja- 
lein until 4 November, when she sailed for home, arriv- 
ing at New York 10 December. She was decommissioned 
1 May 1946. 

Reclassified DER-251 on 7 December 1955, Camp was 
recommissioned 31 July 1956 for duty as radar picket 
ship in the early warning system. She reported to New- 
port, R.I., 19 February 1957, and operated from that 
port to Argentia, Newfoundland, and into the North 
Atlantic through 1960. 

Campbell, George M., see George M. Campbell 

Campbell, Joseph E., see Joseph E. Campbell 

Campbell, Kendall C., see Kendall C. Campbell 

Canadian Drifter 30, see C.D. 30 

Canadian Drifter 31, see C.D. 31 

Canadian Drifter 36, see C.D. 36 

Canadian Drifter 41, see C.D. 41 

Canadian Drifter 46, see C.D. 46 

Canadian Drifter 50, see C.D. 50 

Canadian Drifter 58, see C.D. 58 

Canadian Drifter 59, see C.D. 59 

Canadian Drifter 61, see C.D. 61 

Canadian Drifter 65, see C.D. 65 

Canadian Drifter 67, see C.D. 67 

Canadian Drifter 78, see C.D. 78 

Canadian Drifter 94, see C.D. 94 

Canadian Drifter 96, see C.D. 96 


Canadian Drifter 97, see C.D. 97 
Canadian Drifter 98, see C.D. 98 
Canadian Drifter 99, see C.D. 99 
Canadian Drifter 100, see C.D. 100 
Canadian River, see LSMR—406. 

Canadian Trawler 37, see C.T. 37 
Canadian Trawler 39, see C.T. 39 
Canadian Trawler 40, see C.T. 40 
Canadian Trawler 51, see C.T. 51 
Canadian Trawler 55, see C.T. 55 
Canadian Trawler 56, see C.T. 56 
Canadian Trawler 58, see C.T. 58 
Canadian Trawler 59, see C.T. 59 
Canadian Trawler 60, see C.T. 60 
Canandaigua 

A city and lake in New York State. 

I 

(ScSlp. : t. 1,395; 1. 228'; b. 38'5"; dr. 15'; s. 10 k.; 
a. 2 11" sb., 1 8" sb., 3 20-pdr. r.) 

The first Canandaigua, a screw sloop, was launched 
28 March 1862 by Boston Navy Yard, and commissioned 
1 August 1862, Commander J. F. Green in command. 

Canandaigua reported to the South Atlantic Blockad- 
ing Squadron off Charleston, S.C., 26 August 1862, 
adding to the power to isolate the Confederacy from 
overseas supplies, one of the Navy’s several decisive 
contributions to Union victory. Off Charleston on 15 
May 1863 Canandaigua took the sloop Secesh; later she 
destroyed another blockade runner, and aided in the 
capture of a schooner and a steamer in the same area. 

In addition to blockading, Canandaigua cooperated 
with Army forces taking part in the long series of 
attacks on positions in Charleston harbor during 1863 
and 1864. On 17 February 1864 she rescued 150 of the 
crew of Housatonic when that ship fell victim to the 
historic attack of the Confederate submarine H. L. 
Hunley. 

Canandaigua sailed for the Boston Navy Yard 26 
March 1865, and was decommissioned there 8 April 
1865. Recommissioned 22 November 1865, Canandaigua 
cruised on the European station until February 1869, 
when she began 3 years of repairs at New York Navy 
Yard. She was renamed Detroit 15 May 1869, but re- 
turned to her original name 10 August 1869. 

Her last cruise, 1872-1875, was in the West Indies 
and Gulf of Mexico with the North Atlantic Station’s 
detachment there. Out of commission at Norfolk Navy- 
Yard after 8 November 1875, she remained in ordinary 
until broken up in 1884. 


22 


II 

(CM: dp. 7,620; 1. 379'9"; b. 48'3"; dr. 22'6"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 368; a. 1 5", 2 3") 

The second Canandaigua (No. 1694), a minelayer, 
was built in 1901 by Newport News Shipbuilding and 
Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Va., as El Siglo; trans- 
ferred from the Shipping Board 23 November 1917; 
fitted out as a minelayer by Morse Dry Dock and Repair 
Co., Brooklyn, N.Y. ; and commissioned 2 March 1918, 
Commander W. H. Reynolds in command. 

Assigned to Mine Squadron 1, Mine Force, Canan- 
daigua sailed from Newport, R.I., 12 May 1918 and 
arrived at Inverness Firth, Scotland, 2 weeks later. 
Participating in the laying of the gigantic North Sea 
Mine Barrage, she made 13 runs from Inverness, handl- 
ing her hazardous duty with the precision and care 
required for a successful mine plant. 

Following the signing of the Armistice, Canandaigua 
sailed for conversion to a troop transport at Boston 
Navy Yard, and on 11 March 1919 was assigned to the 
Cruiser and Transport Force. Between 8 April and 26 
August, she made four voyages to France, returning 
some 4,800 servicemen. Canandaigua was decommis- 
sioned at New York 22 September 1919 and returned to 
the Shipping Board the same day. 

III 

The third Canandaigua (IX-233) was acquired by the 
Navy 20 September 1945 and placed in service. She 
sank 22 November but was raised and was placed out of 
service at New London, Conn., on 5 January 1946. She 
was sold there 31 October 1946. 

IV 

On 15 February 1956 PC-1246 (q.v.) was renamed 
Canandaigua. 

Canarsee 

Canarsee was a leading Indian tribe of Long Island, 
N.Y. 

Canarsee (YTB-703) was launched on 1 March 1946 
by the Bethlehem Steel Co., San Pedro, Calif. Completed 
in April of that year she was assigned duty in the 11th 
Naval District where she continues to render service. 

Canary 

A small finch. 

Canary (AMC-25), formerly John G. Murley, was 
acquired by the Navy on 24 October 1940, and following 


conversion, was placed in service on 19 June 1941 in 
the 4th Naval District. On 10 January 1944 she was re- 
classified YDT-7 and thereafter attached to the 5th 
Naval District for assignment in connection with diving, 
torpedo, mine and antisubmarine programs. She was 
transferred to the Maritime Administration in June 
1948. 

Canasatego 

Canasatego was a capable Onondaga Chief who played 
an important role in the Council in Philadelphia in 1742. 

Canasatego (YN-38), formerly Sheila Moran, was ac- 
quired by the Navy and placed in service in October 
1940. On 1 May 1942 she was reclassified YNT-6, and 
on 2 August 1945 became YTM-732. She served 
in the 10th Naval District until 29 April 1947 when 
she was transferred to the Maritime Administration for 
disposal. 

Canastota, see PC— 1135. 

Canberra 

The capital city of Australia. CA-70 is named to 
honor HMAS Canberra, lost while operating with Amer- 
ican forces in the Battle of Savo Island (9 August 1942). 

(CA-70: dp. 13,600; 1. 673'5"; b. 70'10"; dr. 20'6"; s. 

33 k. ; cpl. 1,142; a. 9 8", 12 5"; cl. Baltimore) 

Canberra (CA-70) was launched 19 April 1943 by 
Bethlehem Steel Co., Quincy, Mass.; sponsored by Lady 
Alice C. Dixon ; and commissioned 14 October 1943, 
Captain A. R. Early in command. 

Canberra departed Boston 14 January 1944 and sailed 
via Sari Diego to embark passengers for Pearl Harbor, 
arriving 1 February. She rendezvoused with TF 58 on 
14 February and took part in the capture of Eniwetok. 
The cruiser steamed from her base at Majuro to join 
the Yorktown (CV-10) task group for the raids on 
the Palaus, Yap, Ulithi, and Woleai (30 March-1 April), 
then got underway from the same base 13 April for air 
strikes against Hollandia and Wakde in support of the 
Army landings on New Guinea. Canberra joined with 
the Enterprise (CV-6) task group for fighter sweeps 
against Truk, then bombarded Satawan, rejoining the 
carriers for further strikes on Truk (29 April-1 May). 

After a raid against Marcus and Wake Islands in 
May 1944, Canberra sailed from Majuro 6 June to par- 
ticipate in the Marianas operation, including the far- 
flung Battle of the Philippine Sea, and the supporting 
air strikes and bombardment to neutralize bases in the 
Bonins. Following replenishment at Eniwetok, Canberra 



Bombardment of Wonsan Harbor. To left, inshore, USS Carmick (DMS-33) is seen near splash from enemy fire. 

Destroyer to right returns fire. 


23 




USS Canberra (CAG-2) fires Terrier missile in practice. 


sailed 29 August for raids on the Palaus and the Philip- 
pines, and to back up the Morotai landings (15-16 
September). 

On 2 October 1944 Canberra sailed in company with 
TF 38 for air strikes on Okinawa and Formosa in 
anticipation of the forthcoming landings on Leyte. On 
13 October, only 90 miles off Formosa, close to the 
enemy and far from safe harbor, Canberra was struck 
below her armor belt at the engineering spaces by an 
aerial torpedo which blew a huge, jagged hole in her 
side and killed 23 of her crew instantly. Before damage 
control could isolate the compartments, some 4,500 tons 
of water rushed in to flood her after fireroom and both 
engine rooms, which brought the cruiser to a stop. Then 
began one of the most notable achievements of the war 
in saving wounded ships. Canberra was taken in tow 
by Wichita (CA-45). The task force reformed to pro- 
vide escort for her and Houston (CL-81) who had been 
torpedoed on the morning of the 14th. Retiring toward 
Ulithi, “Cripple Division 1” fought off an enemy air 
attack which succeeded in firing another torpedo into 
Houston. Admiral Halsey (CTF 38) attempted to use 
the group, now nicknamed “Bait Division 1,” to lure the 
Japanese fleet into the open, but when the enemy sortied 
from the Inland Sea, air attacks from the rest of TF 38 
roused enemy suspicions of the trap, and the Japanese 
force withdrew. Canberra and her group continued un- 
molested to Ulithi, arriving 27 October, 2 weeks from 
the day she was hit. The cruiser was towed to Manus 
for temporary repairs, thence departed for permanent 
repairs at Boston Navy Yard (16 February-17 October 
1945). Canberra returned to the west coast late in 1945 
and was placed out of commission in reserve at Bremer- 
ton, Wash., 7 March 1947. 

Reclassified CAG-2, 4 January 1952, Canberra was 
towed from Bremerton to New York Shipbuilding Corp., 
Camden, N.J., where she was converted to a guided 
missile heavy cruiser. Her after 8" turret was replaced 
by terrier antiaircraft missile launchers and she was 
otherwise modernized. Canberra was recommissioned 
15 June 1956, part of the sweeping revolution that is 
increasing the United States’ seapower for peace. Local 
operations from her home port of Norfolk and Carib- 
bean exercises were conducted until 14 March 1957 
when she carried President Dwight D. Eisenhower to 
Bermuda for a conference with Prime Minister Harold 
MacMillan of Great Britain. On 12 June she served as a 
reviewing ship for the International Naval Review in 
Hampton Roads, with Secretary of Defense Charles E. 
Wilson embarked. After a midshipman training cruise 


to the Caribbean and Brazil (13 June-5 August), she 
departed Norfolk 3 September to participate in NATO 
Operation “Strikeback,” sailing on to the Mediterranean 
for duty with the 6th Fleet before returning home 9 
March 1958. 

In the spring of 1958 Canberra was designated as 
ceremonial flagship for the selection of the unknown 
servicemen of World War II and Korea to be buried 
with honor at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington 
National Cemetery. The cruiser rendezvoused off the 
Virginia Capes 26 May with Blandy (DD-943) carrying 
the Unknown of the European Theater, and Boston 
(CAG-1) carrying the Unknowns of the Pacific Theater 
and the Korean War. After Blandy had transferred 
her Unknown to Boston, all three caskets were high- 
lined to Canberra, where the selection between the two 
Unknowns of World War II was made. The selected 
casket along with the Korean Unknown was returned 
to Blandy for transportation to Washington, D.C., and 
the unselected Unknown was buried at sea with military 
honors by Canberra. 

Canberra carried midshipmen on a training cruise to 
Europe (9 June-7 August 1958), then after a brief visit 
to New York, entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard for 
overhaul. 

Departing from the normal operating schedule, Can- 
berra sailed from Norfolk on 3 March 1960 on good-will 
cruise around the globe, flying the flag of Rear Admiral 
J. McN. Taylor, Commander of the Atlantic Fleet 
Cruiser Force and Cruiser Division 6. On this cruise 
he took his flagship to the South Pacific, where her 
namesake had sunk, where she had engaged the enemy in 
1944 and where he had served. On this cruise Canberra 
operated with both the 7th and 6th Fleets as she sailed 
across the Pacific, through the Indian Ocean, Suez, the 
Mediterranean, and across the Atlantic. She arrived 
home in Norfolk on 24 October. For the remainder of 
the year she operated on the east coast. 

Canberra received seven battle stars for World War 
II service. 

Candid 

Frank or straight forward. 

(AM-154: dp. 945; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 14 k.; 
cpl. 104; a. 1 3"; cl. Admirable) 

Candid (AM-154) was launched 14 October 1942 by 
Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg.; and 


24 


commissioned 31 October 1943, Lieutenant E. G. Bemis, 
USNR, in command. 

Candid sailed from San Francisco 28 February 1944 
for duty in Alaskan waters. Called upon to escort con- 
voys and conduct patrols as well as to sweep for mines, 
she sailed through stormy waters to fog-bound Aleutian 
ports, supporting Army units on the isolated islands, 
and backing up naval attacks on the Kurile Islands of 
northern Japan. She returned to San Francisco 18 
August, and 2 weeks later got underway for the Mar- 
shall Islands for operations there and in the Marianas, 
providing essential local escort services as the consoli- 
dation of these islands and their development as bases 
for naval and air strikes against the Japanese continued. 
On 16 April 1945, she cleared for Seattle and an over- 
haul, after which she sailed to Cold Bay, Alaska, to 
train Russian seamen. Candid was decommissioned 16 
August 1945 and transferred to the U.S.S.R. under lend- 
lease the next day. She was reclassified MSF-154 on 7 
February 1955. 

Candoto * 

Candoto (YTB-377), built by Gulfport Boiler and 
Welding Works, Port Arthur, Texas, and placed in 
service 4 July 1944, served in a noncommissioned status 
in the 14th Naval District, the Mariana Islands, and the 
Marshall Islands during World War II. 

Caney 

A river in Kansas. 

(AO-95: dp. 22,380; 1. 523'6"; b. 68'; dr. 30T0"; s. 

15 k. ; cpl. 225; a. 1 5'', 4 3"; cl. Escambia) 

Caney (AO-95) was launched 8 October 1944 by 
Marinship Corp., Sausalito, Calif., under a Maritime 
Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. J. L. Simpson; 
acquired by the Navy 25 March 1945; commissioned the 
same day, Commander R. S. Hanson, USNR, in com- 
mand ; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Caney sailed from San Pedro, Calif., 12 May 1945 for 
Ulithi, the base from which she operated while fueling 
ships serving on radar picket and patrol duties at Oki- 
nawa. From 3 July through the end of the war, she 
steamed with the logistic group supporting TF 38 in 
its bombardments and air strikes pounding the Japanese 
home islands. The oiler remained off Okinawa serving 
ships engaged in occupation duty until 16 November, 
when she got underway for San Francisco, and Galves- 
ton, Tex. Caney was decommissioned 27 February 1946 
at Beaumont, Tex., and delivered to the War Shipping 
Administration the same day. Reacquired by the Navy 
in February 1948, she was transferred to the Military 
Sea Transportation Service 18 July 1950, where she 
served in a noncommissioned status with a civilian crew. 

Caney received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Canfield 

Born 9 November 1915 in New York City, Leon Wil- 
liam Canfield enlisted in the Naval Reserve 13 May 
1940, and after aviation training, was discharged 4 
March 1941. He reenlisted 25 July 1941 for midshipman 
training, and was appointed ensign 16 January 1942. 
Ensign Canfield was killed in action in the Battle of 
the Solomon Islands 15 November 1942. 

(DE-262: dp. 1,140; 1. 289'5"; b. 35'1"; dr. 8'3"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 114; a. 3 3", 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct. ; cl. Evarts) 

Canfield (DE-262) was launched 6 April 1943 by 
Boston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. L. W. Canfield; 
and commissioned 22 July 1943, Commander J. B. Cle- 
lana, Jr., USNR, in command. 


Canfield sailed from Boston, Mass., 13 October 1943 
for Pearl Harbor, arriving 17 November. Between 25 
November and 10 December, she screened the vital but 
vulnerable tankers supporting air strikes on the Mar- 
shall Islands. In January, Canfield sailed to Majuro, 
from which base she continued to operate on convoy 
escort, patrol, and plane guard in the Marshalls oper- 
ation. 

Returning to Pearl Harbor in April 1944, Canfield 
got underway 6 May escorting a tanker convoy bound 
for Majuro. Here she resumed escort duties, now sup- 
porting the Marianas operation. In September, the es- 
cort vessel arrived at Eniwetok, and until December, 
guarded convoys to the forward base at Ulithi. These 
convoys carried the men and supplies essential to the 
Philippines operation. 

Early in March 1945, after a visit to Pearl Harbor, 
Canfield arrived off I wo Jima, and served on patrol 
during the assault and capture of the northern part of 
the island. On 20 March she embarked men of the 
veteran 4th Marines for transportation to Pearl Harbor. 
Canfield continued to San Francisco for overhaul, and 
San Diego for refresher training, returning to Pearl 
Harbor 7 June. After a month of antisubmarine and 
plane guard duty, she sailed for San Pedro Bay, P.I., 
where she joined a Japan-bound occupation convoy. 
Canfield anchored in Tokyo Bay 20 September, and on 
6 October was underway for San Francisco. Here Can- 
field was decommissioned 21 December 1945, and sold 
12 June 1947. 

Canfield received four battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Canibas 

Former name retained. 

(AK: dp. 13,910; 1. 435'; b. 54'; dr. 26'; s. 11 k.; cpl. 

70; a. 1 6", 1 3") 

Canibas (No. 3401), a cargo vessel, was built in 1918 
by Texas Shipbuilding Company; transferred from the 
Shipping Board 10 September 1918; and commissioned 
the same day, Lieutenant Commander P. L. Farmer, 
USNRF, in command. 

Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Serv- 
ice, which was charged with equipping and supplying 
American forces in France, Canibas carried varied 
cargoes in three voyages from New York to French and 
Dutch ports between 26 September 1918 and 28 May 
1919. Her cargoes included hay and oats for the horses 
of the Army, as well as food for the troops. Canibas 
was decommissioned at New York 4 June 1919 and re- 
turned to the Shipping Board the same day. 

Canisteo 

A river in New York State. 

(AO-99: dp. 7,295; 1. 553'; b. 45'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 304; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

Canisteo (AO-99) was launched 6 July 1945 by Beth- 
lehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrows Point, 
Md., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored 
by Mrs. J. N. Chambers; and commissioned 3 December 
1945, Lieutenant Commander E. L. Denton, USNR, in 
command. 

Canisteo cleared Norfolk 4 February 1946 for Mel- 
ville, R.I., where she loaded diesel oil for naval units 
taking part in the occupation of Germany. Resuming 
from Bremerhaven and Farge, Germany, she carried 
out training operations in the Caribbean, and then sailed 
to Iceland and Greenland, returning to New York City 
27 May. 

The tanker sailed south from Norfolk 27 November 
1946 as a unit of Operation “Highjump,” the largest 


25 


Antarctic expedition to that time. Steaming through 
the Panama Canal to the Antarctic, Canisteo reached 
Scott and Peter Islands, and through her logistic sup- 
port, played a critical role in this historic exploratory 
and scientific project, carrying on the Navy’s traditional 
role in expanding man’s frontiers. Canisteo returned to 
Norfolk 23 April 1947 after calling at Rio de Janeiro 
and Caribbean ports. 

Between 4 June 1947 and 23 October 1948, Canisteo 
served four tours of duty supporting the 6th Fleet by 
carrying oil from Bahrein to the Mediterranean. The 
winter and spring of 1948-1949 found Canisteo oper- 
ating on fueling duty from Norfolk to Caribbean ports; 
Argentia, Newfoundland; and Grondal, Greenland. A 
pattern of alternating exercises in the Caribbean with 
overhauls and tours of duty in the Mediterranean in the 
following years was highlighted by her fueling in sup- 
port of many fleet exercises. She played a part in aug- 
menting the growing strength of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization through Operation “Mainbrace” 
(26 August-11 October 1952) and in combined opera- 
tions with Canadian forces (16-20 September 1956). 
Active with the Fleet, Canisteo continued to operate out 
of Norfolk through 1960, participating in fleet and 
NATO exercises. 

Cannon 

Born at St. Louis Mo., 5 November 1915, George H. 
Cannon accepted appointment as second lieutenant in 
the United States Marine Corps on 27 June 1938. With 
the 6th Defense Battalion on Midway Island, Lieutenant 
Cannon was killed in action during the bombardment of 
Sand Island by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. 
For his distinguished conduct in the line of his profes- 
sion, extraordinary courage, and disregard of his own 
condition during that bombardment, he was posthum- 
ously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. 

(DE-99: dp. 1,240; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 8'9"; s. 21 k.; 

cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct. ; 
cl. Cannon) 


I 

(BM: t. 1,034; 1. 225'; b. 43'8"; dr. 13'6"; s. 7 k.; cpl. 85; 
a. 2 15" sb. ; cl. Canonicus ) 

The first Canonicus, a single-turret monitor, was 
launched 1 August 1863 by Harrison Loring, Boston, 
Mass., and commissioned 16 April 1864 at Boston, Com- 
mander E. G. Parrott in command. 

Canonicus sailed from Boston 22 April 1864 and 
arrived at Newport News, Va., 3 May for service with 
the James River Flotilla. Her heavy guns pounded Con- 
federate batteries at strong points along the James on 
21 June, 16 August, and 5-6 December. 

Reassigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squad- 
ron, the monitor arrived at Beaufort, N.C., 15 Decem- 
ber 1864, and took part in the heated attacks on Fort 
Fisher, N.C. In the first engagement on 24 and 25 
December, Canonicus was hit four times, but suffered 
no casualties and only minor damage while her own well- 
directed fire put two guns of Fort Fisher’s battery out 
of action. On 13 January 1865, during the second attack, 
Canonicus felt the full effect of the Confederate fire, 
receiving 36 hits. Twice her flag was shot away, twice 
gallantly replaced. Miraculously, none of her men was 
killed, and only three wounded. Again, she dismounted 
two of the Fort’s guns. 

In February 1865, Canonicus joined the South Atlantic 
Blockading Squadron off Charleston, S.C., and during 
the closing months of the war aided in the capture of 
several blockade runners off the South Carolina coast, 
as well as voyaging to Havana, Cuba, in search of CSS 
Stonewall. 

The monitor entered Philadelphia Navy Yard 25 June 
1869, and was decommissioned 5 days later. Renamed 
Scylla 15 June 1869, she was reassigned her former 
name 10 August 1869. Recommissioned 22 January 
1872, Canonicus cruised in coastal waters in the Atlantic 
and Gulf of Mexico when not out of commission, as she 
was frequently during this time. Her final decommis- 
sioning took place at Pensacola, Fla., in 1877, and she 
performed no further service until sold 19 February 
1908. 


Cannon (DE-99) was launched 25 May 1943 by Dravo 
Corp., Wilmington, Del.; sponsored by Mrs. E. H. Can- 
non ; commissioned 26 September 1943, Lieutenant Com- 
mander G. Morris in command; and reported to the 
Atlantic Fleet. 

On 30 November 1943, Cannon cleared Philadelphia 
for Trinidad, where she arrived 5 December to begin a 
year of duty escorting convoys from that oil-rich island 
to Recife and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During this time, 
she made one voyage from Brazil to Gibraltar, guard- 
ing convoys whose tankers carried the fuel essential to 
the success of operations in the Mediterranean. 

Cannon’s protection of the Allied fuel supply through 
the dangerous sea lanes of the Caribbean and the At- 
lantic Narrows ended on 4 December 1944, when she 
arrived at Natal, Brazil, to begin training a Brazilian 
crew in the operation of the ship. Cannon was decom- 
missioned and transferred to Brazil on 19 December 
1944 at Natal. Through 1960, she continued to serve in 
the Brazilian Navy as Baependi. 

Canocan 

A Piro Indian pueblo in New Mexico. 

Canocan (YTB-290), placed in service 21 October 
1944, served in a noncommissioned status in the 14th 
Naval District during World War II. 

Canonicus 

Canonicus, a chief of the Narragansett Indians, be- 
friended Roger Williams, and presented him with a 
large tract of land for the Rhode Island colony. 


II 

(CM: dp. 7,620; 1. 405T"; b. 48'3"; dr. 22'6"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 368; a. 1 5", 2 3"; cl. Canandaigua) 

The second Canonicus (No. 1696) was launched 7 Oc- 
tober 1899 by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock 
Co., Newport News, Va., as El Cid; acquired 23 Novem- 
ber 1917 from the Shipping Board; fitted out as a mine 
planter at Morse Dry Dock and Repair Co., Brooklyn, 
N.Y. ; and commissioned as Canonicus 2 March 1918, 
Commander T. L. Johnson, USN, in command. 

Canonicus cleared Newport, R.I., 12 May 1918 with 
Mine Squadron 1, bound for Inverness, Scotland. Arriv- 
ing 27 May, she operated out of Inverness and Inver- 
gordon, Scotland, planting the mines of the North Sea 
barrage. This precise, demanding work continued 
through the close of the war, after which she returned 
to Hampton Roads, Va., 3 January 1919. 

On 7 February 1919 Canonicus was assigned to the 
Cruiser and Transport Force, and made three voyages 
between the east coast and France, returning 4,166 
troops to the United States. Canonicus was decomis- 
sioned 7 August 1919, and returned to the Shipping 
Board for further transfer to her former owner. 

III 

The third Canonicus (YT-187) was placed in service 
3 June 1941 and served in the 1st and 5th Naval Dis- 
tricts until transferred to the Maritime Commission for 
disposal 30 April 1947. 

IV 

ACM-12 (q.v.) was assigned the name Canonicus on 
1 May 1955. 


26 


Canopus 

A first magnitude star in the constellation Argo. 

(AS-9: dp. 5,975; 1. 373'8"; b. 51'6"; dr. 16'4"; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 314; a. 2 5", 4 3") 

Canopus (AS-91 was launched in 1919 by New York 
Shipbuilding Co., Camden, N.J., as Santa Leonora; ac- 
quired by the Navy from the Shipping Board 22 Novem- 
ber 1921; converted to a submarine tender; commis- 
sioned at Boston 24 January 1922, Commander A. S. 
Wadsworth in command; and reported to Submarine 
Force, Atlantic Fleet. 

Canopus remained at Boston until 9 November 1922, 
when she sailed for further fitting out at Coco Solo, 
C.Z., and San Pedro, Calif., her base as tender to the 
submarines of Division 9 until 17 July 1923. Sailing to 
Pearl Harbor, Canopus tended Submarine Division 17 of 
the Battle Force with whom she sailed for permanent 
duty with Asiatic Fleet in September 1924. 

Arriving in the Philippines 4 November 1924, Can- 
opus began her regular schedule of services in Manila 
Bay, and each summer based with the fleet at Tsingtao, 
China, with occasional training cruises to various Chi- 
nese and Japanese ports, and to the British and French 
colonies. Between 1927 and 1931, the tender was flagship 
of submarine divisions, Asiatic Fleet, and later was at- 
tached to Submarine Division 10 and was flagship of 
Submarine Squadron 5. 

On 7 December 1941, Canopus, aging but able, lay at 
Cavite Navy Yard, as tender to Submarine Squadron 
20. In the anxious days that followed, her men worked 
day and night to repair ships damaged in the daily air 
raids as well as to keep her brood of submarines at 
sea. With the Army falling back on Manila, Canopus 
sailed to Mariveles Bay at the tip of Bataan on Christ- 
mas Day. On 29 December 1941 and 1 January 1942, she 
received direct bomb hits which resulted in substantial 
damage to the ship and injuries to 13 of her men. Work- 
ing at fevered pace, her men continued to care for other 
ships while keeping their own afloat and in operation. 
To prevent further Japanese attack, smoke pots were 
placed around the ship and the appearance of an aban- 
doned hulk was presented by day, while the ship hummed 
with activity by night. 

Just before the New Year, the last of the submarines 
left Canopus, but her activity continued as she cared 
for small craft and equipment of the Army and Navy, 
sent her men into battle in the improvised naval bat- 
talion which fought so gallantly on Bataan, and con- 
verted her own launches into miniature gunboats which 
attacked the Japanese moving south near the shore. But 
the overwhelming Japanese strength could not be held 
off forever, and upon the surrender of Bataan on 9 
April, Canopus was ordered scuttled and sunk, to deny 
her use to the enemy. On 10 April, she was proudly 
backed off into deep water under her own power, and 
the brave veteran whom the Japanese could not sink 
ended a lifetime of service to the Navy when she was 
laid to rest by her own men. 

Canopus received one battle star for service in World 
War II. 


A destroyer tender (AD-33) under construction by 
Mare Island Navy Yard was assigned the name Canopus, 
but construction was canceled prior to launching. 

Canotia 

A tree of the bittersweet family. 

(AN-47: dp. 1,100; 1. 194'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13'6"; s. 12.1 k.; 
cpl. 56; a. 1 3"; cl. Ailanthus) 

Canotia (AN-47) was launched 4 July 1944 by 
Everett-Pacific Co., Everett, Wash.; sponsored by Mrs. 
F. Schmitz; commissioned 31 July 1944, Lieutenant 


Commander W. G. Holly, USNR, in command; and 
reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Canotia departed San Francisco October 1944 for 
Pearl Harbor where she arrived 16 October. She pro- 
vided target service to ships training at this great base 
until 5 February 1945, when she was outward bound for 
action waters. Arriving at Eniwetok 15 February, she 
reported for duty with the 5th Fleet, and sailed to Iwo 
Jima, where she had mooring and salvage duty from 28 
February to 12 April. The first portion of this duty 
came as bitter action raged ashore, and enemy air at- 
tacks still menaced American shipping. 

After routine repairs at Guam, Canotia arrived at 
Ulithi 14 June to install and maintain nets. After the 
Japanese surrender, Canotia cruised the small islands of 
the western Carolines searching for American and Allied 
ex-prisoners of war, or Japanese soldiers. She received 
the surrender of the garrison on Lamotrek, and de- 
stroyed a Japanese supply dump on Olimarao. Between 
23 September and 1 October, she removed net defenses 
at Ulithi and Kossol Roads, and on 26 October, cleared 
for San Diego where she was decommissioned 18 Febru- 
ary 1946, and sold 21 April 1947. 

Canotia received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Canton 

Cities in Illinois, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North 
Carolina, and Ohio. 

(AK: dp. 6,200; 1. 339'; b. 45'1"; dr. 19'8''; s. 8 k.; cpl. 

112; a. 1 4") 

Canton was launched in 1913 as Hercules by A. Yuick 
and Zonen, Holland; chartered to the Shipping Board on 
time charter between 18 February and 20 March 1918; 
seized by Customs officers at New York 20 March 1918 
and turned over to the Shipping Board who manned her 
until 12 June 1918; acquired by the Navy 12 June 1918; 
commissioned as Canton 18 June 1918, Lieutenant Com- 
mander O. Arnesen, USNRF, in command; and reported 
to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. 

After loading cargo at Brooklyn and Baltimore, Can- 
ton cleared Norfolk 13 July 1918 for Genoa, Italy, in 
convoy. After discharging aviation material for the 
Italian Ministry of Shipping, Canton called with her 
convoy at Corfu, Greece, and La Pallice, France, before 
taking departure from Gibraltar for New York City. 
From 18 September to 1 October, she discharged and 
reloaded cargoes, then sailed in convoy for Sydney, Nova 
Scotia, jumping-off place for Northern Atlantic convoys. 
On 8 October, she sailed for English ports, where she 
delivered cargo, and loaded supplies such as ammuni- 
tion, no longer needed in the war zone. She returned to 
New York 2 January 1919. 

Canton was returned to the Shipping Board at Nor- 
folk 11 March 1919, but continued to operate with a 
Navy crew. She loaded a cargo of general food supplies 
and grain at Baltimore, then sailed for Copenhagen, 
where she arrived 23 April. At Amsterdam, where she 
arrived 1 May, she was inspected and, on 10 May 1919, 
decommissioned and delivered to the Royal Netherlands 
Steamship Co. 

Canuck 

Canuck (YTB-379), built by Gulfport Boiler and 
Welding Works, Port Arthur, Texas, served in a non- 
commissioned status with Service Forces, Pacific Fleet, 
during World War II. Out of service from October 1946 
to December 1956, Canuck is presently assigned to the 
14th Naval District. 

Cap Finisterre 

Former name retained. 

(AP: dp. 14,457; 1. 560'; b. 65'4"; s. 16 k.; cpl. 450) 

27 


Cap Finisterre was launched in 1911 by Blohm and 
Voss, Hamburg, Germany; allocated to the Shipping 
Board by the Interallied Maritime Council after she was 
delivered under terms of the armistice by her German 
crew at Southend, England; and acquired and commis- 
sioned by the Navy at Southend 11 April 1919, Com- 
mander F. R. McCrary in command. 

Cap Finisterre departed Southend 12 April 1919 for 
Brest, France, where she embarked homeward-bound 
servicemen. She disembarked her passengers at New 
York 5 May, and between 17 May and 17 August, made 
three voyages between New York and Brest returning 
Army troops and civilians. On her first two east-bound 
passages she transported replacement troops for the 
Army of Occupation. 

Arriving at New York 17 August 1919, Cap Finisterre 
was towed to New York Navy Yard for survey and 
reconditioning. She was towed to Brooklyn 25 November 
1919, decommissioned, and returned to the Shipping 
Board the same day. 

Capable 

To have ability or fitness to carry out a task. 

(AM-155: dp. 630; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 10'; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 104; a. 1 3"; cl. Admirable) 

Capable (AM-155) was launched 16 November 1942 
by Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg. ; 
commissioned 5 December 1943, Lieutenant Commander 
W. C. Kunz, US NR, in command; and reported to the 
Pacific Fleet. 

Capable cleared San Francisco 8 February 1944 for 
Pearl Harbor and Majuro, arriving 9 March. Based 
there until October 1944, Capable served as convoy es- 
cort, voyaging to Pearl Harbor, Kwajalein, Tarawa, 
Eniwetok, Manus, and Makin. The ships, supplies, and 
men she guarded helped to build up the great fleet bases 
of the Pacific and carry the war west across the ocean 
through the stepping-stone island groups. 

Moving on to the more advanced base at Eniwetok, 
Capable served on local patrol and escort in the 
Marianas, and in February 1945 guarded a convoy to 
Ulithi as part of the intricate preparations for the mas- 
sive Iwo Jima assault. The minesweeper returned to 
Seattle, Wash., 6 April for overhaul, and on 11 July 
arrived at Cold Bay, Alaska, to train a Russian crew. 
Capable was decommissioned 16 August 1945 and trans- 
ferred to the Soviet Union under lend-lease. 

Cape 

A cape is a promontory. 

Cape (MSI-2) was launched by Bellingham Shipyard 
of Bellingham, Wash., on 5 April 1958. She was placed 
in service on 27 February 1959 and continues to operate 
with the Pacific Fleet. 

Cape Esperance 

Off Cape Esperance, Guadalcanal, at midnight on 11- 
12 October 1942, an American task force commanded by 
Rear Admiral Norman Scott defeated a Japanese force 
under Rear Admiral A. Goto, which was attemping to 
reinforce Guadalcanal. 

(CVE-88: dp. (f)10,400; 1. 512'3"; b. 65'2"; ew. 108'1"; 

dr. 22'6"; s. 20 k.; cpl. 860; a. 1 5''; cl. Casablanca ) 

Cape Esperance (CVE-88) (name changed from 
Tananek Bay on 6 November 1943) was launched 3 
March 1944 by Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. W. M. McDade; transferred to the Navy 9 April 
1944; and commissioned the same day, Captain R. W. 
Beckius in command. 


Assigned to the Pacific Fleet, Cape Esperance made 
two voyages from the west coast to South Pacific bases 
between 26 May 1944 and 20 September, carrying new 
aircraft out, and returning with planes needing repairs. 
Loaded with combat-ready aircraft, she sailed from San 
Francisco 5 October to join TG 30.8 on 2 November in 
its support of 3d Fleet air strikes on Leyte and Luzon. 
From her decks replacement aircraft roared off to the 
operating carriers, ready to take their part in pounding 
the Japanese out of the Philippines. Continuing to 
operate from Ulithi and Guam through January, Cape 
Esperance carried fresh aircraft to the far-ranging TF 
38 for its strikes on Japanese air bases on Formosa and 
the China coast. In February the escort carrier returned 
to the west coast to load new aircraft which she carried 
to Guam. This was the first of a series of such voyages 
in which she brought to the western Pacific a large 
number of the aircraft which roared over Iwo Jima, Oki- 
nawa, and the Japanese home islands in the massive 
carrier raids of the war’s last months. 

At the close of the war, Cape Esperance sailed from 
San Diego to Pearl Harbor, returning to San Francisco 
11 September 1945 with aircraft and passengers. She 
made similar voyages until decommissioned and placed 
in reserve at Bremerton, Wash., 22 August 1946. 

Recommissioned 5 August 1950, Cape Esperance re- 
ported to the Military Sea Transportation Service for 
duty as an aircraft transport. During the next 9 years, 
she cruised widely in the Pacific, delivering aircraft to 
Japan for use in the Korean conflict, supporting atomic 
tests at Eniwetok, and making two voyages to bring 
aircraft to the Royal Thai Air Force at Bangkok. In 
1952, she sailed to Hong Kong, to evacuate Chinese 
Nationalist aircraft in danger of seizure by the Chinese 
Communists. Reclassified CVU-88 on 12 June 1955, 
Cape Esperance made her first transatlantic crossing in 
1956 to ferry aircraft to and from Italy, France, and 
Portugal. Returning to the Pacific under an operating 
schedule that found her almost constantly at sea, Cape 
Esperance carried aircraft to Pakistan later in 1956. 
She continued to make as many as eight transpacific 
voyages in a year, supporting forces of the United 
States and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization coun- 
tries in protecting the free nations of the Far East. 
Cape Esperance was decommissioned 15 January 1959, 
and sold 14 May 1959. 

Cape Esperance received two battle stars for World 
War II service. 


Cape Gloucester 

At Cape Gloucester, New Guinea, on 26 November 
1943, the 7th Amphibious Force commanded by Rear 
Admiral D. E. Barbey successfully landed the 1st Marine 
Division under heavy enemy air attack. 

(CVE-109 : dp. 11,373; 1. 557'1"; b. 75'; ew. 105'2"; 
dr. 32'; s. 19 k.; cpl. 1,066; a. 2 5"; cl. Commencement 
Bay) 

Cape Gloucester (CVE-109) (name changed from 
Willapa Bay 26 April 1944) was launched 12 September 
1944 by Todd-Pacific Shipyards, Inc., Tacoma, Wash.; 
sponsored by Mrs. R. M. Griffin; commissioned 5 March 
1945, Captain J. W. Harris in command; and reported 
to the Pacific Fleet. 

After operational training at Pearl Harbor, Cape 
Gloucester arrived at Leyte, P.I., 29 June 1945 to join 
the 3d Fleet. Her planes flew combat air patrol fighting 
off Japanese suicide planes attempting to attack mine- 
sweepers operating east of Okinawa from 5 to 17 July. 
They then took part in air raids and photographic 
reconnaissance of shipping and airfields along the China 
coast until 7 August. During this time, her aircraft 
shot down several Japanese planes, and aided in damag- 
ing a 700-ton cargo ship. 

After a period covering minesweeping along the Japa- 


28 


nese coasts, and aiding in the recovery of Allied troops 
from prison camps on Kyushu, Cape Gloucester made 
four voyages returning servicemen from Okinawa and 
Pearl Harbor to the west coast. The escort carrier re- 
turned to Tacoma, Wash., 22 May 1946, and was placed 
out of commission in reserve there 5 November 1946. 
Still in reserve, she was reclassified CVHE-109 on 12 
June 1955, and further reclassified AKV-9 on 7 May 
1959. 

Cape Gloucester received one battle star for World 
War II service. 

Cape Henry- 

Cape Henry on the coast of Virginia was the landing 
place of the first permanent English settlers in the new 
world. 

(AK: dp. 10,505 (n.); 1. 391'9"; b. 52'; dr. 23'10"; s. 11 
k. ; cpl. 62; a. 1 6") 

Cape Henry (No. 3056), a cargo ship, was launched 
30 March 1918 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Spar- 
rows Point, Md.; transferred to the Navy 25 October 
1918; and commissioned the same day, Lieutenant Com- 
mander F. B. Rice, USNRF, in command. 

After repairs and conversion by Robins Drydock Co., 
Brooklyn, N.Y., Cape Henry sailed from New York 7 
December 1918 with supplies for the Army of Occupa- 
tion in Europe, which she delivered at Quiberon Bay and 
St. Nazaire, France. She returned to New York 20 
February 1919, was decommissioned 3 March 1919, and 
returned to the Shipping Board the same day. 

Cape Johnson 

A cape on the coast of Washington. 

( AP-172: dp. 5,668; 1. 417'9"; b. 60'; dr. 22'3"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 371; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cape Johnson) 

Cape Johnson (AP-172) was launched 20 February 
1943 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Ltd., Wilmington, 
Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; spon- 
sored by Mrs. A. C. Steward; converted to a troop trans- 
port by Los Angeles Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co.; 
acquired by the Navy and commissioned 1 June 1944, 
Commander L. C. Farley, USNR, in command; and re- 
ported to the Pacific Fleet. 

For the first 4 months of her service, Cape Johnson 
sailed among the Marianas and the bases of the South 
Pacific, redistributing Army and Marine Corps forces. 
On 31 October 1944 she reported to TF 79 at Hollandia, 
New Guinea, and 9 days later got underway in a re- 
supply echelon for the assault areas on Leyte, P.I. Sail- 
ing undamaged through a heavy enemy air attack on 13 
November, Cape Johnson successfully landed her men at 
Samar two days later, and returned to Manus to stage 
for the invasion of Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, P.I. 

Cape Johnson cleared Manus 28 December 1944, and 
on 7 January 1945 came under enemy air attack as the 
Japanese began 2 days of desperate strikes aimed at 
preventing the assault on Luzon. Her guns joined in the 
successful antiaircraft protection of the convoy, and on 
9 January, she landed her troops at White Beach. 

Cape Johnson trained at Ulithi and Guam for the Iwo 
Jima assault, for which she cleared with men and cargo 
of the 3d Marines. Steaming off the island from 19 
February 1945, D-day, until 27 March, Cape Johnson 
landed her men and cargo as they were required on the 
beach, while fighting back enemy air attacks. 

With the bitter fighting on the island over, Cape 
Johnson embarked men of the 5th Marines, whom she 
carried to Pearl Harbor. Sailing on to San Francisco, 
where she arrived 22 April 1945, Cape Johnson trans- 
ported troops from the west coast to Manila, and on 16 
August cleared the Philippines for Pearl Harbor. With 


occupation troops loaded there, the transport arrived at 
Wakayama, Honshu, Japan on 27 September, and then 
began transpacific crossings returning servicemen to 
the States. She was decommissioned 25 July 1946 and 
returned to her former owner the next day. 

Cape Johnson received two battle stars for World 
War II service. 

Cape Lookout 

Points on the coasts of both North Carolina and 
Washington. 

(AK: dp. 10,505; 1. 391'9"; b. 52'; dr. 23'11"; s. 11 k.; 
cpl. 62; a. 1 6", 1 3”) 

Cape Lookout (No. 3214) was launched in 1918 by 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Sparrows Point, Md.; 
acquired by the Navy 26 July 1918; commissioned the 
same day, Lieutenant Commander R. O. Herbert, 
USNRF, in command; and reported to the Naval Over- 
seas Transportation Service. 

Between 10 August and 12 December 1918, Cape Look- 
out made two transatlantic voyages between Baltimore 
and New York and French ports, carrying supplies for 
the American Expeditionary Force. The cargo ship 
sailed from Baltimore on 24 January 1919, carrying 
5,864 tons of flour to Trieste, Austria, as part of the 
relief assistance provided for the rebuilding of war- 
shattered Europe by the United States Food Adminis- 
tration. While homeward-bound Cape Lookout answered 
a distress call from US AT Melrose which had a disabled 
rudder. Cape Lookout took Melrose in tow for 2 days, 
until the latter could make repairs and proceed un- 
assisted. 

Cape Lookout returned to Baltimore 29 March 1919, 
and was decommissioned there 7 April 1919. She was 
returned to the Shipping Board the same day. 

Cape May 

A cape on the coast of New Jersey. 

(AP: dp. 14,469 (n.) ; 1. 428'8"; b. 53'6"; dr. 29'6"; s. 12 
k.; cpl. 52; a. 1 4") 

Cape May (No. 3520), a transport, was built in 1918 
by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd., Sparrows Point, 
Md.; transferred to the Navy 24 October 1918; and 
commissioned the following day, Lieutenant Commander 
H. R. O. Johnston, USNRF, in command. 

Cape May cleared Baltimore 8 November 1918 laden 
with general cargo for the American Expeditionary 
Force in France. At St. Nazaire, France, between 24 
November and 30 December, she loaded military supplies 
no longer required in the theater of war, and passengers 
for Newport News, where she arrived 15 January 1919. 
Cape May continued on to unload cargo at Baltimore, 
where she was converted for service as a troop trans- 
port. She made two voyages to France to bring service- 
men home to New York City, and on 24 August 1919 
arrived at Norfolk, Va., where she was decommissioned 
25 August 1919. Cape May was returned to the Shipping 
Board the same day. 

Cape May County, see LST—521. 

Cape Roniain 

A cape on the coast of South Carolina. 

(AK: dp. 10,505; 1. 391'9"; b. 52'; dr. 23'11"; s. 11 k.; 
cpl. 52; a. 1 6", 1 3"; cl. Cape Romain) 

Cape Romain (No. 2970) was launched as War Mer- 
cury 4 May 1918 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., 
Sparrows Point, Md. ; acquired from the Shipping Board 


29 


and commissioned as Cape Romain 25 June 1918, Lieu- 
tenant Commander H. E. Sanders, USNRF, in com- 
mand; and reported to the Naval Overseas Transporta- 
tion Service. 

Cape Romain stood out of Baltimore 29 June 1918 for 
New York, where she loaded cargo for Argentina. On 
13 July she sailed for La Plata and Buenos Aires, 
where she discharged and loaded cargo, returning to 
Boston 25 September. Between 15 October and 22 Feb- 
ruary 1919, Cape Romain made two voyages to French 
ports carrying supplies for the Army of Occupation. 
She was decommissioned at New York on 3 March 1919, 
and returned to the Shipping Board. 

Capelin 

A small fish of the smelt family. 

(SS-289: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k.; cpl. 66; a. 1 4", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato ) 

Capelin (SS-289) was launched 20 January 1943 by 
Portsmouth Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. I. C. Bogart; 
and commissioned 4 June 1943, Lieutenant Commander 
E. E. Marshall in command. 

Capelin sailed from New London, Conn., 3 September 
1943, bound for Brisbane, Australia, and duty with 
Submarine Force, Southwest Pacific. Her first war 
patrol, conducted in the Molucca, Flores, and Banda Seas 
between 30 October and 15 November, found her sinking 
a 3,127-ton Japanese cargo ship on 11 November off 
Ambon Island. 

Returning to Darwin, Australia, to refit, Capelin put 
out on her second war patrol 17 November 1943, eager 
for new successes in the same area as that in which her 
first patrol took place. Capelin was never heard from 
again ; radio silence was broken in the attempt to reach 
her on 9 December, but without success. Japanese 
records studied after the war listed an attack on a sup- 
posed United States submarine on 23 November, off 
Kaoe Bay, Halmahera, but the evidence of an actual 
contact was slight, and the action was incomplete. This 
is, however, the only reported attack in the appropriate 
area at that time. Gone without a trace, with all her 
gallant crew, Capelin must remain in the list of ships 
lost without a known cause. 

Capelin received one battle star for World War II 
service. Her single war patrol was “successful.” She is 
credited with having sunk 3,127 tons of shipping. 

Capella 

A first magnitude star in the constellation Auriga. 

( AK-13 : dp. 4,037; 1. 401'; b. 54'1"; dr. 24'5"; s. 11 k.; 
cpl. 271; a. 2 5", 4 3") 

Capella (AK-13) was built in 1920 as Comerant by 
American International Shipbuilding Corp., Hog Island, 
Pa., under a Shipping Board contract; acquired by the 
Navy 20 November 1921; and commissioned 8 December 
1921, Lieutenant Commander S. W. Hickey, USNRF, in 
command. 

Capella arrived at San Diego, Calif., 19 March 1922 
to carry cargo along the west coast until July, when 
she returned to the east coast for similar duty in the 
next 4 months. Back in California waters in November, 
Capella sailed to Japan in October 1923 to bring food 
and medical supplies, donated by American citizens, as 
well as water for the relief of earthquake-desolated 
Yokohama. 

The cargo ship resumed west coast operations until 
February 1924 when she returned to Norfolk, Va. 
Capella was decommissioned and placed in reserve there 
1 September 1924. She was recommissioned 10 Novem- 
ber 1938, and resumed supply runs along the east and 
west coast in alternate periods, on occasion penetrating 
Alaskan waters. 


As war threatened and the United States began the 
buildup of Western Hemisphere bases acquired from the 
British, Capella was recalled to the east coast late in 
September 1940. The veteran cargo ship furrowed east 
coast waters, supporting bases from the Canal Zone to 
Newfoundland with cargoes brought from Atlantic ports 
until 1944. In June she cleared on the first of four 
transatlantic convoy crossings to Scotland, and North 
and West Africa, all so safely guarded as to be made 
without incident. Capella returned to Caribbean cargo 
duty in June 1945, and on 30 November 1945 was de- 
commissioned at Norfolk, Va. She was transferred to 
the War Shipping Administration in July 1946. 

Caperton 

Born in 1850 in Spring Hill, Tenn., William B. Caper- 
ton graduated from the Naval Academy in 1875. He 
held major posts ashore and afloat, chief of which were 
commanding the naval forces intervening in Haiti 
(1915-16) and Santo Domingo (1916), and Commander- 
in-Chief, Pacific Fleet, from 28 July 1916 to 30 April 
1919. He served actively until 12 November 1921, and 
died in Newport, R.I., 12 December 1941. 

(DD-650 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'7"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 
k.; cpl. 319; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

Fletcher) 

Caperton (DD-650) was launched 22 May 1943 by 
Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; sponsored by Miss M. 
Caperton; and commissioned 30 July 1943, Commander 
W. J. Miller in command. 

Caperton sailed from Boston 8 October 1943 for Pearl 
Harbor, where she arrived 6 November to begin the 
operations which would stamp her as one of the “fight- 
ingest” destroyers of the Pacific theater. After deliver- 
ing explosives at Funafuti, Ellice Islands, 28-29 No- 
vember, the destroyer covered the Gilbert Islands 
through patrol until 8 January 1944, when she put back 
to Pearl Harbor. Here she joined the screen of mighty 
TF 58 with whom she steamed in the intensive series of 
operations which marked the advance of the Navy across 
the Pacific. On 30 January 1944, Caperton joined in the 
bombardment of Kwajalein, and from her base at Ma- 
juro, took part in the air strikes on Truk and Saipan in 
February. 

Caperton cleared Espiritu Santo 15 March 1944 for 
the air operations covering the invasion of Emirau 
Island, then sailed for the stunning blows hurled from 
the air at the Japanese on Palau, Yap, Woleai, and 
Ulithi late in March. Tireless TF 58 continued the 
crescendo pace of its attacks, and in April Caperton 
screened air strikes preparatory to the invasion of Hol- 
landia, saw the force’s planes hit Truk once more, and 
blasted at Satawan and Ponape in shore bombardment. 

On 6 June 1944, Caperton sortied from Majuro for the 
Marianas operation, which culminated in the fury of the 
Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June. Screen- 
ing as the American carriers launched the strikes which 
would cripple Japanese naval aviation, Caperton inter- 
posed her blazing antiaircraft fire between enemy air 
attacks and the irreplaceable carriers. Moving on to 
cover the attacks preparatory to the return of United 
States forces to Guam, Caperton sailed close inshore to 
provide lifeguard services for carrier strikes, and on 25 
June braved the fire of enemy shore batteries to shell 
and sink a cargo ship in Apra Harbor. Through July, 
she operated in the Marianas, and late in the month 
screened air strikes on Yap and Palau. 

Caperton got underway from Eniwetok 30 August 
1944 to rendezvous with TF 38 for the well-planned 
bombardments and air strikes which naved the way for 
the return to the Philippines. The Palaus, Mindanao, 
Visayas, and Luzon were blasted from the air, while 
Peleliu, Angaur, and the Ngesebus felt the might of the 
force’s guns. The destroyer replenished at Ulithi, and 


30 


resumed screening duty for the strikes intended to deny 
the Japanese the use of their bases on Okinawa and 
Formosa in the forthcoming Leyte invasion. In the 3- 
day Formosa air battle which resulted, Canberra (CA- 
70) and Houston (CL-81) were torpedoed from the air. 
Caperton was assigned to screen the cripples to safety, 
and to guard them while they were used as bait in the 
effort to bring the Japanese surface units into battle. 
When the stricken cruisers were safely out of range of 
enemy air attack, Caperton returned to screen TF 38 in 
the air strikes of the decisive Battle for Leyte Gulf, 
which developed from the all-out efforts of the Japanese 
to break up the Leyte landings. Strikes flown from the 
carriers of Caperton’s group inflicted the final losses on 
the Japanese Center Force, and she with others pursued 
the retreating Japanese north, without making surface 
contact. 

Continued operations supporting the invasion of the 
Philippines kept Caperton at sea from her base at 
Ulithi. When Reno (CL-96) was torpedoed on 4 Novem- 
ber 1944, Caperton took her injured and other survivors 
on board, and after weathering the furious typhoon of 18 
December, she steamed for air strikes on Formosa, 
Luzon, Camranh Bay, Hong Kong, Canton, and Oki- 
nawa. 

An overhaul on the west coast prepared the destroyer 
for picket duty off Okinawa through May and June 1945. 
The desperate Japanese suicide air attacks made radar 
picket duty off embattled Okinawa one of the most 
dangerous duties of the war, but Caperton served her 
tour unscathed; constantly vigilant both to protect her- 
self and provide for effective use of her radar warning 
equipment. 

On 29 June 1945, Caperton rejoined TF 38 for the 
final air strikes on the Japanese home islands, which 
continued until the close of the war. After several 
months of occupation duty at Tokyo, Caperton returned 
to the east coast of the United States, where she was 
decommissioned at Charleston, S.C., 6 July 1949. 

The battle-tried veteran was recommissioned 6 April 
1951, as the fleet was augmented to meet the threat 
posed by the Korean War. With Newport as her home 
port, Caperton operated locally until the fall of 1952, 
when she sailed to northern Europe for North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization Operation “Mainbrace.” After 
preparing by fleet exercises in the Caribbean early in 
1953, Caperton cleared Newport 27 April for the Pan- 
ama Canal and duty in the Far East, arriving at Yoko- 
suka, Japan 2 June for duty with TFs 77 and 95. With 
the first, she screened air strikes on Chinese and North 
Korean Communists; with the second, she took part in 
the blockade and bombardment of Korea’s coast. After 
further hunter-killer operations off Korea, she sailed on 
9 October to call at the Philippines, Singapore, Colombo, 
Suez, Cannes, and Lisbon, thus rounding the world 
before her return to Newport 21 May 1954. 

Five months of operations with North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization forces in northern Europe in 1954, 
and a good-will visit to Guayaquil, Ecuador, in 1955 
highlighted a period of local operations and training 
which preceded Caperton’s patrol operations in the At- 
lantic during the Suez crisis of November 1956. On 21 
January 1957, Caperton sailed for a tour of duty with 
the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean during which she 
sailed with the carrier striking force in the eastern 
Mediterranean during the Jordan crisis. Returning to 
Newport in June, the destroyer’s next lengthy deploy- 
ment was her participation from 3 September to 27 
November in North Atlantic Treaty Organization Oper- 
ation “Strikeback” in the North Atlantic and Mediter- 
ranean. Operations off the east coast, in the Caribbean, 
with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean (including visits 
to Red Sea and Persian Gulf ports), and combined oper- 
ations with Canadian forces continued through 1959. 
Caperton was placed out of commission in reserve at 
Norfolk, Va., on 27 April 1960. 


Caperton received 10 battle stars for World War II 
service, and 1 for service in the Korean War. 

Capidoli, see Dentuda 

Capistrano, Mission, see Mission Capistrano 

Capitaine 

A brilliantly colored fish inhabiting waters of the 
Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina to Panama. 

(SS-336: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 66; a. 1 5", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Capitaine (SS-336) was launched 1 October 1944 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
J. A. Rondomanski; commissioned 26 January 1945, 
Lieutenant Commander E. S. Friedrick in command; and 
assigned to the Pacific Fleet. 

Capitaine got underway from New London 7 March 
1945 to arrive at Pearl Harbor 15 April. On 6 May, she 
cleared for her first war patrol, off the coast of Indo- 
china north of Saigon. Enemy targets were disappoint- 
ingly few for a new submarine, for the Navy had almost 
completely swept the sea of Japanese shipping by this 
time. On 16 June, she rescued from the sea five Japa- 
nese survivors of a merchant ship previously sunk by 
other forces. After refueling at Subic Bay, Capitaine 
continued her patrol south of Borneo in the Java Sea. 
On 30 June, she joined Baya (SS-318) in a concerted 
gun attack on five small enemy craft, one of which she 
sank after its crew had abandoned it. 

Refitted at Fremantle, Australia, Capitaine sailed for 
her second war partol, arriving in her assigned area 
just 3 days before hostilities ended. She returned to the 
west coast in September 1945, but in January 1946 was 
bound for the Far East once more, training in Philippine 
waters through March. A month of operations at Pearl 
Harbor preceded her return to San Diego, from which, 
after an overhaul, she made two simulated war patrols 
in 1947 and 1948, and conducted local training and serv- 
ices. The submarine was decommissioned and placed in 
reserve at Mare Island Naval Shipyard 10 February 
1950. 

Capitaine was recommissioned 23 February 1957, and 
reported to the Pacific Fleet a month later. From her 
base at San Diego, she took part in training, served 
other fleet units as target in antisubmarine exercises, 
and training reservists, as well as voyaging to the Far 
East for 7th Fleet duty, through 1960. On 1 July 1960 
Capitaine was reclassified AG(SS)-336. 

Capitaine received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Capps 

Born in Portsmouth, Va., 31 January 1864, Washing- 
ton Lee Capps graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy 
in 1884. He studied naval architecture at the University 
of Glasgow, and in 1888 was appointed Assistant Naval 
Constructor. He served on the staff of Admiral George 
Dewey during the Battle of Manila Bay, and later be- 
came Chief of the Bureau of Construction and Repair. 
During World War I, he was senior member of the Navy 
Compensation Board and General Manager of the U.S. 
Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation. He re- 
tired 31 January 1928, and died in Washington, D.C., 
31 May 1935. 

(DD-550: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 273; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

Fletcher) 

Capps (DD-550) was launched 31 May 1942 by Gulf 
Shipbuilding Corp., Chickasaw, Ala.; sponsored by Mrs. 


31 


C. G. Stokes; commissioned 23 June 1943, Lieutenant 
Commander B. E. S. Trippensee in command; and re- 
ported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Capps cleared New York 7 September 1943 to begin 
the operations which would see her fighting the Axis 
powers on both sides of the world, sailing in convoy for 
Scapa Flow, Scotland. She arrived 17 September for 
exercises with the British Home Fleet. In a mixed task 
force of American and other Allied ships, led by Ranger 
(CV-4), Capps stood out of Scapa Flow 3 October to 
cross the Arctic Circle for the first raid on German 
shipping at Norway’s port of Bodo, where coal and iron 
ore were loaded for Germany. Ships and docks were left 
burning and sinking, and Capps returned to Scapa Flow 
unscathed by German air attack. On 7 October, Capps 
sailed with three other destroyers in a dash to Gibraltar, 
from which they escorted two British battleships and 
two carriers back to Scapa Flow. Thus augmented, the 
Home Fleet, with Capps in company, swept into northern 
waters from 29 October to 8 November to guard the 
movement of a convoy for Murmansk, and to hunt for 
German battleships Von Tirpitz and Schamhorst. 

Capps was detached at Scapa Flow 22 November 1943 
and sailed to Boston, arriving 4 December. Twenty days 
later she got underway for New Orleans, where she 
joined the escort of a troop convoy bound for Pearl 
Harbor, arriving 20 January 1944. Guarding another 
convoy, Capps sailed on to Funafuti, from which she put 
out for partol duty off Tarawa, Makin, and Kwajalein 
as these islands were assaulted to open the Marshall Is- 
lands operation. Forced back to San Francisco by a 
boiler casualty, Capps returned to action at Majuro 23 
April, and was assigned to area escort, antisubmarine, 
and antiaircraft patrols. Convoy duty took her to Pearl 
Harbor in May, returning to Eniwetok 14 June. Based 
there, the destroyer screened service forces supporting 
the invasion of the Marianas, then moved forward to 
Manus in August to continue operations with the screen 
of the 3d Fleet logistics group in the western Caro- 
lines operations. The ships whose service forces Capps 
protected carried out the crucial attacks on Japanese 
bases which prepared for the Leyte operation, and Capps 
herself joined the screen of a carrier group for air 
strikes on Manila on 25 November. She continued her 
activities with the 3d Fleet until the close of the year, 
when she reported for a month of duty on radar picket 
station, in air-sea rescue, and escorting convoys from 
Sainan to Guam, Eniwetok, and Ulithi. On 1 February 
1945, she reported at Ulithi to train with underwater 
demolition teams for the invasion of Iwo Jima, for which 
she sailed 14 February. 

Arriving off Iwo Jima 16 February 1945, Capps fired 
in the intensive preinvasion bombardment. Her under- 
water demolition teams were skillfully landed and began 
their work of preparing the beaches for assault, and 
Capps remained on the firing line for 3 weeks, hurling 
more than 2,600 five-inch projectiles into the caves and 
hillsides of the tenaciously defended island. Her anti- 
aircraft guns fought off almost nightly air attacks and 
bombing raids, and each night almost constant illumina- 
tion fire was thrown up to prevent surprise attacks 
ashore. 

With only 8 days of resupply behind her, Capps sailed 
in the screen of escort carriers bound for the invasion of 
Okinawa. For the next 82 days, broken only by 6 hours 
at anchor in Kerama Retto, Capps sailed through the 
mined waters south of the Nansei Shoto, guarding the 
escort carriers, rescuing downed aviators, and fighting 
back the Japanese kamikaze attacks. Although a kami- 
kaze exploded close aboard on 3 April 1945, Capps came 
through the operation unscathed, and was able to con- 
tinue the alertness and vigilance which made her an 
indispensable part of her group. Ordered back to a 
stateside overhaul, Capps arrived at San Pedro, Calif., 
9 July. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve 
at Long Beach 15 January 1947, and was loaned to 


Spain under the Military Assistance Program 15 May 
1957. She continues to serve in the Spanish Navy as 
Lepanto. 

Capps received seven battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Capps, Admiral W . L., see Admiral W. L. Capps 


Caprice 

A whim. 

I 

(SP: 1. 45'10"; dr. 5'; s. 9 k.; cpl. 9; a. 1 1-pdr.) 

The first Caprice (No. 703), a motor boat free leased 
to the Navy, was commissioned on 24 August 1917, 
Ensign C. H. Burnett, USNRF, in command. Assigned 
to the 5th Naval District she performed inshore patrol 
duty in that area during World War I. She was placed 
out of commission on 24 January 1919 and returned to 
her owner. 

II 

The second Caprice (PG-90), formerly CN-308, was 
launched 28 September 1942, by Kingston Shipbuilding 
Co., Kingston, Ontario, Canada, for the United States 
Navy. Upon completion, Caprice was transferred to the 
Royal Navy on 28 May 1943 and commissioned as HMS 
Honesty. On 5 January 1946 she was returned to the 
United States Navy. Never commissioned in the United 
States Navy, Caprice was sold on 10 December 1946. 

Capricornus 

A southern zodiacal constellation. 

( AKA-57 : dp. 6,830; 1. 459'2"; b. 63'; dr. 26'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 429; a. 1 5”; cl. Achemar) 

Capricornus (AKA-57) was launched 14 August 1943 
as Spitfire by Moore Drydock Co., Oakland, Calif., under 
a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. 
•J. E. Mock; acquired by the Navy 25 November 1943; 
placed in partial commission the same day; decommis- 
sioned 29 November 1943 and converted by Willamette 
Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg. ; and commissioned 
in full 31 May 1944, Commander B. F. McGuckin, 
USNR, in command. 

Capricornus made two voyages to carry cargo between 
San Pedro, Calif., and Hilo, Hawaii, from 22 July to 19 
August 1944, then sailed by way of Eniwetok and Manus 
for the invasion of Leyte. Cruising with the Southern 
Attack Force, she entered the Gulf uneventfully, began 
landing her cargo in the first landings on 20 October, 
and worked furiously under enemy air attack to com- 
plete unloading and withdraw. Safely underway on 24 
October, she withdrew to Hollandia, then sailed to 
Wakde, where she loaded Army reinforcements. As she 
steamed north to bring her reinforcements to Leyte, 
there were several air raid alerts on 13 November, and 
Capricornus joined in splashing the lone torpedo plane 
which attacked her group. She returned from Leyte to 
Manus 19 November to take part in rehearsals for the 
invasion of Lingayen Gulf. 

Clearing Manus in TF 79’s Attack Group “Baker” for 
Lingayen, Capricornus with her group came under des- 
perate enemy air attack at sunset on 8 January 1945, 
when a kamikaze severely damaged Kitkun Bay (CVE- 
71). As scattered individual enemy aircraft continued to 
attack, Capricornus’ guns joined in driving them away. 
The landings took place on schedule 9 January, although 
sporadic attacks by Japanese aircraft and small ships 
continued. Just before sunrise the next day, Capricornus 
was straddled by two bombs close aboard, spraying her 


32 


with shrapnel, but no serious damage was inflicted. 
Capriconus returned to Leyte Gulf 13 January and con- 
tinued to support Philippine operations, landing troops 
and equipment at San Antonio on 26 January, and serv- 
icing landing craft. She sailed out of Leyte Gulf 27 
March, bound for the beaches of Okinawa. 

In the grey dawn of 1 April 1945, Capricomus arrived 
at the invasion scene, laden primarily with ammunition. 
For the next 8 days, her men labored to deliver her 
priority cargo, while manning antiaircraft guns almost 
continually as furious Japanese air attacks were hurled 
at the invasion forces. Night retirements, and days off 
the beaches were the rule until 9 April, when she cleared 
for Seattle, Wash., and overhaul. 

Capricomus sailed from San Francisco 2 June 1945 
with cargo for Eniwetok, Guam, and Espiritu Santo, at 
which island she heard the word of Japanese surrender. 
Carrying occupation troops, she stood in to Nagasaki 
23 September, then sailed to Manila and Hong Kong to 
load Chinese troops for the reoccupation of Northern 
China. Similar support of the occupation continued 
until 11 December when she arrived at Seattle. 

Between 8 February 1946 and 2 November 1947, 
Capricomus carried cargo on four voyages to the Far 
East, and on 16 November sailed for Norfolk, Va. Here 
she was placed out of commission in reserve 30 March 
1948. 

With the expansion of the fleet dictated by the out- 
break of the Korean War, Capricomus was recommis- 
sioned 12 October 1950. Through 1960, she operated 
from Norfolk in training and exercises in Chesapeake 
Bay and in the Caribbean, along with five periodic 
deployments to the Mediterranean for service with the 
6th Fleet. Notable in her operations have been her 
rescue and salvage assistance to the burning Searcher 
(YAGR-4) on 13 November 1955, followed by the dif- 
ficult towing of the rescued ship to Brooklyn for repairs. 
In July 1958, Capricomus supported the landing of 
Marines in Lebanon which forestalled a serious Middle 
Eastern eruption. 

Capricomus received four battle stars for World 
War II service. 


Captain Arlo L. Olson 
Former name retained. 

Captain Arlo L. Olson (AK-245) was acquired from 
the Army on 1 March 1950 and immediately transferred 
to the Military Sea Transportation Service for per- 
manent assignment. She was stricken from the Navy 
List on 22 May 1958. 


Captiva 

An island off the coast of Florida. 

Captiva (YFB-25) was launched on 13 January 1944 
by Cape May Shipbuilding, Inc., Cape May, N. J., and 
placed in service on 11 May 1944. She was assigned to 
the 5th Naval District where she performed ferrying 
duties until 14 August 1946 when she was transferred 
to the Severn River Naval Command. Captiva was 
stricken from the Navy List on 19 February 1948 and 
sold. 

Captivate 

To fascinate or charm. 

(AM-156: dp. 630; I. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 10'; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 104; a. 1 3"; cl. Admirable ) 

Captivate (AM-156) was launched 1 December 1942 
by Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg. ; 
commissioned 30 December 1943, Lieutenant B. J. Kocel, 
USNR, in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 


Captivate stood out of San Francisco 11 March 1944, 
bound for Pearl Harbor and Majuro, where she arrived 
10 April. Until 22 September she operated at this for- 
ward base for western Pacific operations as harbor 
entrance patrol and pilot vessel, occasionally escorting 
convoys to the other islands of the Marshalls group. 
Through 14 October, she escorted convoys in the Mari- 
anas and patrolled off Tinian. 

Patrol and escort duties in the newly captured Palau 
Islands occupied Captivate between 23 October 1944 and 
3 February 1945. Similar duty at Eniwetok through the 
remainder of February ended Captivate’ s combat area 
service under the American flag. 

Arriving at Portland, Oreg., 27 March 1945, she sailed 
on to Seattle, where she aided in training programs until 
6 July. Clearing for Cold Bay, Alaska, she trained a 
Russian crew, and was decommissioned 16 August 1945 
at Cold Bay. Transferred to the Soviet Union under 
lend lease the same day, she remains in Russian custody. 

Captor 

One who captures. 

(AM-132: dp. 520; 1. 133'7"; b. 26'1"; dph. 12'8"; cpl. 

47; a. 1 4") 

Eagle (AM-132) was built in 1938 by Bethlehem 
Steel Co., Quincy, Mass., as Harvard (later renamed 
Wave) ; purchased by the Navy 1 January 1942; and 
commissioned as Eagle 5 March 1942, Lieutenant Com- 
mander L. F. Rogers, USNR, in command. 

The minesweeper was refitted as a Q-ship and re- 
classified PYC-40 on 18 April 1942 when her name was 
also changed to Captor. Ingeniously disguised as a fish- 
ing trawler, she sailed out of Boston throughout the 
war, her dangerous mission that of luring U-boats 
within range of her guns. While such a scheme had 
achieved some success when used by the British in 
World War I, the German Navy had become wary of just 
this sort of trap. Captor cruised diligently in known 
submarine areas but made no contacts. She was decom- 
missioned 4 October 1944, and sold through the War 
Shipping Administration 21 February 1945. 

Caracara 

A large South American hawk. 

Caracara (AMC-40) was launched on 23 August 1941 
by the Bristol Yacht Building Co., South Bristol, Maine. 
She was placed in service on 30 December 1941, and 
after training with Experimental Minesweeping Group, 
Mine Warfare School, reported to the 10th Naval Dis- 
trict where she engaged in minesweeping activities 
around the West Indies. She was stricken from the 
Navy Register on 21 January 1946. 

Carascan 

A former Indian village connected with Mission 
Dolores, San Francisco, Calif. 

Carascan (YTB-511) was launched by the Commercial 
Iron Works, Portland, Oreg., on 11 August 1945. She 
was placed in service in March 1946 and assigned to the 
11th Naval District where she continues to render serv- 
ice to the Fleet. 

Caravan 

A company of travelers. 

(AM-157: dp. 630; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 10'; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 104; a. 1 3"; cl. Admirable) 

Caravan (AM-157) was launched 27 October 1942 by 
Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg., and 


33 


commissioned 21 January 1944, Lieutenant C. E. 
Walden, USNR, in command. 

Caravan stood out of San Francisco 25 March 1944, 
bound for Pearl Harbor, Majuro, and Eniwetok. The 
minesweeper arrived at Eniwetok 25 April to operate on 
patrol, lifeguard for aviators downed in carrier strikes, 
and convoy escort. Her escort duties took her through- 
out the Marianas, and in September she was based at 
Guam. Riding out a severe typhoon en route, Caravan 
sailed to Ulithi in October, to begin operations in the 
Palaus as well as the Marianas. 

Caravan’s effective support of fleet operations ended 
in May 1945, when she reported at Portland, Oreg., for 
overhaul. In July she arrived at Cold Bay, Alaska, to 
train a Russian crew, and on 16 August 1945, she was 
decommissioned and transferred to the Soviet Union 
under lend-lease. She remains in Russian hands. On 
7 February 1955 she was reclassified MSF-157. 

Carbonero 

A salt water fish found in the West Indies. 

( SS-337 : dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k.; cpl. 66; a. 1 5", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Carbonero (SS-337) was launched 19 October 1944 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn. ; sponsored by Mrs. 
S. S. Murray; and commissioned 7 February 1945, Com- 
mander C. L. Murphy in command. 

Sailing from New London 21 March 1945, Carbonero 
served with the Fleet Sonar School at Key West, and 
conducted torpedo exercises at Balboa, C.Z., before ar- 
riving at Pearl Harbor 9 May. Her first war patrol, 
conducted off Formosa from 26 May to 8 July, was de- 
voted to lifeguard duty, standing by for possible rescue 
of aviators downed in carrier strikes. After refitting at 
Subic Bay, Carbonero cleared for the Gulf of Siam on 4 
August, and cruising off the east coast of the Malay 
Peninsula, sank four schooners, two sampans, and two 
junks, some of the small remnants of the Japanese mer- 
chant fleet. This second war patrol ended with the cease 
fire order on 15 August, and Carbonero put back to 
Subic Bay. 

Carbonera reported at Seattle, Wash., 22 September 
1945 for operations on the west coast. After a simulated 
war patrol to the Far East early in 1947, she was as- 
signed to the guided missile program, as a control vessel 
operating out of San Diego and Port Hueneme, Calif. 
Fitted to launch missiles in May 1949, and with a 
snorkel in 1951, Carbonero operated off Southern Cali- 
fornia, and occasionally in the Hawaiian Islands. From 
1952 to 1957, the submarine performed important service 
in the evaluation of the “Regulus” missile. Since 13 
May 1957, her home port has been Pearl Harbor. From 
this base she made an Arctic familiarization cruise in 
1957, and in 1958 and 1959-60, cruised to the Far East. 
She has assisted in the training of forces of the Republic 
of Korea and of Japan, and called at ports of Japan and 
the Philippines during these deployments. 

Carbonero received one battle star for service in 
World War II. One of her two war patrols was desig- 
nated as “successful.” 

Card 

Card Sound, a continuation of Biscayne Bay, is south 
of Miami, Fla. 

(ACV-11: dp. 9,800; 1. 495'8"; b. 69'6"; ew. 111'6"; dr. 

26'; s. 17 k.; cpl. 890; a. 2 5"; cl. Bogue) 

Card (ACV-11) was launched as AVG-11 21 Febru- 
ary 1942 by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbulding Corp., Tacoma, 
Wash., under a Maritime Commission contract; spon- 
sored by Mrs. J. Perry, reclassified ACV-11, 20 August 
1942; and commissioned 8 November 1942, Captain J. B. 
Sykes in command. 


Departing San Diego 18 January 1943, Card arrived 
at Hampton Roads 1 February for training in Chesa- 
peake Bay. She ferried aircraft and troops for the 
North African invasion from New York to Casablanca 
(14 May-1 June) returning to Norfolk 5 July. She was 
reclassified CVE-11 on 15 July 1943. Card steamed from 
Norfolk as flagship of TG 21.14, one of the hunter-killer 
groups formed for offensive operations against German 
submarines. Her first cruise from 27 July to 10 Sep- 
tember 1943 was very successful. Her planes sank 
U-117 on 7 August in 39°32' N., 38°21' W. ; U-664 on 9 
August in 40°12' N., 37°29' W.; U-525 on 11 August in 
41°29' N., 38°55' W.; and U-847 on 27 August in 28°19' 
N., 37°58' W. Her second cruise from 25 September to 
9 November provided even more lucrative hunting. 
Planes from Card spotted a nest of four submarines 
refueling 4 October and sank two of them: U—A60 in 
43°13' N., 28°58' W., and U-A22 in 43°18' N., 28°58' W. 
Nine days later in 48°56' N., 29°41' W., U-U02 fell vic- 
tim to aircraft from Card. Her airplanes addded an- 
other submarine to their score on 31 October when they 
sank U-58U in 49°14' N., 31°55' W. The fifth and final 
kill of the cruise was made on 1 November by one of 
Card’s escorts. After a violent, close-range surface 
action, Borie (DD-215) rammed and sank U-U05 in 
50°12' N., 30°48' W. Too badly damaged to be saved, 
Borie had to be sunk by one of the other escorts. For 
her outstanding antisubmarine activities from 27 July 
to 25 October, Card and her task group were awarded 
the Presidential Unit Citation. 

Card began her third hunter-killer cruise 24 Novem- 
ber heading for the North Atlantic. Late on 23 Decem- 
ber the group ran into a wolf pack; Card had 12 
contacts in 5 hours. Schenck (DD-159) sank TJ-6A5 in 
45° 20' N., 21° 40' W., but one of the other escorts Leary 
(DD-158) was sunk by the combined efforts of three 
submarines in 45° 00' N., 22° 00' W. Card dodged sub- 
marines all night with only Decatur (DD-341) as screen, 
while Schenck rescued survivors from Leary. The task 
group returned to Norfolk 2 January 1944. 

From 18 March to 17 May Card operated on transport 
duty between Norfolk and Casablanca, then underwent 
overhaul until 4 June when she steamed for Quonset 
Point to hold pilot qualification exercises. She returned 
to Norfolk 21 June to serve as the nucleus of TG 22.10. 
The hunter-killer unit departed Norfolk 25 June and on 
5 July two of her escorts, Thomas (DE— 102) and Baker 
(DE-190), sank U-233 in 42° 16' N., 59°49' W. Thirty 
survivors including the fatally wounded commanding 
officer of the submarine were taken on board Card who 
put them ashore at Boston the next day. 

Her next antisubmarine cruise was in the Caribbean 
and uneventful (10 July-23 August). She sortied 18 
September as flagship of TG 22.2 for patrol off the 
Azores during which she cooperated with British Escort 
Group 9 to attack a submarine 12 October. After an- 
other patrol with TG 22.2 (1 December 1944—22 January 
1945), Card entered Philadelphia Naval Shipyard for 
overhaul until 7 February, then transported Army air- 
craft and Army and Navy personnel to Liverpool, re- 
turning to Norfolk 12 March. From 21 March to 24 
May Card was based on Quonset Point, conducting car- 
rier pilot qualifications. She ferried men and aircraft 
to Guantanamo Bay (21-24 June), then transited the 
Panama Canal to transport materiel to Pearl Harbor 
and Guam, returning to San Diego 14 August 1945. 
Assigned to “Magic Carpet” duty she made two voyages 
to Pearl Harbor and one to the western Pacific from 21 
August to 16 December 1945, returning servicemen to 
the west coast. Card departed Alameda 7 January 1946 
for the east coast where she was placed out of commis- 
sion in reserve at Norfolk 13 May 1946. She was re- 
classified CVHE-11, 12 June 1955; CVU-11, 1 July 
1958; and AKV-40, 7 May 1959. 

In addition to her Presidential Unit Citation, Card 
received three battle stars for service in World War II. 


34 


Cardinal 

A crested red finch widely known in the eastern 
United States. 

I 

(AM-6: dp. 950; 1. 187'10"; b. 35'6"; dr. 9'9"; s. 14 k.; 
cpl. 78; a. 2 3"; cl. Lapwing) 

Cardinal (AM-6) was launched 29 March 1918 by 
Staten Island Shipbuilding Co., New York; sponsored 
by Miss I. Nelson; and commissioned 23 August 1918, 
Lieutenant (junior grade) N. Drake in command. 

Cardinal served in the 3d Naval District, sweeping 
waters off New York and serving as a temporary light- 
ship, until 3 August 1919, when she sailed to join the 
Pacific Fleet. For the next 3 years, she sailed out of 
San Diego and San Pedro, carrying supplies, provisions 
and passengers along the California coast, and towing 
lighters, targets, and disabled ships. 

From 8 February 1923 to 16 April, Cardinal sailed to 
the Panama Canal to provide tug services during fleet 
battle practice. She returned to San Pedro to prepare 
for duty in Alaskan waters, and on 23 May sailed for 
Port Angeles, Washington, where she called from 30 
May to 1 June. While bound for Dutch Harbor on 6 
June she grounded on a reef off the east coast of 
Chirikof Island, and heavy flooding began immediately. 
Some of her men were landed on the island, where they 
were later taken off by a Coast and Geodetic Survey 
ship. The rest were rescued from the battered Cardinal 
7 June by Cuyama (AO-3), who also took off salvagable 
material and stores. 

II 

(AM-67: dp. 425; 1. 136'4"; b. 24'; dr. 9'; s. 10 k.; 
a. 1 3”) 

The second Cardinal (AM-67) was built in 1937 by 
Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine, as Jeanne D’Arc; 
acquired by the Navy 19 August 1940; and commis- 
sioned 2 November 1940, Lieutenant J. E. Smith, Jr., in 
command. 

Cardinal served in the 5th Naval District for four 
years, patrolling and sweeping coastal waters from Nor- 
folk, Va., to Cape May, N.J. She was decommissioned 
at Norfolk 8 September 1944, and transferred to the 
War Shipping Administration for disposal 29 August 
1945. 


The construction of Cardinal (AM-393) was cancelled 

I November 1945 before launching. 

Ill 

YMS-179 (q.v.) was reclassified AMS-4 and assigned 
the name Cardinal on 18 February 1947. 

Cardinal O'Connell 
Former name retained. 

Cardinal O’Connell (T-AKV-7) served with the Army 
Transportation Corps, and was acquired by the Navy in 
December 1949 for transfer to the Military Sea Trans- 
portation Service in March 1950. Between March 1950 
and January 1954 she made trips to the Gulf Coast, most 
of the major islands of the Pacific and to the Far East 
with cargo to support the United Nations in the Korean 
campaign. She was stricken from the Navy Register on 

II March 1954. 


Cariama 

A specie of bird. 

Cariama (AM-354) was cancelled prior to completion 
on 1 November 1945. 


Carib 

An Indian of the most important of the Cariban tribes 
inhabiting South and Central America. 

I 

(AK: dp. 3,800; 1. 251'; b. 43’6"; dr. 18'3"; a. 1 5", 1 3") 

The first Carib (No. 1765), a cargo ship, was built in 
1916 by Detroit Shipbuilding Co., Detroit, Mich.; con- 
verted by Norfolk Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Nor- 
folk, Va. ; commissioned 27 December 1917, Lieutenant 
Commander A. Clifford, USNRF, in command; and re- 
ported to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. 

Between 29 January and 16 April 1918, Carib made 
three voyages between Hampton Roads, Va., and Hali- 
fax, Nova Scotia, carrying coal for United States ships 
performing convoy duty in the western Atlantic. She 
sailed in convoy from New York 10 May, loaded with 
general cargo and petroleum products. After discharg- 
ing her cargo at Gibraltar, Bizerte, Malta, and Corfu, 
Carib returned to Hampton Roads 20 August. 

Clearing Hampton Roads 6 September 1918 with a 
cargo of mines and general supplies for the force en- 
gaged in laying the North Sea Mine Barrage, Carib 
arrived in Corpach, Scotland, 28 September. She re- 
turned to Hampton Roads 31 October, was transferred 
to Army account, and until 5 January 1919, carried 
cargo for the Army of Occupation to Nantes, France. 
She was decommissioned and returned to her former 
owner at Hoboken, N.J., on 27 January 1919. 

II 

( AT-82 : dp. 1,235; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16.5 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

The second Carib (AT-82) was launched 7 February 
1943 by Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Charleston, S.C.; sponsored by Mrs. N. R. Wade; and 
commissioned 24 July 1943, Lieutenant A. H. Gunn in 
command. 

Carib cleared Norfolk, Va., 3 September 1943 for duty 
under Commander, Service Force, Atlantic. She arrived 
at Recife, Brazil, 17 October, and through June 1944 
operated along the coast of Brazil on local escort, towing 
and salvage duty. This important support aided in the 
successful antisubmarine and escort operations of the 
South Atlantic Force. 

Clearing for the Mediterranean 6 June 1944, Carib 
returned to New York 22 July, towing battle-damaged 
Menges (DE-320) across the Atlantic. Through the 
next year, she aided in the development of antisubmarine 
equipment at Quonset Point, R.I., and at Port Ever- 
glades, Fla. The fleet tug cleared Port Everglades 1 
June 1945 for the Pacific, towing APL-28 to the Canal 
Zone, and then the 10,000-ton concrete floating drydock 
ARDC-2 to Pearl Harbor. 

Carib towed battle rafts to Eniwetok and Okinawa, 
and at Buckner Bay on 21 October reported to the 5th 
Fleet’s Service Squadron 10. Towing jobs in support of 
the occupation of Japan and redeployments in China 
took Carib to Japan and Shanghai from Okinawa until 
9 January 1946. The tug towed Edgar Allen Poe (IX- 
103) to Subic Bay, P.I., arriving 6 February, and oper- 
ated in the Philippines until 6 April. Carib returned to 
San Pedro, Calif., 29 May, and on 24 January 1947 was 
placed out of commission in reserve, berthed at San 
Diego. 


Caribou 

A North American reindeer, native to Canada, Alaska, 
and Greenland. 

(IX-114 : dp. 3,665; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; s. 11 
k.; cpl. 79; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Armadillo) 


35 


Caribou (IX-114) was launched 2 November 1943 by 
California Shipbuilding Corp., Wilmington, Calif., as 
Nathaniel B. Palmer under a Maritime Commission con- 
tract; sponsored by Mrs. T. A. Gregory; acquired by 
the Navy 25 November 1943; commissioned the same 
day, Lieutenant Commander A. J. Nall in command; and 
reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Caribou stood out of Pearl Harbor 10 February 1944 
for Kwajalein and Eniwetok, where she served as sta- 
tion tanker until August, providing rear echelon support 
for the striking forces of the 5th Fleet. Moving on to 
Manus, Caribou based there while fueling units at sea in 
support of operations in the Philippines until March 
1945. From May through July, she resumed station 
duty, this time at Mindoro, Manila, and Tacloban, closer 
to the swiftly moving American advance. Sailing to 
Ulithi, she carried oil to Leyte, then made a similar 
voyage to Guam. Caribou served from August to De- 
cember in the Marianas and at Iwo Jima. 

On 2 December 1945, Caribou cleared Guam for Nor- 
folk, Va. There she was decommissioned 3 May 1946, 
and delivered to the War Shipping Administration for 
sale 6 May 1946. 

Caribou received one battle star for service in World 
War II. 


Carina 

A star of the southern constellation Argo. 

( AK-74 : dp. 4,023; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; s. 12 
k. ; cpl. 198; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Crater) 

Carina (AK-74) was launched 6 November 1942 by 
Permanente Metals Corp., Yard No. 1, Richmond, Calif., 
as David Davis; sponsored by Mrs. A. R. Olds; trans- 
ferred to the Navy 20 November 1942; and commis- 
sioned 1 December 1942, Lieutenant Commander J. I. 
MacPherson, USNR, in command. 

Carina stood out of San Francisco 14 December 1942 
laden with cargo for Espiritu Santo and Guadalcanal. 
Here she discharged cargo between 23 January 1943 and 
4 February, bringing invaluable support to the last 
phases of the bitter campaign for that island. Operating 
to aid in the consolidation of the southern Solomons, 
she sailed between Espiritu Santo and Purvis Bay, 
Tagoma Point, and Tongatabu. On 3 March, while un- 
loading in Tulagi Harbor, she underwent two air at- 
tacks. Several near misses were scored, spraying the 
ship with shrapnel and wounding six of her crew. 

Repaired at Espiritu Santo, Carina resumed her cargo 
runs until 30 May 1943, when she arrived in Australia 
for engine repairs and to replenish at Townsville, Syd- 
ney, and Melbourne. She carried cargo for Marine units 
training in New Zealand to Auckland in August, then 
returned to her supply runs in the South Pacific. Adding 
Fiji, the Russells, Florida, New Guinea, and the Ad- 
miralties to her itinerary, she continued to base at 
Espiritu Santo until 12 July, when she sailed for San 
Francisco. 

A stateside overhaul prepared Carina for duty in 
distant support of the Philippines operation, in which 
she carried pontoons from Pearl Harbor to Ulithi be- 
tween 2 October 1944 and 31 December. Returning to 
San Francisco for further repairs and alterations, she 
got underway for the action areas again on 9 March 
1945. She arrived in the action waters off Okinawa 26 
April, and on 4 May fell victim to a Japanese suicide 
boat. The ramming produced a violent explosion on her 
port side, knocking out one of her boilers, and flooding 
one hold. Six of Carina’s crew were injured. Skillful 
damage control saved both Carina and her cargo, and 
she was able to complete unloading before clearing for 
repairs at Ulithi. She returned to the United States for 
overhaul in July, and on 16 October 1945 was decom- 
missioned at Suisun Bay, Calif., and delivered to the 
War Shipping Administration. 


Carina received three battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Carl R. Gray 

Former name retained. 

(Tug: 1. 88'10"; b. 22'6"; dr. 9'6") 

Carl R. Gray (No. 2671), a tug, was purchased by the 
Navy and commissioned on 5 October 1918, Boatswain 
J. Zucker in command. She served as a harbor tug in 
the 5th Naval District until August 1919 when she was 
ordered to the 4th Naval District. On 24 November 
1920 she was renamed and reclassified Nausett (YT-35), 
serving at the Philadelphia Navy Yard until 28 Febru- 
ary 1933 when she was decommissioned. She was 
stricken from the Navy Register on 13 March 1933 and 
sold. 


Carlinville, see PC— 1120 
Carlisle 

A county in Kentucky. 

(APA-69: dp. 4,247; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 320; a. 1 5"; cl. Gilliam) 

Carlisle (APA-69) was launched 30 July 1944 by 
Consolidated Steel Co., San Pedro, Calif., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. E. C. 
Parsons; acquired by the Navy 28 November 1944 and 
commissioned the next day, Commander H. R. Adams in 
command. 

Carlisle cleared San Diego 23 January 1945, carrying 
sailors, marines, and general cargo to Pearl Harbor. She 
returned to San Francisco 11 February, and after re- 
pairs, sailed to San Diego to load passengers and cargo 
for Pearl Harbor. Between 2 April and 5 June, she had 
duty training and transporting Marine units among the 
islands of the Hawaiian group. Carlisle made three 
voyages to the west coast from Hawaii and Japan, and 
shorter passages among South Pacific islands, redeploy- 
ing servicemen until 4 February 1946. She was assigned 
as a test vessel for Operation “Crossroads,” and was 
sunk at Bikini 1 July 1946 in atomic weapons tests. 

Carlotta 

Former name retained. 

Carlotta (No. 1785), a motor boat free-leased to the 
Navy in August 1917 by the Commonwealth of Virginia, 
was assigned to the 5th Naval District. She performed 
patrol duty at Cape Charles and radio inspection duty 
at Newport News until October 1918 when she was 
returned to her owner. 


Carlson 

Born in Virginia, Minn., 17 April 1899, Daniel William 
Carlson enlisted in the Navy 1 July 1920. After almost 
continuous sea duty he was appointed Chief Machinist’s 
Mate 5 July 1935. Carlson was awarded the Silver Star 
posthumously for heroic self-sacrifice in aiding his ship- 
mates when Hammann (DD-412) was torpedoed in the 
Battle of Midway 6 June 1942. He lost his life as a 
result of an underwater explosion after he himself 
finally left his ship. 

(DE-9 : dp. 1,140; 1. 289'5''; b. 35'1"; dr. 8'3"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 156; a. 3'3", 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct. ; cl. Evarts) 

Carlson (DE-9), originally scheduled for transfer to 
Britain as BDE-9, was launched 10 May 1943 by Boston 
Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. D. W. Carlson; and com- 


36 


missioned 10 May 1943, Lieutenant H. E. Purdy, USNR, 
in command. 

Carlson sailed from Norfolk, Va., 23 July 1943 for 
Espiritu Santo, where she arrived 31 August. For 7 
months she was at sea almost constantly, aiding in the 
Guadalcanal and northern Solomons operations with 
convoy escort and antisubmarine patrol services. Re- 
turning to San Francisco for overhaul in May 1944, 
Carlson trained with submarines and acted as target 
ship and plane guard for aircraft in the Hawaiian area 
from June through September 1944, 

The escort vessel arrived at Eniwetok 6 October 1944 
to begin escort duty between that atoll and Ulithi, 
guarding convoys composed mainly of tankers. She thus 
effectively contributed to the success of operations in the 
Philippines, and later, at Iwo Jima, until 21 March 

1945, when she sailed from Ulithi for Leyte. Here she 
was assigned to the screen of the Southern Attack Force 
for the assault on Okinawa. 

Carlson’s task unit arrived off Okinawa to launch the 
initial assault waves on the morning of 1 April 1945. 
During that day, and the five that followed, she con- 
ducted antisubmarine patrol during the daylight hours, 
and retired to seaward guarding the transports at night. 
From 6 to 17 April, she sailed to Saipan and back, escort- 
ing transports and cargo ships with reinforcements, 
then took up a screening station between Okinawa and 
Kerama Retto. On her first night an enemy plane 
launched a torpedo which passed harmlessly under 
Carlson’s bow. Three more times during the next two 
weeks enemy planes were driven off by the escort ves- 
sel’s skilled gunners. After another voyage to Saipan, 
Carlson screened on various stations off Okinawa, dur- 
ing this period of heavy kamikaze attacks. 

Clearing Okinawa 29 June 1945, she sailed to Leyte to 
join the screen for the replenishment group serving TF 
38. With this group she aided the Third Fleet in main- 
taining a constant offensive on Japan proper through 
the close of the war. On 16 September, she got under- 
way for San Pedro, Calif., where she was decommis- 
sioned 10 December 1945. Carlson was sold 17 October 

1946. 

Carlson received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Carlton, Maria J., see Maria J. Carlton 
Carmel, Mission, see Mission Carmel 
Carmi, see PC—U66 


Carmick 

Born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1772, Daniel Carmick 
was appointed lieutenant of marines in Ganges 5 May 
1798, and entered the new Marine Corps as captain 11 
July 1798. During the Quasi-War with France he com- 
manded the marine detachment in Constitution, and led 
the daring attack to spike the cannon in the fort at 
Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo. Major Carmick served 
with distinction in the Mediterranean, and commanded 
the Marines in the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 
1812. Wounded 28 December 1814 in this engagement, 
Major Carmick died 6 November 1816. 

(DD-493 : dp. 1,630; 1. 348'4"; b. 36'1"; dr. 13'5"; s. 35 
k.; cpl. 208; a. 4 5", 5 21" tt. ; cl. Bristol) 

Carmick (DD-493) was launched 8 March 1942 by 
Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Co., Seattle, Wash.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. H. L. Merrill; and commissioned 28 De- 
cember 1942, Commander W. S. Whiteside in command. 

Carmick cleared San Diego, Calif., 19 February 1943 
for Norfolk, Va., arriving 10 March. Her varied and 
active career as an escort in the Atlantic began in April 


1943 when she guarded a convoy to Argentia, Newfound- 
land, from which she returned to New York City to join 
the escort of a convoy bound for Casablanca. On 8 May 
she had her first enemy contact, delivering three depth 
charge attacks until being forced to break off the attack 
in order to rejoin the convoy. Returning to New York 1 
June, Carmick stood north for training in Casco Bay. 
While running in a fog on 16 June, she struck a sub- 
merged object, which sent her back to Boston for 4 
months of repairs. 

Back in action 5 November 1943, Carmick crossed the 
Atlantic guarding a convoy to Londonderry, Ireland in 
November, escorted Chikaskia (AO-54) to Aruba in 
December, and in January 1944 protected Hornet (CV- 
12) during the carrier’s shakedown training off Ber- 
muda. In February she tested equipment for the Bureau 
of Ships and escorted Wasp (CV-18) to Trinidad. This 
phase of Carmick’ s contribution to the growing might of 
the Navy ended when the destroyer was assigned to 
hunter-killer operations with Destroyer Squadron 18 
from 29 March. 

On 2 April 1944, Carmick made two depth charge 
attacks with inconclusive results on an enemy submarine 
detected by sound contact. Later the same day, she 
successfully dodged a torpedo. On 18 April, Carmick 
cleared Boston for Plymouth, England, arriving 28 
April to prepare for her role in the mighty naval force 
mounting the invasion of Europe. On 6 June (D-Day), 
she took station guarding the flanks of the leading ships 
off Omaha Beach, acting as antisubmarine and anti-E 
boat screen. As the infantrymen began to move ashore, 
Carmick provided pin-point gunfire support, knocking 
out enemy strongpoints. She remained off the beachhead 
through 17 June, firing against enemy air attacks and 
guarding the great numbers of ships moving into the 
area to support forces ashore. On 10 June, she splashed 
a Heinkel bomber. 

Screening duty in the English Channel preceded 
Carmick’s departure for the Mediterranean 18 July 

1944. Convoy duty in connection with the buildup for 
the invasion of southern France continued until 15 
August, day of the preliminary attacks on the coast 
between Toulon and Cannes. Once more Carmick was in 
the van of the invasion fleet, with duties similar to those 
she had at Normandy. Her constant vigilance was re- 
warded 18 August, when she destroyed an enemy E-boat. 
She supported the consolidation of the beachhead by 
convoy escort duty in the western Mediterranean until 
23 September, when she cleared for New York City. 

After overhaul and training, Carmick made three con- 
voy escort voyages to Casablanca and Oran, guarding 
men and supplies for the European campaign. On 10 
June 1945, she entered Philadelphia Navy Yard for 
conversion to a high speed mine sweeper, and on 23 June 

1945, she was reclassified DMS-33. 

On 27 August 1945, Carmick cleared Norfolk, Va., for 
the Pacific, arriving at Okinawa 15 October for mine- 
sweeping operations in the Yellow Sea. She remained in 
the Far East to support the occupation until returning 
to San Francisco 20 April 1946. With San Diego as her 
home port, Carmick made one tour to the western Pa- 
cific in the summer and fall of 1947, and conducted local 
operations until the outbreak of the Korean War. She 
cleared San Diego 4 October 1950 for duty in United 
Nations’ efforts in Korean waters. Operating with TF 95 
out of Yokosuka, Japan, she patrolled off both coasts of 
Korea, providing fire-support and minesweeping opera- 
tions. From 29 October to 3 December, she penetrated 
the dangerous harbor at Chinnampo to sweep mines, and 
carried out this difficult assignment so well as to earn 
the Navy Unit Commendation. She returned to San 
Diego 21 November 1951 for overhaul and training. 

Carmick cleared San Diego 7 May 1952 for her second 
Korean tour, during which she patrolled off Yang Do 
Island, bombarded the rail center at Songjin, and pro- 
vided gunfire support for minesweepers through Febru- 


37 


ary 1953. She returned to Long Beach, Calif., for over- 
haul 14 March, and in June resumed a schedule of exer- 
cises and services to the Fleet Sonar School at San 
Diego. After preinactivation overhaul at San Francisco, 
Carmick was placed out of commission in reserve 13 
February 1954. She was reclassified DD-493 on 15 
July 1955. 

Carmick received three battle stars for World War II 
service, and the Navy Unit Commendation and five 
battle stars for Korean War service. 


Carmita 

Former name retained. IX-152 was named for the 
first Carmita. 

I 

The first Carmita, a schooner, was captured by USS 
Magnolia on 27 December 1862. She was condemned by 
the Key West prize court and turned over to Admiral 
Bailey in command of the East Gulf Blockading Squad- 
ron. Carmita was placed in use as a lighter attached to 
the storeship in the harbor at Key West, remaining 
there until 1866 when she was declared unseaworthy 
and disposed of. 

II 

The second Carmita (IX-152), formerly Slate, was 
acquired and placed in service on 11 May 1944. She 
was attached to Service Force, Pacific Fleet, until 25 
September 1946 when she was stricken from the Navy 
List. 


Carnation 

A flower of the clove pink family. 

(ScTug: t. 82; 1. 73'6"; b. 17'6"; dr. 7'6"; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 19; a. 1 20-pdr. r., 1 12-pdr. r.) 

Carnation was built in 1863 by Neafie and Levy, 
Philadelphia, Pa., as Ajax; purchased by the Navy and 
renamed Carnation 24 August 1863; commissioned 20 
October 1863, Acting Ensign W. Boyd in command; and 
reported to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. 

Carnation arrived on station off Charleston, S.C., 6 
November 1863. Serving the squadron in its effective 
work of preventing overseas supplies from reaching the 
Confederacy, Carnation ferried men and supplies, and 
performed picket duty. She served in the South Carolina 
area until 27 July 1865, when she sailed for Philadelphia. 

Carnation was decommissioned 8 July 1865, and sold 
10 August 1865. 


Carnegie 

A bay on the coast of New Jersey. 

Carnegie (AVG-38) was built in 1942-43 for transfer 
to the United Kingdom. She was reclassified ACV-38 
on 20 August 1942, and CVE-38 on 15 July 1943. She 
was commissioned on 9 August 1943 for a period of three 
days prior to being turned over to the United Kingdom 
under whom she served as HMS Empress. On 28 Janu- 
ary 1946 she was restored to United States custody, and 
on 28 March 1946 was stricken from the Navy List. 

Carnelian 

A semiprecious stone. 

(PY-19: dp. 500; 1. 190'11"; b. 26'; dr. 11'; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 59; a. 1 3") 

Carnelian (PY-19) was built as the yacht Seventeen 
in 1930 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; purchased by 


the Navy 13 May 1941; and commissioned 7 June 1941, 
Lieutenant Commander G. L. Hoffman, USNR, in com- 
mand. 

Carnelian arrived at Jacksonville, Fla., 23 February 
1942 for patrol duty in the Caribbean. Later based on 
New Orleans for duty escorting convoys to Galveston 
and Key West, Carnelian provided essential services to 
the Gulf Sea Frontier in its great task of guarding a 
wide area with minimal forces. From November 1942 
through January 1944, the converted yacht screened 
convoys, composed primarily of tankers with precious 
cargoes of oil, between Trinidad and Recife, Brazil. 

After overhaul, Carnelian joined the antisubmarine 
training group based at Norfolk, Va., with whom she 
served until 25 January 1945. Assigned then to the 
Potomac River Naval Command, she was based at the 
Mine Warfare Test Station, Solomons, Md., for mine test 
operations in Chesapeake Bay. Carnelian was decommis- 
sioned 4 January 1946 and transferred to the Maritime 
Commission 24 October 1946. 


Carola IV 

Private name retained. 

(PY: t. 240; 1. 167'; b. 23'4"; dr. 13'4''; s. 10 k.; cpl. 68; 
a. 2 3") 

Carola IV (No. 812) was built in 1885 by Culzion 
Shipbuilding Co., Culzion, Scotland; purchased by the 
Navy in June 1917; commissioned 7 July 1917, Lieu- 
tenant (junior grade) H. R. Keller in command; and 
reported to the Second Division, Patrol Squadron, 
Atlantic Fleet. 

Carola IV cleared New York late in July 1917 for St. 
John’s, Newfoundland; the Azores; and Brest, France. 
Arriving 29 August, she served on patrol and escort 
duty along the coast of France. Her active service ended 
in October 1917, when she was fitted out for service as 
an auxiliary berthing ship. She served at Base Seven, 
Brest, until 27 December 1919, when she was decommis- 
sioned and sold. 


Carolina 

From the British colony Carolina were formed the 
colonies (later states) of North and South Carolina. 

(Sch: t. 230; 1. 89'6"; b. 24'4"; dph. 11'4"; cpl. 100; 
a. 14 guns) 

Carolina, a schooner, was built at Charleston, S.C.; 
purchased by the Navy while still on the stocks; 
launched 10 November 1812; and commissioned 4 June 
1813, Lieutenant J. D. Henley in command. 

Carolina set sail for New Orleans, and while making 
her passage, captured the British schooner Shark. Ar- 
riving at New Orleans 23 August 1813, she began an 
active career of patrol directed against possible British 
action as well as the pirates which infested the Carib- 
bean. On 16 September 1814, Carolina attacked and 
destroyed the stronghold of the notorious Jean Lafitte 
on the island of Barataria. 

Carolina, with the others of the small naval force in 
the area, carried out the series of operations which gave 
General Andrew Jackson time to prepare the defense of 
New Orleans when the British threatened the city in 
December 1814. On 23 December, she dropped down the 
river to the British bivouac which she bombarded with 
so telling an effect as to make a material contribution 
to the eventual victory. As the British stiffened their 
efforts to destroy the naval force and to take the city, 
Carolina came under heavy fire from enemy artillery on 
27 December. The heated shot set her afire, and her crew 
was forced to abandon her. Shortly after, she exploded. 


38 


Carolina, a Coast Guard vessel, was built at Morehead 
City, N.C., in 1906. In accordance with Federal legisla- 
tion of 28 January 1915, this ship was automatically 
transferred to the Navy upon United States entry into 
World War I. There is no record of her ever having 
performed active duty, and she was returned to the 
Coast Guard by an order of 28 August 1919. 

Caroline 

Former name retained. 

(SP: 1. 42'6"; b. 10'; dr. 4'; s. 8 k.; cpl. 7; a. 2 mg.) 

Caroline (No. 1105), motor boat was free leased to 
the Navy 17 May 1917. Commissioned with Ensign 
F. K. Wyatt commanding, she was assigned to the 12th 
Naval District. She performed harbor patrol and guard 
ship duty at San Diego throughout the war and on 23 
December 1918 was returned to her owner. 

Caroline County, see LST-525 
Carolinian 

A native of Carolina. 

(AK: b. 50'2"; dr. 23'11"; s. 9 k.; a. 2 4") 

Carolinian (No. 1445), a freighter, was built in 1906 
by Furness-Withy Co., West Hartlepool, England; 
known as Harley and Southerner before her acquisition 
by the Navy 5 October 1918; and commissioned the 
same day, Lieutenant Commander W. M. Fralic, 
USNRF, in command. 

Carolinian operated in European waters, based at 
Cardiff, from her commissioning until 8 February 1919, 
carrying coal from Cardiff and other English ports to 
France for use by Army transports coaling at French 
ports. She sailed for Newport News with return cargo 
for the Army, and after stopping in the Azores for 
voyage repairs, arrived at Baltimore 12 March to dis- 
charge her cargo and start inactivation. She was de- 
commissioned 22 March 1919 and returned to the Ship- 
ping Board the same day. 

Carolita 

Original name retained. 


(PYC-38: dp. 236; 1. 133'5"; b. 23'; dr. 10'; s. 14 k.; 
a. 1 3'') 

Carolita (PYC-38) was built in 1923 as Ripple by 
Germania Werft, Kiel, Germany; purchased by the 
Navy 1 April 1942 from Herman G. Buckley, Chicago, 
111.; and commissioned 6 November 1942, Lieutenant 
(junior grade) A. W. Anderson, USNR, in command. 

Arriving at Boston 16 December 1942, Carolita 
operated there until 3 August 1943 when she departed 
for Key West via Norfolk and repairs at Miami. She 
served with the Sound School from 8 September 1943, 
helping to train men in the techniques of antisubmarine 
warfare. She was decommissioned 28 February 1944 
and used as a target. 

Carondelet 

Carondelet, formerly a separate village in St. Louis 
County, Mo., is now a part of the city of St. Louis. 

I 

(IrcGbt: t. 512; 1. 175'; b. 51'2"; dr. 6'; s. 4 k.; cpl. 251; 

a. 6 32-pdr., 3 8" sb., 4 42-pdr. r., 1 12-pdr. how.; 
cl. Cairo) 

Carondelet, an ironclad river gunboat, was built in 

1861 by James Eads and Co., St. Louis, Mo., under con- 
tract to the War Department; commissioned 15 January 

1862 at Cairo, 111., naval Captain H. Walke in command, 
and reported to Western Gunboat Flotilla (Army), com- 
manded by naval Flag Officer A. H. Foote. 

Between January and October 1862 Carondelet oper- 
ated almost constantly on river patrol and in the capture 
of Forts Henry and Donelson in February; the passing 
of Island No. 10 and the attack on and spiking of the 
shore batteries below New Madrid, Mo., in April; the 
lengthy series of operations against Plum Point Bend, 
Fort Pillow, and Memphis from April through June, 
and the engagement with CSS Arkansas on 15 July, 
during which Carondelet was heavily damaged and suf- 
fered 35 casualties. 

Transferred to Navy Department control with the 
other ships of her flotilla on 1 October 1862, Carondelet 
continued the rapid pace of her operations, taking part 
in the unsuccessful Steele’s Bayou Expedition in March 
1863. One of those to pass the Vicksburg and Warrenton 
batteries in April 1863, Carondelet took part on 29 April 



Historic USS Carondelet as shown in contemporary photograph 


39 


in the five and one-half hour engagement with the bat- 
teries at Grand Gulf. She remained on duty off Vicks- 
burg, hurling fire at the city in its long seige from May 
to July. Without her and her sisters and other naval 
forces, the great operations on the rivers would not have 
been possible and Northern Victory might not have been 
won. From 7 March to 15 May 1864, she sailed with the 
Red River Expedition, and during operations in support 
of Army movements ashore, took part in the Bell’s Mill 
engagement of December 1864. For the remainder of 
the war, Carondelet patrolled in the Cumberland River. 
She was decommissioned at Mound City, 111., 20 June 
1865, and sold there 29 November 1865. 

II 

(IX-136: dp. 4,500; 1. 343'; b. 59'4"; dr. 25'10"; cpl. 152; 
a. 1 5") 

The second Carondelet (IX-136) was built in 1921 by 
Societa Esercizio Bacini, Riva Trigossa, Italy, as Bren- 
nero (later renamed Gold Heels)', transferred from the 
War Shipping Administration 24 February 1944; and 
commissioned 4 April 1944, Lieutenant W. W. Morphew, 
USNR, in command. 

Carondelet spent her entire wartime service as a sta- 
tion tanker in the Southwest Pacific and Philippines. 
Except for occasional voyages to refill her tanks, she lay 
at Milne Bay, New Guinea, until 26 November 1944; at 
Leyte from December 1944 to 25 May 1945; and at Subic 
Bay, Luzon, from 28 May to 12 September 1945. Pouring 
her precious fuel into the bunkers of the ships which 
pressed the war home to the Japanese, she rendered 
essential service. She returned to Mobile, Ala., 22 Jan- 
uary 1946, and was decommissioned and returned to the 
War Shipping Administration 25 February 1946. 

Carp 

A fresh water fish inhabiting the waters of Europe, 
Asia, Africa, North and South America. 


Carp (SS-20) was renamed F-l (q.v.) 17 November 
1911, prior to her commissioning. 

I 

(SS-338: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 k., 
cpl. 66; a. 1 5", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Carp (SS-338) was launched 12 November 1944 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
W. E. Hess; and commissioned 28 February 1945, Lieu- 
tenant Commander J. L. Hunnicutt, USNR, in command. 

Carp departed New London 14 April 1945, conducted 
training at Balboa, and arrived at Pearl Harbor 21 May. 
On her first and only war patrol (8 June-7 August), 
Carp cruised off the coast of Honshu, destroying small 
craft and patrolling for the carriers of the 3d Fleet 
engaged in air strikes on the mainland. Undergoing refit 
at Midway when hostilities ended, Carp returned to 
Seattle 22 September. 

Based on San Diego as flagship for Submarine Divi- 
sion 71, Carp operated along the west coast with occa- 
sional training cruises to Pearl Harbor. Between 13 
February and 15 June 1947 she made a simulated war 
patrol to the Far East, and in 1948 and 1949 Carp made 
two exploratory cruises to extreme northern waters, 
adding to the knowledge of an increasingly important 
strategic area for submarine operations. 

Converted to a guppy-type submarine in February 
1952, which added to her submerged speed and endur- 
ance, Carp supported United Nations’ forces in the 
Korean War during her cruise of 22 September 1952- 
April 1953 to the Far East. Arriving at Pearl Harbor, 
her new home port 15 March 1954, Carp remained on 
active duty with the fleet from that port through July 


1959. During this time she continued to make cruises 
to the Far East, one of which included a good-will visit 
to Australia and participation in a Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization exercise, and to Alaskan waters. 
On 1 August 1959 Carp departed Pearl Harbor for her 
new assignment with the Atlantic Fleet. Arriving at 
Norfolk, Va., 28 August 1959, the submarine has con- 
ducted type exercises and training off the east coast and 
in the Caribbean through 1963. 

Carp received one battle star for her service in World 
War II. Her single war patrol was designated as 
“successful.” 


Carpellotti 

Born 13 February 1918 in Old Forge, Pa., Louis 
Joseph Carpellotti enlisted in the Marine Corps 22 Sep- 
tember 1940. Private First Class Carpellotti was killed 
in action at Tulagi, Solomon Islands, 7 August 1942 
when he led a detachment to deliver a flanking fire on a 
Japanese position, enabling the rest of his squad to 
assault and capture the position. For his personal valor 
in this action, he was posthumously awarded the Silver 
Star. 


The name Carpellotti was assigned to hull DE-548 
but construction was canceled prior to her launching. 

I 

( APD-136: dp. 1,450; 1. 306'; b. 37'; dr. 13'; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 204; a. 1 5"; cl. Crosley) 

Carpellotti (APD-136) was launched 10 March 1945 
by DeFoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, Mich.; sponsored 
by Mrs. S. Carpellotti, and commissioned 30 July 1945, 
Lieutenant Commander J. V. Brown, USNR, in com- 
mand. 

Completed too late for active participation in World 
War II, Carpellotti remained on active duty with the 
Fleet, based on Norfolk. Following a midshipman’s 
cruise to English and French ports (24 June-2 August 
1947), she was immobilized with a skeleton crew at 
Yorktown, Va., until 3 February 1948. 

Resuming active service Carpellotti operated from 
Norfolk on amphibious assault exercises along the east 
coast and in the Caribbean. In the summer she made 
midshipman cruises to European ports, and in 1948 
made a good-will tour to the Persian Gulf. She also took 
part in North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercises: 
in 1952 in the first NATO amphibious operation, “Main- 
brace”; and in 1955 and 1957 during her tours with the 
6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. Carpellotti was placed 
out of commission in reserve at Norfolk 21 April 1958. 

Carpenter 

Born in Hopbottom, Pa., 6 March 1894, Donald Mar- 
shall Carpenter graduated from the Naval Academy and 
was commissioned ensign in 1916. Designated a naval 
aviator in 1922, his varying duties included service as 
executive officer in Stoddert (DD-302), and commanding 
officer of Scouting Squadron 3. He died at San Diego 4 
April 1940. 

(DDK-825: dp. 2,425; 1. 390'6"; b. 41'1"; dr. 18'6"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 367; a. 4 3", 4 21" tt. ; cl. Carpenter (converted 
Gearing ) ) 

Carpenter (DDK-825) was launched as DD-825 on 28 
December 1945 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, 
Tex.; sponsored by Mrs. D. M. Carpenter; and commis- 
sioned 15 December 1949, Commander J. B. Grady in 
command. 

Carpenter was reclassified DDK on 28 January 1948, 
and completed as a hunter-killer destroyer at the New- 
port News Shipbuilding Corp. in 1949. Following her 


40 


commissioning and shakedown, she was reclassified 
DDE on 4 March 1950, and assigned to the Pacific Fleet. 

Carpenter cleared Norfolk 26 June 1950 for her home 
port, Pearl Harbor, arriving 13 July. Local operations 
were conducted until 4 February 1952, when she sailed 
for duty in the Korean War. During her tour with 
TF 77, she patrolled the Taiwan Strait, twice entered 
the dangerous waters of Wonsan Harbor to rescue 
downed aviators, and took part in hunter-killer exer- 
cises. Reporting to TG 95.1 in the Yellow Sea 28 May, 
Carpenter’s guns pounded the Choda Islands off the west 
coast of Korea on 1 and 2 June. The destroyer returned 
to Pearl Harbor 29 June for a summer of operations in 
Hawaiian waters. 

After fleet exercises at Eniwetok and Kwajalein in 
the fall of 1952, Carpenter prepared for her second tour 
of duty with TF 77 off the east coast of Korea. She 
sailed for the western Pacific 5 May 1953, and took part 
in the smashing bombardment of Hungnam on 12 and 13 
June. Once more she returned to patrol vigilantly in the 
Taiwan Strait, and took part in hunter-killer exercises 
before returning to Pearl Harbor 19 December 1953. 

From the close of the Korean War through 1960 
Carpenter alternated periods of training, exercises, 
and regular overhauls at Pearl Harbor with annual 
deployments in the Far East. These tours in the West- 
ern Pacific included operations in the Philippines, 
assignments on patrol in the Taiwan Strait, exercises off 
Japan and Okinawa, and visits to ports in Japan as well 
as Honk Kong. On both her 1957 and 1958 tours, she 
sailed outward bound by way of Samoa; Sydney, Aus- 
tralia; Manus; and Guam, thus varying the usual pas- 
sage via Midway to Japan. 

Carpenter received five battle stars for Korean War 
service. 

Carrabasset 

A stream in Franklin and Somerset Counties, Maine. 

I 

(SwStr : t. 202; 1. 155'; b. 31'7"; dph. 4'7"; cpl. 45; 
a. 2 32-pdr., 4 24-pdr. sb.) 

Carrabasset, a side-wheel steamer, was purchased at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 23 January 1864; commissioned at 
New Orleans, La., 12 May 1864, Acting Volunteer Lieu- 
tenant E. Leonard in command; and reported to the 
West Gulf Blockading Squadron. 

With the Squadron, Carrabasset operated as trans- 
port, picket boat, and tug at the mouth of the Mississippi 
River, in Berwick Bay and the Atchafalaya River, and 
in the neighboring lakes and bayous. On several occa- 
sions she landed Army forces or her own landing party 
to engage Confederate forces ashore, capturing men, 
horses, and bales of cotton. One such incident occurred 
21 March 1865, when she landed 40 infantrymen, then 
was attacked herself by a party of Confederates. Putting 
a party of her own men ashore, Carrabasset succeeded 
in capturing the equipment of a Confederate picket and 
several pirogues. 

On 17 June 1865, one of her landing party expeditions 
penetrated to St. Martinsville, La., where the equipment 
of three lighthouses, stored there since the taking of the 
lighthouses by the Confederates early in the war, was 
recaptured. Carrabasset was decommissioned 25 July 
1865 at New Orleans, and sold there 12 August 1865. 

II 

(AT-35: dp. 778; 1. 156'8"; b. 30'2"; dr. 12'4"; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 50; a. 2 3"; cl. Bagaduce) 

The second Carrabasset (AT-35) was launched 12 
June 1919 by Staten Island Shipbuilding Co., Port 
Richmond, N.Y.; commissioned 30 June 1920, Lieutenant 


(junior grade) G. 0. Augustine in command; and re- 
ported to Train, Atlantic Fleet. 

From 10 September to 21 November 1920, Carrabasset 
sailed between New York, Charleston, and Norfolk on 
towing duty. Early in 1921 she sailed to the Caribbean 
for that year’s fleet concentration, and large scale 
maneuvers of ships from both Atlantic and Pacific. 
Returning to Norfolk 26 April, she alternated service 
with battleships off Hampton Roads, and with fleet units 
at New York. Service along the Atlantic coast and in 
the Caribbean, highlighted by her rescue of Arethusa 
(AO-7) on 26 January 1922, continued until she was 
decommissioned at Norfolk 27 March 1922. She was 
transferred to the Treasury Department for use by the 
Coast Guard 24 May 1924. 

Carrie, Addle and, see Addie and Carrie 


Carrie Clark 

Former name retained. 

Carrie Clark (No. 1238), formerly the steamship 
Anna, and ex-Carrie M. Clark, was purchased by the 
Navy in 1917. She served in the 5th Naval District 
where she operated chiefly as a coal barge until 8 August 
1918 when assigned to Naval Overseas Transportation 
Service. On 27 March 1919 she was reassigned to the 
5th Naval District, and on 13 June was stricken from the 
Navy List. 

Carrillo 

Merchant name retained. 

(AK: dp-. 9,500; 1. 394'; b. 50'3"; dr. 25'; s. 13 k.; cpl. 70) 

Carrillo (No. 1406), a cargo ship, was built in 1911 by 
Workman, Clarke and Co., Belfast, Ireland; acquired 
by the Navy 16 September 1918 from the Shipping 
Board ; commissioned the same day, Lieutenant Com- 
mander A. D. Livingston, USNRF, in command; and re- 
ported to the Cruiser and Transport Force. 

Supporting American forces in France, Carrillo made 
four voyages to France carrying meats, motor trucks, 
aviation supplies, and artillery. On 15 April 1919 she 
returned to Staten Island, N.Y., from the final voyage, 
and on 28 April she was decommissioned. Carrillo was 
returned to the Shipping Board 8 May 1919. 


Carroll 

Born in Baltimore, Md., 16 September 1911, Herbert 
Fuller Carroll, Jr., graduated from the Naval Academy 
1 June 1934 with the rank of ensign. After almost con- 
tinuous sea service, he reported to Astoria (CA-34). 
Lieutenant Carroll died in action 9 August 1942 during 
the Battle of Savo Island, in which Astoria was lost. 

(DE-171 : dp. 1,240; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 11'8"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3'', 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct. ; 
cl. Cannon) 

Carroll (DE-171) was launched 21 June 1943 by Nor- 
folk Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. H. F. Carroll, Sr.; 
commissioned 24 October 1943, Lieutenant Commander 
F. W. Kuhn in command; and reported to the Atlantic 
Fleet. 

Carroll was assigned to convoy escort duty, with its 
heavy demands for vigilance, ability to steam in all 
weather, and optimum readiness for duty at all times. 
Between 1 January 1944 and 9 May 1945, she made 
eight voyages between Norfolk and Gibraltar, Casa- 
blanca, Bizerte, and Algeria, guarding the men and 
supplies destined to carry the war through southern 
Europe. Between convovs, Carroll received necessary 


41 


attention at east coast shipyards, and sharpened her 
training with exercises in Casco Bay. 

With the coming to the European theater of the vic- 
tory in which she had played a significant part, Carroll 
was reassigned to the Pacific Fleet, to which she re- 
ported at Cristobal, C.Z., 9 June 1945. She sailed to San 
Diego and Pearl Harbor for exercises through 15 July, 
when she sailed for Eniwetok, Saipan, and Ulithi, arriv- 
ing 17 August. 

Until 3 November 1945, Carroll patrolled the smaller 
islands of the Palau group searching for by-passed 
Japanese garrisons and prisoners of war. On 6 October, 
the surrender of Sonsorol, Fanna, Merir, and Tobi Is- 
lands was signed on her decks. She then furnished sup- 
plies, and supervised the evacuation of the islands by the 
Japanese. She was homeward bound on 3 November, 
and arrived at Jacksonville, Fla., 14 December. Here she 
was decommissioned and placed in reserve 19 June 1946. 

Carroll, Charles, see Charles Carroll 


Carronade 

A short iron cannon. 

(IFS-1 : dp. 1,500; 1. 245'; b. 39'; dr. 10'; s. 15 k.; cpl. 

162; a. 1 5", 8 rocket launchers; cl. Carronade) 

Carronade (IFS-1) was launched 26 May 1953 by 
Puget Sound Bridge & Dredging Co., Seattle, Wash.; 
sponsored by Mrs. L. Herndon; and commissioned 25 
May 1955, Lieutenant Commander D. 0. Doran in com- 
mand. 

Carronade departed Bremerton for her home port, San 
Diego, 21 July 1955. She arrived 24 July, and was in- 
spected by Secretary of the Navy C. S. Thomas on 26 
July. The first ship of her design, Carronade carried out 
extensive training in the San Diego area until 19 March 
1956 when she sailed to Pearl Harbor for a month of 
operations. Returning to San Diego for local exercises 
she made a good-will visit to Vancouver, B.C. (20 Au- 
gust-1 September) , and then participated in amphibious 
exercises demonstrating the effectiveness of the inshore 
fire support ship (November 1956-January 1957). 

Carronade resumed local operations, upkeep and over- 
haul in the San Diego area until a tour of Far Eastern 
duty (18 January-15 July 1958). She returned to the 
west coast and local operations the autumn of 1959 when 
she departed on another cruise to the Orient. Sailing 
back to San Diego in February 1960, Carronade re- 
mained there and was decommissioned and placed in 
reserve on 31 May 1960. 

Carson City 

The capital of Nevada, and a city in Michigan. 

(PF-50 : dp. 1,430; 1. 303'11"; b. 37'6"; dr. 13'8"; s. 19 
k.; cpl. 180; a. 3 3"; cl. Tacoma) 

Carson City (PF-50) was launched 13 November 
1943 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Wilmington, Calif., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. C. B. Austin; and commissioned 24 March 1944, 
Commander H. B. Roberts, USCG, in command. 

Carson City sailed from Los Angeles 19 July 1944 for 
Espiritu Santo and Milne Bay, where on 13 August 
she reported for patrol and escort duty in the New 
Guinea area- with the 7th Fleet. She took part in the 
unopposed landings on Morotai 16 September, an essen- 
tial preliminary to the Philippines operation, then took 
P ar * ^ guarding ships, men, and supplies being as- 
sembled in the intricate plans for the Leyte landings. 
She herself sailed for Leyte Gulf from Humboldt Bay 
on 16 October, supporting the first wave of reinforce- 
ments for the Northern Attack Force. On 22 October 
she accompanied her charges into the landing area, and 

42 


next day escorted the empty ships back to Humboldt 
Bay. 

Carson City resumed convoy escort duty in New 
Guinea, shuttling to Wakde, Biak, Noemfoor, Sansapor, 
Morotai, and Mios Woendi until 26 November 1944, 
when she cleared for overhaul at Pearl Harbor thence 
for duty with the Alaskan Sea Frontier at Dutch Har- 
bor where she reported 12 January 1945. On 29 August 
she was transferred at Cold Bay to Russia under lend- 
lease. Returned to the United States at Yokosuka, 
Japan, 31 October 1949, Carson City was decommis- 
sioned and placed in reserve the same day. On 30 April 
1953 she was loaned to Japan, and now serves as Sakura. 

Carson City received two battle stars for World War 
II service. 

Carter 

Born in Floral City, Fla., 1 June 1922, Jack Carter 
enlisted in the Navy 14 February 1941. While serving 
as Aviation Ordnanceman Third Class during the assault 
on and occupation of French Morocco (8-10 November 
1942), he took part in a bombing attack on an enemy 
submarine. Killed in action 10 November 1942, he was 
awarded the Air Medal posthumously. 

(DE-112: dp. 1,240; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 8'9"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct. ; 
cl. Buckley) 

Carter (DE-112) was launched 29 February 1944 by 
Dravo Corp., Wilmington, Del.; sponsored by Mrs. E. C. 
Patterson; commissioned 3 May 1944, Lieutenant Com- 
mander F. J. T. Baker, USNR, in command; and re- 
ported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Carter sailed from New York 21 July 1944 escorting 
a convoy bound for Bizerte, Tunisia, from which she 
returned to New York 18 September. Training at Casco 
Bay, a run to Jamaica to join French transport Cuba 
whom she guarded to New York, and a period training 
precommissioning crews for other escort vessels pre- 
ceded her next convoy assignment. This crossing took 
her to Oran, from which she returned to Boston 20 
January 1945. 

Antisubmarine patrol from Casco Bay was Carter’s 
assignment for the remainder of the war. Her constant 
vigilance was rewarded on 22 April, when she picked 
up U-518 as a sound contact. In mountainous seas, 
she and Neal A. Scott (DE-769) joined in a hedgehog 
attack which sank the German submarine in 43°26' N., 
38°23' W. On 9 May she made rendezvous at sea with 
U—858 whom she escorted to the designated surrender 
area. After her group captured U-23U, attempting an 
escape to Japan with a German major general, Japanese 
officials, and important cargo on board, Carter brought 
the captive in to Portsmouth, N.H., 17 May. 

At New York City from 20 May to 10 June 1945, 
Carter next sailed to act as plane guard during carrier 
qualification flights off Florida. She arrived at Green 
Cove Springs, Fla., 8 November 1945, and was placed 
out of commission in reserve there 10 April 1946. On 14 
December 1948, she was transferred to Nationalist 
China, with whom she serves as T’ai Chao (DE-26). 

Carter received one battle star for World War II 
service. 


Carter Hall 

Carter Hall, a Virginia estate, was the home of a 
colonial governor of the state. 

(LSD-3: dp. 4,490; I. 457'9"; b. 72'2"; dr. 18'; s. 15.4 k.; 
cpl. 326; a. 1 5"; cl. Ashland) 

Carter Hall (LSD-3) was launched 4 March 1943 by 
Moore Drydock Co., Oakland, Calif; sponsored by Mrs. 
T. Wilson; and commissioned 18 September 1943, Lieu- 
tenant Commander F. J. Harris, USNR, in command. 



USS Carter Hall (LSD-3) 


Carter Hall sailed from San Francisco 12 October 
1943 with cargo and passengers for Brisbane, Australia. 
She arrived at her next port, Milne Bay, N.G., 26 No- 
vember to act as receiving ship, tender, and supply ship 
for small craft there and at Buna until 10 May 1944. 
During this period, she took part in the invasion land- 
ings at Cape Merkus, Arawe, New Britain on 15 Decem- 
ber 1943, where valuable experience in the use of newly 
developed landing craft was gained. Upon the invasion 
of Aitape and Tanahmerah Bay late in April, Carter 
Hall once again launched laden landing craft, and stood 
by the invaded beaches to service small craft, remaining 
in the area until 2 May 1944. 

Carter Hall arrived at Guadalcanal 12 May 1944 for 
amphibious training, then sailed to Kwajalein to stand- 
by in case she should be needed during the invasion of 
Saipan. Her services not required for that assault, she 
sailed on to Eniwetok and final preparations for the 
smashing return to Guam, where she arrived 21 July, 
day of the initial assault. She remained off the island, 
supporting the operation through servicing small craft, 
until 26 July. The dock landing ship returned to Hol- 
landia 29 August, and from 11 September to 1 October 
supported the operations at Morotai. 

Carter Hall sailed from Hollandia 12 October 1944 
with the Palo Attack Group of the Northern Attack 
Force, bound for the landings on Red Beach near Tac- 
loban, San Pedro Bay, P.I. on 20 October. Working effi- 
ciently in the apparent chaos that concealed the in- 
tricate, smoothly meshed landing plans, Carter Hall’s 
men carried out their key role both in landing their 
craft and in caring for small craft through 24 October, 
when she made her retirement as the Battle for Leyte 
Gulf raged nearby. Her participation in the Leyte oper- 
ation continued as she carried cargo from New Guinea 
on a series of runs until 17 November. From then until 
30 December, she was stationed in San Pedro Bay as 
tender and supply ship for landing craft. 

Overhauled at Oakland, Calif., between 31 January 
and 4 April 1945, Carter Hall returned to Subic Bay 
1 May to transport small craft, and to take part in the 
invasions at Brunei Bay, 10 to 16 June, and Balikpapan, 
1 to 4 July. She remained at Leyte drydocking small 
craft until 6 September, when she sailed for Jinsen, 
Korea, carrying LCM’s and picket boats for use in the 
reoccupation of Korea. 

Occupation duty at Shanghai and Sasebo continued 
until 9 April 1946, when Carter Hall cleared for San 
Francisco. She was decommissioned and placed in re- 
serve at San Diego 12 February 1947. 

Recommisioned 26 January 1951 for duty in the 
Atlantic Fleet, Carter Hall arrived at her home port, 
Norfolk, Va., 11 June 1951. Until 7 January 1955, she 
operated on training, salvage, and fleet exercises, as 
well as a tour with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean 
from January through May 1953, and a supply lift to 
Greenland in November 1953. 

Returning to the Pacific Fleet, Carter Hall arrived at 
San Diego 31 January 1955. Along with type training 


and fleet exercises, she had tours of duty in the wetsern 
Pacific in 1955, 1958, 1959, and 1960, and took part in 
Arctic supply operations in summer 1956. 

Carter Hall received six battle stars for World War 
II service. 

Carteret 

A county in North Carolina. 

( APA-70 : dp. 4,247; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 320; a. 1 5"; cl. Gilliam) 

Carteret (APA-70) was launched 15 August 1944 by 
Consolidated Steel Corp., Wilmington, Calif., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. A. 
Wright; acquired by the Navy 2 December 1944; com- 
missioned the next day, Lieutenant Comander J. L. 
Hunter in command, and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Carteret sailed from San Diego 24 January 1945 
carrying troops to Pearl Harbor. With a call en route 
at Saipan, she arrived off Iwo Jima to land troops and 
equipment in the invasion of the bitterly contested 
island 19 February. She remained off the island to sup- 
port the hard-fighting Marines until 2 March, when she 
retired carrying casualties whom she took to Saipan. 
Carteret sailed on to Tulagi and Espiritu Santo, arriv- 
ing 19 March to load troops and vehicles designated as 
reinforcements for Okinawa. 

The attack transport reached the Okinawa beachhead 
9 April 1945, and for the next seven days followed the 
pattern of unloading by day, and retirement seaward 
by r.ight. Unscathed by the fury of the Japanese kami- 
kaze attacks, she returned to Ulithi for repairs 23 April. 
On 16 May she got underway for Palau, Cebu, and San 
Pedro Bay, P.I., at which points she embarked passen- 
gers for transportation to San Francisco, where she 
arrived 27 June. After brief repairs at Seattle, Wash., 
she sailed 17 July for duty in the redeployment of troops 
and equipmei t in the Pacific. She called at Pearl Har- 
bor, Okinawa, and Leyte, where she embarked occupa- 
tion troops for Jinsen, Korea. Another voyage from the 
Philippines to Jinsen preceded her employment from 
24 October 1945 to 2 March 1946 in two voyages from 
Japan and Okinawa to the west coast returning service- 
men. After special training at Pearl Harbor, Carteret 
was transferred to JTF-1 for use in the atomic experi- 
ments at Bikini between 28 May and 27 August. Car- 
teret was decommissioned 6 August 1946, and upon the 
completion of the tests, was towed to Kwajalein for 
study. There she was sunk by Toledo (CA-133) 19 April 
1948. 

Carteret received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Casa Grande 

Casa Grande, a dwelling near Phoenix, Ariz., was 
built by the Salado Indians about 1350. It is now a 
national monument. 

(LSD-13: dp. 4,490; 1. 457'9"; b. 72'2"; dr. 18'; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 326; a. 1 5"; cl. Casa Grande) 

Casa Grande (LSD-13) was launched 11 April 1944 
by Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., New- 
port News, Va.; sponsored by Mrs. G. Delapalme; and 
commissioned 5 June 1944, Lieutenant Commander F. E. 
Strumm, USNR, in command. 

Sailing from Hampton Roads 19 July 1944, Casa 
Grande was delayed at Balboa, C.Z. for repairs en route 
to Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 21 August. Here 
she offloaded landing craft brought from the east coast, 
and loaded men and equipment for the invasion of Yap. 
However, upon her arrival at Eniwetok 25 September, 
she was ordered to Manus to prepare for the Leyte 
operation. Assigned to the Southern Attack Force, she 
entered Leyte Gulf uneventfully, and took part in the 


43 


initial assault on 20 October. Her men worked at fever 
pace under enemy air attack as they launched their 
landing craft and serviced other small craft engaged 
in this triumphant return to the Philippines, and on 22 
October, she withdrew for Hollandia. During the next 
month, she made two voyages from New Guinea to 
Leyte, ferrying reinforcements, and evacuating casual- 
ties. 

December 1944 found Casa Grande preparing for the 
second of the massive operations in the Philippines, and 
on 31 December she sailed in TF 79’s Attack Group 
“Baker” for Lingayen Gulf. First enemy contact came 
at sunset on 8 January 1945, as a small but determined 
group of kamikazes attacked. One of these broke through 
to damage Kitkun Bay (CVE-71) severely, but Casa 
Grande came through unscathed, and joined in driving 
away the scattered individual enemy aircraft which 
pushed the attack onward. 

Although sporadic attacks by Japanese aircraft and 
small ships tried to disrupt the landings, the long 
months of detailed planning bore fruit as Casa Grande 
and the others of her group carried out their landing 
assignments smoothly on 9 January 1945. She continued 
to operate in support of the invasion, plying between 
Lingayen, Leyte, and Morotai until 30 January. Casa 
Grande next cruised among the Solomons to load 
Marines, landing craft, and tanks for the invasion of 
Okinawa. She took departure from Ulithi 26 March, and 
arrived off Okinawa at dawn of 1 April. Landing equip- 
ment and troops under the first of the kamikaze attacks 
which were to bathe the Okinawa operation in blood, she 
moved to Kerama Retto 4 April to operate a small 
boat repair shop there until 3 June, when she sailed for 
a minor overhaul at Leyte. 

Through July 1945, Casa Grande jailed between ports 
of the South Pacific and Philippines transporting men 
and landing craft, and on 23 July she sailed for dry- 
docking at San Francisco. 

Between 12 September 1945, when she returned to 
Honolulu, and 20 April 1946, when she docked at San 
Francisco, Casa Grande _ supported occupation and re- 
deployment operations in' the western Pacific. She fer- 
ried landing craft and motor torpedo’ boat squadrons, 
calling at ports in the South Pacific, China, Japan, 
Korea, Okinawa, the Philippines, and Alaska. On 14 
May 1946, she left San Francisco for Norfolk, Va., 
where she was decommissioned and placed in reserve 
23 October 1946. 

Casa Grande was recommissioned 1 November 1950 
and based at Norfolk. Exercises off the east coast, and 
supply missions to Newfoundland and Greenland, as 
well as amphibious training in the Caribbean, formed 
the pattern of her operations through 1960. She has 
voyaged to the Mediterranean for service in the 6th 
Fleet on three occasions. She sailed for the first such 
deployment 20 April 1953, and on 13 August, was dis- 
patched to the Ionian Islands to aid victims of earth- 
quakes. At Cephalonia she established a beach center 
for medical supplies and provisions, and sent parties in 
to the mountains to deliver supplies and bury the dead. 
When Casa Grande sailed from Cephalonia a week later, 
she left behind a hospital corpsman, as well as details 
of Marines who began rebuilding homes and roads. Thus 
she played an outstanding role in the humanitarian 
services for which the United States Navy has become 
known in the most remote corners of the earth.. She 
returned to Norfolk from this cruise 28 October 1953. 
Her next deployment to the Mediterranean took place 
between 29 July 1959 and 9 February 1960. On her re- 
turn to the States she cruised off the east coast in 
amphibious exercises and participated briefly in “Proj- 
ect Mercury” (man in space) operations. Casa Grande 
sailed for 6th Fleet duty in November and finished 
1960 in the Mediterranean. She continues to serve the 
Atlantic Fleet. 



USS Casablanca (CVE-55) 


Casa Grande received three battle stars for World 
War II service. 


Casablanca 

Casablanca, a port of French Morrocco, was the 
major base for the American campaigns in North Africa 
during World War II. 

( ACV-55 : dp. 7,800; 1. 512'3"; b. 65'2”; ew. 108'1"; 
dr. 22'6”; s. 20'; cpl. 860; a. 1 5" 

Casablanca has borne three names and three type 
designators. Originally assigned the name Ameer and 
the designator AVG, she became ACV-55 on 20 August 
1942, and was renamed Alazon Bay on 23 January 1943. 
She became Casablanca 3 April 1943, and CVE-55 on 
15 July 1943. Casablanca was launched 5 April 1943 by 
Kaiser Shipbuilding Co., Vancouver, Wash., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. F. D. 
Roosevelt; acquired by the Navy 8 July 1943; com- 
missioned the same day, Commander W. W. Gallaway 
in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Casablanca operated in the Straits of Juan de Fuca 
as a training ship for escort carrier crews from the 
time of her commissioning through August 1944. On 
24 August, she cleared San Francisco carrying men, 
airplanes, and aviation gasoline to Manus, great base 
for western Pacific operations. Returning to Seattle 8 
October, she resumed her training operations in Puget 
Sound until 22 January 1945, when she began a repair 
period at San Diego. 

Putting to sea 13 March, Casablanca called at Pearl 
Harbor, then delivered passengers and aircraft brought 
from the west coast at Guam. Acting as transport for 
passengers, aircraft, and aviation gasoline, she operated 
between Samar, Manus, and Palau until 12 May, when 
she put back for a west coast overhaul. She returned 
with passengers to Pearl Harbor 24 June, and through 
the summer transported sailors from the west coast to 
Pearl Harbor and Guam. After brief employment in car- 
rier qualification training off Saipan in August, she 
carried homeward bound servicemen to San Francisco, 
arriving 24 September. Continuing to aid in the rede- 
ployment of Pacific forces, Casablanca carried passen- 
gers on a voyage from the west coast to Pearl Harbor 
in September and October, and in November, made a 
passage to Pearl Harbor, Espiritu Santo, and Noumea 
to embark more passengers. Her last voyage on this 
duty, from 8 December to 16 January 1946, was from 
San Francisco to Yokohama. Casablanca cleared San 
Francisco 23 January for Norfolk, Va., arriving 10 
February. There she was decimmissioned 10 June 1946, 
and sold 23 April 1947. 


44 



Cascade 

The Cascade Range is a northward extension of the 
Sierra Nevada mountains across the states of Oregon 
and Washington into British Columbia. 

(AD-16: dp. 9,260; 1. 492'; b. 69'9"; dr. 27'6"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 826; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cascade) 

Cascade (AD-16) was launched 6 June 1942 by West- 
ern Pipe and Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. C. W. Grosse; and commissioned 12 
March 1943, Captain S. B. Ogden in command. 

Cascade cleared San Francisco 12 June 1943 for Pearl 
Harbor, where she began her war time duty of tending 
destroyers. As the war moved westward, Cascade fol- 
lowed, to bring her support close to the action areas. 
From November 1943, she was stationed successively 
at Kwajalein, Eniwetok, and Ulithi, while the ships she 
served ranged the Pacific, escorting convoys, screening 
carrier task forces, supporting invasions, and carrying 
out many other tasks with typical destroyer versatility. 

In June 1945, Cascade sailed to Okinawa, where she 
endured the suicide raids and typhoon weather along 
with the combatants through September. She served in 
Wakayama Wan, and at Tokyo, Japan supporting the 
occupation until March 1946, when she sailed for the 
east coast. Cascade was decommissioned and placed in 
service in reserve at Philadelphia 12 February 1947. 

Recommissioned 5 April 1951, Cascade was based on 
Newport, R.I., as tender for the many destroyers home- 
ported there. From this port she has cruised to the 
Caribbean and the Mediterranean for training and to 
support destroyers deployed in those areas. On these 
cruises Cascade has carried the flags of Commander, 
Service Force, 6th Fleet, and Comander, Destroyer Flo- 
tilla 6; she has also served as flagship for Commander, 
Destroyer Force, Atlantic, on occasion. The tender has 
carried out these duties through 1963. 

Cascade received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Casco 

A bay on the coast of Maine. 

I 

(Monitor: t. 614; 1. 208'9"; b. 37'; dr. 6'6"; cpl. 69; a. 

2 guns) 

Casco was launched May 1864 by Atlantic Works, 
Boston, Mass. Prononunced unseaworthy when nearly 
completed, on 25 June 1864 she was ordered to be con- 



USS Casco (AVP-12) 


verted to a torpedo vessel, without turret or heavy guns. 
Casco was commissioned 4 December 1864, Acting Mas- 
ter C. A. Crooker in command. 

After completion of additional yard work, Casco was 
towed to Hampton Roads in March 1865. She assisted in 
the removal of torpedoes in the James River which made 
possible the advance of naval forces to Richmond. In 
mid-April she was transferred to the Potomac Flotilla, 
with whom she served until the end of May. Casco was 
decommisioned 10 June 1865 at Washington Navy Yard, 
where she was broken up in April 1875. 

II 

(AK: dp. 4,266; 1. 415'; b. 54'; dr. 23'6"; s. 12 k.; cpl. 70; 
a. 1 4", 1 3") 

The second Casco was built in 1910 by Flensburger 
Schiffbauges, Flensburg, Germany, as Elmshorn; ac- 
quired by the Navy 7 January 1918 on a bare boat 
charter from the Shipping Board; converted at New 
York Navy Yard prior to formal acquisition; commis- 
sioned 8 January 1918, Lieutenant Commander C. E. 
Beveridge, USNRF, in command; and reported to the 
Naval Overseas Transportation Service. 

Operated first for Army account, and later for Ship- 
ping Board account, Casco carried Army cargo in four 
voyages from New York to France between 20 January 
and 4 December 1918. This support of the American 
Expeditionary Force and the Army of Occupation con- 
tinued with her last voyage in January 1919, from New 
York to Lisbon, Portugal, carrying general cargo and 
Red Cross supplies. Returning to New York 3 March, 
Casco was decommissioned 22 March 1919 and returned 
to the Shipping Board. 

III 

(AVP-12: dp. 2,800; 1. 311'8"; b. 41'1"; dr. 13'6"; s. 

20 k. ; cpl. 215; a. 4 5"; cl. Barnegat) 

The third Casco (AVP-12) was launched 15 Novem- 
ber 1941 by Puget Sound Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. 
W. J. Giles; and commissioned 27 December 1941, Com- 
mander T. S. Combs in command. 

After a period patrolling and caring for seaplanes off 
the northwest coast, Casco arrived at Sitka, Alaska, 5 
May 1942 for duty surveying Aleutian waters, laying 
moorings for seaplanes, and providing tender services. 
Based at Cold Bay, she operated to Dutch Harbor, 
Chernofski Harbor, Kodiak, and Nazan Bay. While 
lying at anchor in the latter on 30 August, she was 
torpedoed by RO-61. The resulting explosion killed five 
of her men, and wounded 20, but prompt and clear- 
headed action brought flooding to a halt and got the ship 
underway so that she could be beached and later sal- 
vaged. Casco was floated on 12 September, and after 
emergency repairs at Dutch Harbor and Kodiak, she 
received a thorough overhaul at Puget Sound Navy 
Yard. 

Casco returned to fog-bound Aleutian duty in March 
1943, operating at Constantine Harbor, Amchitka, as 
tender to Fleet Air Wing Four. In May she steamed to 
Attu, to care for the seaplanes conducting antisub- 
marine patrol and search missions in support of the 
Army’s invasion of Attu. Here she remained providing 
the essential base for flights which guarded against 
further Japanese reinforcement or penetration of the 
Aleutians. The tender’s service in these waters where 
weather was often as formidable an enemy as the Japa- 
nese ended in November, when she sailed for overhaul 
at Bremerton, Wash. 

Casco arrived in the Marshall Islands in February 
1944 to tend seaplanes of patrol squadrons at Majuro 
and Kwajalein during their occupation, and later at 
Eniwetok until September. Temporarily assigned to 
carry cargo in the buildup for the Philippine opera- 
tions, she shuttled between Saipan, Ulithi, and the 
Palaus until November, then returned to tender duty, 
in the Palaus until January 1945, and at Ulithi until 


45 


April. After overhaul at Saipan, she arrived in Kerama 
Retto 25 April to care not only for seaplanes, but also 
for a motor torpedo boat squadron, all engaged in the 
Okinawa invasion and occupation. 

Returning to the west coast in July 1945, Casco sailed 
back to the Far East in the spring of 1946 for operations 
in the Philippines, then served in training duty off 
Galveston, Tex. She was decommissioned 10 April 1947, 
and transferred to the Coast Guard on 19 April 1949. 

Casco received three battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Case 

Born in Newburgh, N.Y., 3 February 1812, Augustus 
Ludlow Case was appointed midshipman in 1828 and 
attained the rank of rear admiral 24 May 1872. He 
participated in the Wilkes Expedition of 1837-42 which 
explored the South Seas and discovered the Antarctic 
Continent; the Mexican War, 1846-48, when with 25 
men he held the town of Palisada against the Mexican 
cavalry for two weeks to block the escape of General 
Santa Ana; and the Paraguay Expedition of 1859. In 
the Civil War he was Fleet Captain of the North 
Atlantic Blockading Squadron in its capture of Forts 
Clark and Hatteras in August 1861, and commanded 
Iroquois in the blockade of New Inlet, N.C. From 1869 
to 1873 he was Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, and 
from 1873 to 1875, commanded the European Squadron 
and the combined European, North and South Atlantic 
Fleet assembled at Key West in 1874. Retired in 1875, 
Admiral Case died in Washington 16 February 1893. 

I 

(DD-285. dp. 1,215; 1. 314'4"; b. 30'8"; dr. 9'4"; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 122; a. 4 4", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Clemson) 

Case (DD-285) was launched 21 September 1919 by 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Squantum, Mass.; spon- 
sored by Miss A. R. Case; commissioned 8 December 
1919, Commander C. S. Joyce in command; and reported 
to Destroyer Division 43, Atlantic Fleet. 

Between January and July 1920, Case operated along 
the east coast, and on winter maneuvers in the Carib- 
bean, during which she obtained tactical data for Naval 
War College study. From July 1920 through December 
1921, she operated in reduced commission with fifty 
per cent of complement. Beginning in December 1921, 
Case was permanently assigned to Destroyer Division 
25 for a regular schedule of operations designed to keep 
her operational readiness at its maximum. Along with 
gunnery and engineering exercises and competitions, she 
joined the fleet annually in maneuvers and war prob- 
lems. 

From 1924 to 1925, Case was flagship of her division, 
and with it in April 1926 sailed to the European station, 
where the flag was shown and good-will created by visits 
to various British and Mediterranean ports. Returning 
to the United States a year later, the destroyer resumed 
operations along the east coast and in the Caribbean. 
Designated for scrapping in accordance with the Lon- 
don Treaty in 1929, Case was decommissioned at Phila- 
delphia 22 October 1930, and sold as a stripped hulk 
17 January 1931. 

II 

(DD-370 : dp. 1,500; 1. 341'4"; b. 35'; dr. 9'10"; s. 36 k.; 
cpl. 158; a. 5 5", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Mahan) 

Case (DD-370) was launched 14 September 1935 by 
Boston Navy Yard, Boston, Mass.; sponsored by Miss 
M. R. Case; commissioned 15 September 1936, Com- 
mander J. S. Roberts in command; and reported to the 
Battle Force, later the Pacific Fleet. 

Case joined in fleet problems in the Hawaiian area, 
and in 1938, served as school ship at San Diego. From 
this, her home port, she carried midshipmen on an 


Alaskan cruise in summer 1939, and in April 1940 
returned to Pearl Harbor to take part in a fleet problem 
which found her sailing to Midway, Johnston, and 
Palmyra Islands. Between February and April 1941, 
she cruised to Samoa, Tahiti, and Auckland, N.Z. 

Case was in a nest of destroyers at Pearl Harbor Navy 
Yard on 7 December 1941. The nest opened fire on the 
attacking Japanese, and splashed several enemy planes 
in the first action of World War II. From 7 December 
until 23 May 1942 Case escorted convoys passing be- 
tween the west coast and Pearl Harbor. 

From 31 May to 7 August 1942, Case defied the vicious 
weather of Alaskan waters, as she patrolled and carried 
cut the usual varied destroyer assignments off Kodiak. 
On 7 August, she unleashed her guns in the preinvasion 
bombardment of Kiska, and on an enemy tanker with 
undetermined results. Case continued on patrol off Adak 
until mid-October, when she escorted shipping to Pearl 
Harbor, then proceeded to the States for overhaul. 

Returning to Pearl Harbor 21 November 1942, Case 
cleared to escort a convoy to the Fiji Islands, arriving 
20 December. From Fiji she sailed to Guadalcanal to 
screen a convoy during its unloading period, and on 1 
January 1943, arrived at Espiritu Santo, her base for 
escort, patrol, and training duty through 23 September. 
After overhaul at San Francisco, Case returned to 
Pearl Harbor in December. 

For the next 8 months, Case was almost constantly 
at sea, screening groups of the 3d and 5th Fleets in 
their air strikes which paved the way for the advance 
westward across the Pacific. From mid-January through 
mid-March 1944, these strikes were hurled at Japanese 
bases in the Marshalls, supporting the invasion of these 
islands. Palau and the western Carolines were the 
targets 30 March-1 April, and Case next sailed from 
Majuro for the late-April air raids on Hollandia, Truk, 
Satawan, and Ponape. A month of local screening and 
escort duty at Majuro preceded Case’s assignment to 
TG 58.4 for the strikes on Japanese airfields in the 
Bonins, designed to neutralize these bases during the 
invasion of the Marianas. With this group, she screened 
carriers in the historic Battle of the Philippine Sea on 
19 and 20 June. In this engagement, nick-named the 
“Marianas Turkey Shoot,” the back of Japanese naval 
aviation was broken, which had a decisive influence on 
the remainder of the war. 

After a repair period at Eniwetok, Case resumed her 
operations with TG 58.4, screening for air strikes pre- 
paring for the landings on Guam late in July 1944, and 
the attacks on the Bonins on 4 and 5 August. Through 
mid-September, Case served on inter-island escort duty 
in the Marianas. In September, she rendezvoused with 
two submarines carrying allied prisoners of war, many 
of them wounded, rescued after the sinking of a Japa- 
nese transport. Since rough seas prevented the sub- 
marines from transferring the wounded to Case, the 
destroyer put medical officers on board the submarines. 

Case participated in the bombardment of Marcus 
Island on 9 October 1944 and then joined TG 38.1 for 
strikes on Luzon in conjunction with the invasion of 
Leyte from 18 to 23 October. She returned to Ulithi 29 
October, putting to sea again 8 November for the bom- 
bardment of Iwo Jima on the night of 11/12 November. 

Resuming escort duty from Ulithi, Case was screen- 
ing cruisers bound for Saipan on 20 November, when 
she rammed and sank a Japanese midget submarine at 
the entrance to Mugai Channel. Immediately, she put 
back to Ulithi for an inspection of damage incurred in 
the encounter, but was back in action just two days 
later, bound for off shore patrol at Saipan until 6 
December. 

Case ioined in a smashing bombardment of Iwo Jima 
once more on 24 December, during which she and Roe 
(DD-418) were dispatched to attack a fleeing Japanese 
transport. A 2-hour chase at full speed followed, both 
destroyers firing as the range closed. At 1559, the effect 
of accurate gunfire told as the transport sank, her sur- 


46 


vivors refusing any assistance from the American de- 
stroyers. After repairs at Saipan, she returned to Iwo 
Jima 24 and 25 January 1945 for antisubmarine patrol 
during the opening phases of operations ashore. Escort 
and patrol duty from Saipan occupied her until 19 
March, when she began an extended period of anti- 
submarine patrol, aid-sea rescue, and radar picket duty 
between Saipan and Iwo Jima until the close of the war. 

A fitting climax to Case’s fine war record came on 
2 September 1945, when she sailed to Chichi Jima to 
accept and supervise the surrender of the Bonins 
Islands. On 19 September, she took departure from Iwo 
Jima for Norfolk, Va., arriving 1 November. Here she 
was decommissioned 13 December 1945, and sold 31 
December 1947. 

Case received seven battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Casinghead 

Casinghead is an oil field term which signifies the 
means by which several sizes of casing are tightly con- 
nected below the derrick floor at the top of the hole. 

(YO-47: dp. 1,731 (f.); 1. 235'; b. 37'; cl. Bull-wheel) 

Casinghead (YO-47) was launched 25 April 1942 by 
Lake Superior Shipbuilding Co., Superior, Wis. ; spon- 
sored by Mrs. F. A. Russell; and commissioned 12 
November 1942, Lieutenant E. J. Randle, USNR, in 
command. 

Casinghead sailed by way of the St. Lawrence Water- 
way for Boston to complete her fitting out, then con- 
tinued on to Norfolk, arriving 1 February 1943. She 
fueled and de-fueled ships at the Norfolk Navy Yard, 
and transferred fuel to and from storage areas until 
19 October when she got underway for the Pacific. She 
arrived at Pearl Harbor 3 December and fueled ships 
in the Hawaiian area, as well as carrying oil to the 
outlying areas of Canton, Johnston, and Palmyra. In 
May 1945 she sailed west to base at Eniwetok, and in 
September she arrived in Tokyo Bay, Japan, to fuel the 
occupation fleet. 

Casinghead has remained active with the Fleet, based 
at Yokosuka, Japan, as a yard oiler. On 23 July 1947 
she was placed out of commission, and from that date 
remains in an in service status. 

Casper 

Casper is a city in Wyoming. 

(PF-12 : dp. 1,264; 1. 303'11"; b. 37'6"; dr. 13'8"; s. 20 
k.; cpl. 190; a. 3 3"; cl. Tacoma) 

Casper (PF-12) was launched 27 December 1943 by 
Kaiser Cargo Co., Richmond, Calif., under a Maritime 
Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. E. J. Spauld- 
ing; commissioned 31 March 1944, Lieutenant Com- 
mander F. J. Scheiber, USCG, in command; and re- 
ported to the Western Sea Frontier. 

Casper sailed from San Francisco 30 September 1944 
for a weather patrol out of Seattle, returning to San 
Francisco 6 November. From this base, she operated 
as plane guard, and on weather patrol, performing these 
vital functions between the mainland and Pearl Harbor. 
During the organizing conference of the United Nations 
at San Francisco, which began 25 April 1945, Casper 
made two security patrols off the Farallon Islands. 

Casper cleared San Francisco 4 April 1946 for 
Charleston, S.C., where she was decommisioned 16 May 
1946. The patrol escort was sold 20 May 1947. 

Caspian 

Former name retained. 

Caspian (No. 1380) was ordered to be taken over 
by the Commandant of the 4th Naval District during 


World War I; however the charter was cancelled and 
she never saw active service. 


Cassia County, see LST-527 


Cassin 

Born in Philadelphia, 16 February 1783, Stephen 
Cassin entered the Navy as a midshipman in 1800, and 
served in Philadelphia in the West Indies during the 
latter part of the war with France. In the war of 1812, 
he commanded Ticonderoga in the Battle of Lake Cham- 
plain and was awarded a gold medal for bravery by 
Congress. Captain Cassin died in Washington, D.C., 29 
August 1857. 

I 

(DD-43: dp. 1,020; 1. 305'3"; b. 30'4"; dr. 10'3"; s. 30 
k.; a. 4 4", 8 18" tt. ; cl. Cassin) 

The first Cassin (DD-43) was launched 20 May 1913 
by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; sponsored by Miss 
H. C. Carusi; commissioned 9 August 1913, Lieutenant 
Commander H. Laning in command; and reported to 
the Atlantic Torpedo Flotilla. 

From her arrival at Key West 5 December 1913 until 
16 June 1914, Cassin sailed with the 6th Division in the 
Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico in fleet maneuvers and 
exercises. On 19 Mav 1914, she sailed to the rescue of 
SS Atlantis, wrecked off Tampico Bar. Taking the 
stricken ship’s passengers on board, she landed them at 
Tampico, Mexico. After overhaul, Cassin operated along 
the east coast from 21 October until 27 January 1915, 
when she returned to the Caribbean for winter 
maneuvers. 

Operations along the east coast on neutrality patrol 
and drills and surveillance patrol in the Caribbean were 
Cassin’s employment until April 1917, when she was 
immediately prepared for overseas deployment. She ar- 
rived at Queenstown, Ireland, 17 May, and began oper- 
ations which called for her to rendezvous with Ameri- 
can troop convoys at sea and escort them to ports in 
England and France. On 15 October, she sighted the 
German submarine ZJ—61 about 20 miles south of Mind 
Head, Ireland, and pursued her. At 1330, Cassin was 
struck in her port side, aft, by a torpedo. One man was 
killed, nine wounded, and Cassin, her rudder blown off 
and stem extensively damaged, began to circle. This did 
not prevent her, however, from firing four rounds at 
the submarine when she spotted its conning tower at 
1430. The submarine, thus discouraged from further 
attack, submerged and was not contacted again. Through 
the night, Cassin was guarded by an American and two 
British destroyers, and in the morning, HMS Snowdrop 
took Cassin in tow for Queenstown. After repairs there 
and at Newport, England, Cassin returned to escort 
duty on 2 July 1918. 

Cassin’s war service received a well-deserved honor 
on 12 and 13 December 1918, when she was chosen as 
one of the escort for the George Washington, carrying 
President Woodrow Wilson into Brest, France, for his 
attendance at the Versailles Peace Conference. Cassin 
returned to Boston, Mass., 3 January 1919. 

After winter maneuvers in the Caribbean, Cassin 
cleared New York City 1 May 1919 for the Azores, 
where she took station guarding the route of the Navy’s 
historic transatlantic NC-4 flight. She returned to Bos- 
ton for repairs, then sailed on to Philadelphia, where 
she was placed in reserve 18 June 1919 for more ex- 
tensive repairs. Reactivated at Charleston 14 February 
1921, Cassin joined Destroyer Flotilla 5 for operations 
along the New England coast until 11 October 1921, 
when she returned to Charleston. Returning to Phila- 
delphia 29 March 1922, she was decommissioned there 
7 June 1922. Transferred to the Treasury Depart. 
28 April 1924 for service in Coast Guard, Cassin was 


47 


returned to naval custody 30 June 1933 and sold 22 
August 1934. 

II 

(DD-372 : dp. 1,500; 1. 341'4"; b. 35'; dr. 9'10"; s. 36 k.; 
cpl. 158; a. 5 5", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Mahan) 

The second Cassin (DD-372) was launched 28 Octo- 
ber 1935 by Philadelphia Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. 
H. C. Lombard; and commissioned 21 August 1936, 
Lieutenant Commander A. G. Noble in command. 

Cassin underwent alterations until March 1937, then 
cruised to the Caribbean and Brazil. In April 1938 she 
joined forces at Pearl Harbor for the annual fleet exer- 
cises in the Hawaiian Islands and the Panama Canal 
Zone. During 1939, she operated on the west coast with 
torpedo and gunnery schools, and on 1 April 1940 was 
assigned to the Hawaiian Detachment. Cassin sailed on 
maneuvers and patrol in the Pacific, cruising from Feb- 
ruary to April 1941 to Samoa, Australia, and Fiji. Fall 
of 1941 found her calling at west coast ports. 

Cassin was in drydock with Downes (DD-375) and 
Pennsylvania (BB-38) at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 
1941. In the Japanese attack, an incendiary bomb ex- 
ploded Downes’ fuel tanks, causing uncontrollable fires 
on board both Downes and Cassin. Cassin slipped from 
her keel blocks and rested against Downes. Both ships 
were considered lost, and Cassin was decommissioned as 
of 7 December 1941. However, superb salvage saved 
Cassin to play an outstanding role in World War II, 
and she was towed to Mare Island Navy Yard for 
rebuilding. 

Recommisisoned 5 February 1944, Cassin reported at 
Pearl Harbor 22 April, and was assigned escort duty 
from Majuro until August. By shooting out caves and 
bombarding Aguijan Island, she aided in the consolida- 
tion of Tinian from 15 to 25 August, and then assumed 
escort duties out of Saipan. Her guns took revenge on 
the Japanese once more when she took part in the 
bombardment of Marcus Island on 9 October. This was 
part of the preparations for the Leyte assault, and was 
an attempt to convince the Japanese that the main 
attack they sensed was coming would be directed at the 
Bonins. With the same force which had struck at Marcus, 
Cassin sailed on to join TG 38.1 on 16 October, as the 
carriers of that group prepared the air strikes designed 
to neutralize the Japanese airfields in the Manila area 
prior to the assault landings on Leyte. Cassin steamed 
northeast of Luzon during the Leyte landings, and when 
the landings had been successfully launched, was dis- 
patched with her group to refuel and replenish at Ulithi. 
However, when TF 38 made contact with the Japanese 
Center Force rounding the southern cape of Mindoro, 
bound for its part in the decisive Battle for Leyte Gulf, 
Cassin’s group was recalled to join the approaching 
action. In the afternoon of 25 October, her group at last 
reached position to launch aircraft which attacked the 
Japanese ships in one of the longest-range carrier 
strikes of the war. These strikes continued as the Japa- 
nese fleet retired north, diminished and battered. 

Cassin’s next assignment was to the preparations for 
the assault on Iwo Jima. On the night of 11-12 No- 
vember 1944, and again on 24 January 1945, she bom- 
barded the island as part of the preassault softening up, 
and otherwise engaged in patrol, escort, and radar picket 
duties around Saipan. On 23 February, she sailed from 
Saipan to escort an ammunition ship to newly invaded 
Iwo Jima, returning to Guam 28 February with a hos- 
pital ship laden with some of the many men wounded on 
the fiercely contested island. She returned to Iwo Jima 
in mid-March for radar picket and air-sea rescue duty. 
With periods at Guam and Saipan for replenishment and 
repairs, she continued on this duty through most of the 
remainder of the war. 

As vivid proof that hazards of war come not only 
from the enemy, Cassin endured the violence of a ty- 
phoon on 6 June 1945, losing one of her men overboard, 


as well as a motor whaleboat. On 20 July, she bom- 
barded Kita, Iwo Jima, and on 7 August, she boarded 
and searched a Japanese hospital ship to insure compli- 
ance with international law. Since there were no viola- 
tions, she allowed the Japanese ship to proceed on its 
way. With the war over, she continued air-sea rescue 
off Iwo Jima, guarding the air evacuation of released 
prisoners of war from Japan. She returned to Norfolk, 
Va., 1 November 1945, and was decommissioned there 
17 December 1945. Cassin was sold 25 November 1947. 

Cassin received six battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cassin Young 

Born 6 March 1894 in Washington, D.C., Cassin 
Young graduated from the Naval Academy 3 June 1916. 
His service ashore and afloat included command of 
Evans (DD-78), and at the time of the Pearl Harbor 
attack, he was commanding Vestal (AR-4). His actions 
on 7 December 1941 illustrated graphically the high 
devotion to duty that is the goal of every naval officer. 
First he rapidly organized offensive action, personally 
taking charge of one of Vestal’s antiaircraft guns. When 
Arizona’s forward magazine exploded, the blast blew 
Cassin Young overboard, and although stunned he de- 
termined to save his ship by getting her away from the 
blazing Arizona. Swimming back to Vestal, which had 
already been hit and was to be hit again, Young got her 
underway, and finally beached her, thus insuring her 
later salvage. Such heroic exemplification of his profes- 
sion was recognized by the award to him of the Medal of 
Honor. Captain Young commanded San Francisco in the 
heated battles of Cape Esperance and Guadalcanal with 
great distinction which resulted in the award of the 
Navy Cross to him, and the Presidential Unit Citation 
to his ship. He was killed in action in the Battle of 
Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942. 

(DD-793 : dp. 2.050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 320; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. Fletcher) 

Cassin Young (DD-793) was launched 12 September 
1943 by Bethlehem Steel Corp., San Pedro, Calif.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. C. Young; and commissioned 31 Decem- 
ber 1943, Commander E. T. Schrieber in command. 

Cassin Young arrived at Pearl Harbor 19 March 1944 
to complete her training before sailing on to Manus, 
where she joined the massive carrier striking force TF 
58. On 28 April, this force sortied for smashing air at- 
tacks on Japanese strongholds at Truk, Woleai, Sata- 
wan, and Ponape, during which Cassin Young operated 
as picket ship, assigned to warn her group of possible 
enemy counterattack. She returned to Majuro, and then 
Pearl Harbor for further training before reporting to 
Eniwetok 11 June to join the screen of escort carriers 
assigned to covering duty in the invasion of Saipan 4 
days later. In addition to radar picket and screening 
duty, she was also called upon for inshore fire support. 
As the battle for Saipan raged ashore, escort carriers of 
Cassin Young’s group launched attacks on the island, as 
well as sorties to neutralize enemy air fields on Tinian, 
Rota, and Guam. Similar operations supporting the 
subsequent assaults on Tinian and Guam claimed the 
services of Cassin Young until 13 August, when she 
returned to Eniwetok to replenish. 

Between 29 August and 2 October 1944, Cassin Young 
guarded the carriers of TG 38.3 as strikes were flown 
from their decks to hit targets on Palau, Mindanao, and 
Luzon in support of the assault on the Palaus, stepping- 
stone to the Philippines. Only 4 days after her return 
from this mission to Ulithi, Cassin Young sailed on 6 
October with the same force on duty in the accelerated 
schedule for the Philippines assault. First on the sched- 
ule were air strikes on Okinawa, Luzon, and Formosa; 
these led to the furious Formosa Air Battle of 10 to 13 
October, during which the Japanese tried desperately to 


48 


destroy the carrier strength of the imposing TF 38. On 
14 October, in an attack by Japanese torpedo bombers, 
cruiser Reno (CL-81) was struck by a suicide plane, 
some of whose machine gun fire wounded five of Cassin 
Young’s men. Cassin Young aided in splashing several 
planes in this attack. 

On 18 October 1944, TF 38 took position east of Luzon 
to launch strikes immobilizing enemy air fields there in 
preparation for the assault on Leyte 2 days later. After 
standing by to render support if called upon during the 
initial landings, Cassin Young’s group began to search 
for the enemy forces known to be moving toward Leyte 
Gulf on 23 October, and next day moved in toward San 
Bernardino Strait, ready to launch strikes. In the most 
vigorous and successful air attack mounted by the Japa- 
nese during the Leyte operation, at 0938 on 24 October, 
an enemy bomb struck carrier Princeton (CVL-23), and 
Cassin Young rejoined TG 38.3 for the dash northward 
to attack the Japanese Northern Force. This developed 
on 25 October into the Battle off Cape Engano, a series 
of air strikes in which four Japanese carriers and a 
destroyer were sunk. 

Cassin Young continued operations in support of the 
Leyte conquest, as her carriers continued to range 
widely, striking at enemy bases on Okinawa, Formosa, 
and Luzon. With Ulithi as her base, the destroyer 
screened carriers through January 1945 as their planes 
pounded away at Formosa, Luzon, Camranh Bay, Hong 
Kong, Canton, and the Nansei Shoto in their support 
for the assault on Luzon. A brief overhaul at Ulithi 
prepared her for the operations supporting the invasion 
of Iwo Jima with air strikes on Honshu and Okinawa, 
the bambardment of Parece Vela, and screening off Iwo 
Jima itself during the initial assault on 19 February. 

Another brief respite at Ulithi proceded her deploy- 
ment for the Okinawa operation, for which she sailed 
from Ulithi 22 March 1945. After screening heavy 
ships in the massive preinvasion bombardment, Cassin 
Young moved inshore to support the activities of under- 
water demolition teams preparing the beaches. On in- 
vasion day itself, 1 April, the destroyer offered fire 
support in the assault areas, then took up radar picket 
duty. On 6 April, Cassin Young endured her first des- 
perate kamikaze attacks with which the Japanese 
gambled on defeating the Okinawa operation. Two 
near-by destroyers, whose survivors Cassin Young 
rescued, were sunk. On 12 April, it was Cassin Yoimg’s 
turn, when a massive wave of kamikazes came in at 
midday. Her accurate gunfire had aided in downing 
five would-be suiciders when a sixth crashed high-up 
into her foremast, exploding in midair only 50 feet from 
the ship. Casualties were miraculously light; only one 
man was killed and one other wounded. Cassin Young, 
although damaged, made Kerama Retto under her own 
power. After repairs there and at Ulithi, she returned 
to Okinawa 31 May, and resumed radar picket duty. 
r As the fury of kamikaze attacks continued, Cassin 
Young had respite only during two brief convoy escort 
voyages to the Marianas. On 28 July, her group was 
again a prime target for the Japanese, with one de- 
stroyer sunk and another badly damaged by suicide 
planes. During the engagement, Cassin Young assisted 
in splashing two enemy planes, and rescued survivors 
from the sunken ship. The next day, she was made vic- 
tim by a suicider for the second time, when a low-flying 
airplane struck her starboard side. A tremendous explo- 
sion amidships was followed by fire, but in an impres- 
sive damage control operation, her men restored power 
to one engine, battled the flames under control, and had 
the ship underway for the safety of Kerama Retto 
within 20 minutes. Twenty-two of her men were dead, 
and 45 wounded. For her determined service and gal- 
lantry in the roaring fury of the Okinawa radar picket 
line she was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation. 

Cassin Young cleared Okinawa 8 August for repairs 
at San Pedro, Calif. Here she was decommissioned and 


placed in reserve 28 May 1946. Recommissioned 8 Sep- 
tember 1951, she cleared San Diego 4 January 1952 for 
her new home port, Newport, R.I. Local operations, 
overhaul, and refresher training in the Caribbean pre- 
ceded a period of antisubmarine exercises off Florida 
from 7 May to 12 June 1953. Her first tour of duty with 
the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean took place from 16 
September to 30 November 1953. After another period 
of local operations, and exercises in the Caribbean early 
in 1954, she cleared Newport 3 May for a round-the- 
world cruise, which found her exercising with the 7th 
Fleet in the western Pacific, patrolling off Korea, and 
making good-will visits to Far Eastern and Mediter- 
ranean ports. She returned to Newport 28 November 
1954. 

Her operations from that time into 1960 included 
training exercises in the Caribbean and off the eastern 
seaboard as well as tours of duty in the Mediterranean 
in 1956, winter 1956-57, and 1959, and a round of visits 
to ports of northern Europe in 1958. On 6 February 
1960 she arrived at Norfolk Naval Shipyard for inacti- 
vation, and there she was decommissioned and placed in 
reserve 29 April 1960. 

In addition to the Navy Unit Commendation, Cassin 
Young received four battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cassiopeia 

A northern constellation. 

( AK-75 : dp. 4,023; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; s. 

12 k.; cpl. 198; a. 1 5", 1 3''; cl. Crater) 

Cassiopeia (AK-75) was launched 15 November 1942 
as Melville W. Fuller by Permanente Metals Corp., 
Richmond, Calif., under a Maritime Commission con- 
tract; sponsored by Mrs. C. F. Calhoun; acquired by the 
Navy 27 November 1942; and commissioned 8 Decem- 
ber 1942, Lieutenant Commander W. E. Carlson in 
command. 

Cassiopeia sailed from San Francisco 21 December 
1942 with cargo for Noumea, where she arrived 12 
January 1943. From this base, she offered essential 
support to the operations in the consolidation of the 
northern Solomons, carrying the varied necessities of 
war throughout the South Pacific. Between 19 June and 
11 July, the cargo ship voyaged to Auckland, N.Z., to 
reload, then returned with voyages from Noumea to 
Guadalcanal until 9 August. Another resupply mission 
and a brief repair period in New Zealand preceded her 
resumption of South Pacific operations in November. 

This pattern of ferrying vital supplies in the South 
Pacific alternating with voyages to New Zealand to 
reload continued until 6 June 1945, when Cassiopeia 
cleared Auckland for San Francisco, the Canal Zone, 
and Norfolk, where she arrived 25 October. The cargo 
ship was decommissioned 21 November 1945, and trans- 
ferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal the 
same day. 

Cassiopeia received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Cassius 

Gaius Cassius Longinus (?-42 B.C.) was a Roman 
general, and conspirator against Caesar. 

(AC: t. 2,182; 1. 351'1"; b. 43'; dr. 26') 

Cassius, a collier, was built in 1883 by Reiherstieg, 
Hamburg, Germany, as Rhaetia; purchased by the Navy 
24 May 1898; converted at Norfolk Navy Yard; com- 
missioned 6 June 1898, Commander S. W. Very in 
command; and reported to the North Atlantic Fleet. 

Cassius carried coal locally at Norfolk through the 
Spanish-American War. On 11 October 1898, she cleared 


49 


for a cruise of Caribbean and Brazilian ports, carrying 
coal for ships serving in those waters. She called at 
Bahia, Brazil; Barbados Island, West Indies; and St. 
Thomas, V.I. 

Returning to Norfolk 13 December 1898, Cassius was 
decommissioned 29 December 1898. She was refitted for 
use as a transport, and sold to the War Department 
16 September 1899. She was renamed Sumner by the 
Army. 

Castine 

A town in Maine. 

I 

( Gbt : dp. 1,177; 1. 204'; b. 32'1"; dr. 12'; cpl. 154; a. 

8 4" rf., 4 6-pdr.) 

Castine, a gunboat, was launched 11 May 1892 by 
Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; sponsored by Miss M. 
Hichborn; commissioned 22 October 1894, Commander 
T. Perry in command; and reported to the Atlantic 
Fleet. 

Assigned to the South Atlantic, Castine cleared New 
England waters in February 1895. She called at the 
Azores and Gibraltar, passed through the Suez Canal, 
visited Zanzibar and Mozambique, and rounded Cape of 
Good Hope before arriving on station at Pernambuco, 
Brazil, 13 October 1895. She cruised in South American 
and West Indian waters save for an overhaul period in 
Norfolk until March 1898. 

Upon the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, 
Castine was called north to take her place on the block- 


ade surrounding Cuba in March 1898. She served in 
the force which accompanied the Army’s transports to 
Cuba, and remained in the Caribbean until the close of 
the war. 

In December 1898 Castine sailed from Boston for the 
Suez Canal on her way to the Far East. Upon her 
arrival in the Philippine Islands, she began duty in 
coordination with the Army to put down the insurrec- 
tion following the Spanish-American War. Operating 
primarily in the southern islands, she supervised the 
evacuation of the Spanish garrison at Zamboanga in 
May 1899. With a cruise to Chinese ports in 1900, 
Castine remained in the Far East until June 1901 
when she cleared for the Suez Canal and the east coast. 

Castine was out of commission at Philadelphia be- 
tween 8 October 1901 and 12 November 1903. Upon 
recommissioning she saw duty in the South Atlantic, 
Mediterranean, and Caribbean, and from 23 September 
1905 to 4 October 1908 was again out of commission, at 
Portsmouth, N.H. 

From October 1908 until May 1913, Castine served 
as a submarine tender at east coast bases, then returned 
to the Caribbean until July 1917. Patrol and protection 
of American interests in Mexico found her cruising off 
Vera Cruz and Tampico. 

On 5 August 1917, Castine sailed to join the Patrol 
Force at Gibraltar, where she served until 21 December 
1918. She returned to the United States, and was de- 
commissioned at New Orleans 28 August 1919. Castine 
was sold 5 August 1921. 

II 

PC-452 (q.v.) was renamed and reclassified Castine 
(IX-211) on 10 March 1945. 





( CC'TLu^ ^ GiA+uujut J? , 

rr7~ 


t * • 


USS Castine (Gunboat No. 6) in which LT C. W. Nimitz served as Commander, Atlantic Submarine Flotilla 


50 


Castle 

Commander Guy W. S. Castle, USN, was born in 
Portage, Wisconsin, 8 February 1879. He graduated 
from the Naval Academy in 1901, and pioneered in the 
field of submarines as commanding officer of Porpoise 
and Plunger. He was awarded the Medal of Honor 
for his distinguished conduct and bravery in the battle 
of Vera Cruz in 1914. Commander Castle died on 19 
August 1919 while in command of USS Martha Wash- 
ington. 


Castle (DD-720) was authorized on 9 July 1942, and 
her keel laid on 11 July 1945. Construction was termi- 
nated on 11 February 1946 and she was delivered in a 
partially completed status to the 3d Naval District on 
15 August of that year. She was stricken from the 
Navy List on 2 November 1954 and later sold. 

Castle Rock 

An island off the Alaskan coast. 

(AVP-35: dp. 1,766; 1. 310'9"; b. 41'2"; dr. 13'6"; s. 

18 k. ; cpl. 215; a. 1 5”; cl. Bamegat) 

Castle Rock (AVP-35) was launched 11 March 1944 
by Lake Washington Shipyards, Houghton, Wash.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. R. W. Cooper; and commissioned 8 
October 1944, Commander G. S. James, Jr., in command. 

Castle Rock stood out of San Diego 18 December 1944 
bound for Pearl Harbor and Eniwetok, where she ar- 
rived 28 January. Assigned to escort convoys between 
Saipan, Guam, and Ulithi until 20 March, Castle Rock 
then took up duties of designed mission, tending sea- 
planes, at Saipan. In addition to providing the essential 
home base for seaplanes as they carried out varied air 
operations including reconnaissance, search, and hun- 
ter-killer activities, Castle Rock herself performed local 
escort duties. 

On 28 November 1944, Castle Rock sailed from Saipan 
for Guam, where she embarked a group assigned to study 
Japanese defenses on Chichi Jima and Truk. This key 
preparation for future operations continued until 5 
January, when Castle Rock returned to tender opera- 
tions at Saipan. 

Castle Rock left Saipan astern 9 March 1946, sailing 
for San Francisco where she arrived 27 March. Here 
she was decommissioned 6 August 1946, and loaned to 
the Coast Guard 16 September 1948. 

Castor 

The more, northern of the two bright stars in the con- 
stellation Gemini. 


Mahopac (q.v.), a single turreted monitor, was named 
Castor from 15 June to 10 August 1869. 

I 

( AKS-1 : dp. 5,500; 1. 435'; b. 63'; dr. 25'10"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 315; a. 1 5"; cl. Castor) 

Castor (AKS-1) was launched as Challenge 20 May 
1939 by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, 
N.J., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored 
by Mrs. T. M. Woodward; acquired by the Navy 23 
October 1940 and renamed Castor six days later; and 
commissioned 12 March 1941, Commander F. Johnson 
in command. 

Clearing Norfolk 6 May 1941, Castor arrived at San 
Diego 20 May to begin a series of cargo voyages to 
Pearl Harbor. In October, she carried Marine reinforce- 


ments to Johnston and Wake Islands. Returning to San 
Francisco to load explosives, Castor arrived in Pearl 
Harbor three days before the Japanese attack of 7 
December 1941. Her guns were quickly brought into 
action, and while she was repeatedly strafed by enemy 
planes, she suffered little damage and no casualties in 
the attack. 

Until 7 February 1942, Castor carried cargo from the 
west coast to aid in the buildup of Pearl Harbor as the 
nerve center for the Pacific, then aided in the opening 
of operations in the critical South Pacific area with cargo 
runs from San Francisco to bases in New Caledonia, 
the New Hebrides, the Fi j is, and New Zealand. A cargo 
voyage to Funafuti and Espiritu Santo in November and 
December 1943 found her- carrying essential supplies for 
the Gilbert Islands invasion. From January 1944, her 
voyages from the west coast were to bases in the Mar- 
shall Islands, and after a brief overhaul at Seattle, 
Castor reported at Manus 18 September for duty with 
famed TF 58. Operating primarily from Manus and 
Ulithi, she replenished the fast carrier task force at 
sea thus helping to expedite the smashing series of 
raids which pushed the Japanese ever westward. The 
final phase of these operations found the cargo ship 
acting in support of the assault on Okinawa, off which 
she operated through May and June 1945. Unscathed 
by the inferno which kamikaze attacks made of duty off 
Okinawa, Castor sailed for overhaul at San Francisco 
on 10 July. 

Between December 1945 and February 1947, Castor 
supplied occupation forces in the Far East, calling at 
Guam, Saipan, Tsingtao, Hong Kong, and Japanese 
ports. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve 
at San Francisco 30 June 1947. 

With the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, Castor was 
recommissioned 24 November 1950, and cleared San 
Francisco 11 March 1951 for training at Pearl Harbor. 
She arrived at Sasebo 14 May and from this base sup- 
plied ships in the harbors of Inchon and Pusan, Korea, 
as well as replenishing ships of TF 77 at sea. Leaving 
Yokosuka astern 18 March 1952, Castor ran into a fierce 
storm which damaged her engines and left her dead in 
the water for 22 dangerous hours until she could be 
towed back to Japan for emergency repairs. She arrived 
at San Francisco 25 April for overhaul and permanent 
repairs. 

On 9 September 1952, Castor returned to Yokosuka, 
now to be her home port. Since that date and through 
1960 she has operated from Yokosuka and occasionally 
from Subic Bay, P.I., supporting the ever more impor- 
tant operations of 7th Fleet, as it carries out its assign- 
ment to keep the Taiwan Patrol Force at sea, and in 
September 1954 took part in the Vietnamese evacuation, 
Operation “Passage to Freedom,” off Indo-China. An 
overhaul at San Francisco early in 1955 fitted her to 
carry both technical and general stores. 

While bound for Subic Bay on 19 October 1956, Castor 
fought her way unscathed through a furious typhoon, 
and next day received a distress message from the Phil- 
ippine merchantman Lepus. With the aid of search 
planes, Castor located and rescued 11 survivors of the 
stricken ship. This rescue won a citation and plaque for 
Castor from Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay. 

Castor received three battle stars for World War II 
service and two for Korean War service. 

Castro 

Castro is the name of the original owner of Yerba 
Buena Island, San Francisco Bay. 


Castro (No. 621), a ferryboat launch, was constructed 
by the Mare Island Navy Yard in 1904. Commissioned 


51 


in 1907, she was attached to the Naval Training Station, 
Yerba Buena, Calif., employed as a ferry between the 
Receiving Station and the docks at San Francisco until 
decommissioned on 15 August 1923. Castro was stricken 
from the Naval Register on 1 November 1926 and later 
sold. 


Caswell 

A county in North Carolina. 

( AKA-72 : dp. 6,318; 1. 459'2"; b. 63'; dr. 26'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 395; a. 1 5"; cl. Tolland ) 

Caswell (AKA-72) was launched 24 October 1944 by 
North Carolina Shipbuilding Co., Wilmington, N.C., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. W. H. Williamson; acquired by the Navy 27 No- 
vember 1944; and commissioned 13 December 1944, 
Lieutenant Commander F. M. Diffley, USNR, in com- 
mand. 

Caswell cleared Bayonne, N.J., 16 January 1945 for 
the Panama Canal, and Guadalcanal, arriving 14 Feb- 
ruary. A month of training preceded her departure 
combat-loaded for the Okinawa beaches. Sailing with 
the Northern Attack Force, Caswell arrived for the 
initial landings on 1 April, and remained off the beaches 
for the next week, landing cargo to support the 6th 
Marines in their rapid advance across the Motobu 
Peninsula. The skillful work of her men made an im- 
portant contribution to this success, and she cleared 
Okinawa 9 April for overhaul and replenishment at 
Pearl Harbor. 

Returning to the west coast, Caswell loaded cargo for 
Okinawa, where she arrived 5 August to begin a series 
of cargo and troop movements throughout the Far East, 
calling at ports in the Philippines, China, and Japan 
until 7 December, when she cleared Sasebo for San 
Diego. Between 23 February and 2 May 1946, Caswell 
carried cargo from San Francisco to China, returning 
to Norfolk, Va., where she was decommissioned 19 June 
1946. Caswell was returned to the Maritime Commission 
two days later. 

Casivell received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Caswell, Herman S., see Herman S. Caswell 
Caswell, Richard, see Richard Caswell 
Catahoula Parish, see LST—528. 

Catalpa 

A tree of China, Japan, and North America. 

I 

(ScTug: t. 191; 1. 105'3"; b. 22'2"; dr. 9'; cpl. 37; a. 

2 24-pdr. sb., 1 12-pdr. sb.) 

Catalpa, a screw tug, was built in Brooklyn, N.Y., in 
1864 as Conqueror ; purchased by the Navy 29 June 
1864; commissioned 12 July 1864, Acting Ensign J. A. 
Edgren in command; and reported to the South Atlantic 
Blockading Squadron. 

Throughout the remainder of the war, Catalpa oper- 
ated with her Squadron along the South Carolina coast, 
performing the varied services with which she rendered 
valuable support to the successful blockade of the Con- 
federacy. She carried passengers and light cargo in 
addition to performing the usual tug services, and skill- 
fully removed torpedoes and obstructions. She con- 
tributed her officers and men to operations in Broad 
River and Bull’s Bay in which a naval brigade cooper- 


ated closely with Army forces in preparing for Sher- 
man’s march to the sea, and in February 1865, stood up 
the Pedee River to Georgetown, S.C., where her landing 
party routed a band of Confederate horsemen, and 
raised the flag over the town. 

Catalpa was decommissioned 1 September 1865, and 
was used as a yard tug at New York until 23 July 1894 
when she was sold. 

II 

( YN-5 : dp. 560; 1. 163'2"; b. 30'6"; dr. 11'8"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 48; a. 1 3"; cl. Aloe ) 

The second Catalpa (YN-5) was launched 22 Febru- 
ary 1941 by Commercial Iron Works, Portland, Oreg. ; 
sponsored by Mrs. E. B. Colton; and on 20 June 1941 
placed in service for duty in the 12th Naval District. 
She was commissioned 22 May 1942 at Alameda, Calif., 
Lieutenant (junior grade) F. J. George, USNR, in 
command. 

After loading equipment at the Net Depot at Tiburon, 
Calif., Catalpa sailed 24 May 1942 for the Fiji Islands, 
arriving 14 June. At Nandi, Suva, and during October 
and November 1942 at Funafuti in the Ellice Islands, 
Catalpa laid and cared for harbor entrance nets, pro- 
tecting important South Pacific bases. Early in 1944, 
she sailed to Dunedin, New Zealand, for overhaul, dur- 
ing which on 20 January she was redesignated AN-10. 

Catalpa arrived at Cape Torokina, Bougainville, 20 
February 1944 to carry out varied duties in the Solomon 
Islands through the spring and summer. In addition to 
tending nets, she laid mooring buoys, offered towing 
and salvage services, and provided divers for the serv- 
ices essential to the maintenance of fleet anchorages. 
Early in September, she joined forces at Guadalcanal 
staging for the invasion of the Palau Islands, a vital 
preparation for the return to the Philippines. With the 
assault forces, she arrived off Peleiu on 15 September, 
and after standing by as the first troops smashed ashore, 
sailed on to mine-infested Kossol Passage to begin the 
work of preparing what would become a major fleet 
anchorage. Net and salvage operations in the Palaus 
were Catalpa’ s contribution to the continuing operations 
there and in the Philippines until 28 February 1945 
when she got underway for Ulithi and Eniwetok. She 
operated in the Marshalls until 30 June when she 
cleared for duty in the Eleventh Naval District from 
San Pedro, Calif. On 23 July 1946 she sailed for 
Astoria, Oreg., where she was decommissioned and 
placed in reserve 21 October 1946. 

With the buildup of the fleet brought into effect upon 
the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, Catalpa was re- 
commissioned 7 August 1950 and reported to the net 
depot in San Francisco Bay for training and local duty. 
On 1 February 1952, she sailed from San Diego for the 
Far East, and through 1954 installed and tended nets 
in Tokyo Bay, except for a period in the fall of 1953 
when she carried out similar duties at Guam. On 23 
January 1955 she cleared for New London, Conn., where 
she arrived 4 May. She was placed out of commission 
in reserve there 7 October 1955. 

Catalpa received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Catamount 

In 1765, at the Catamount Tavern in Bennington, Vt., 
the colonies of New York and New Hampshire settled 
their claims for the territory which is now the State of 
Vermont. 

(LSD-17: dp. 4,490; 1. 457'9"; b. 72'2"; dr. 18'; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 326; a. 1 5"; cl. Casa Grande) 

Catamount (LSD-17) was launched 27 January 1945 
by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., New- 
port News, Va. ; sponsored by Mrs. D. E. Satterfield, Jr.; 


52 


commissioned 9 April 1945, Commander C. A. Swafford 
in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Catamount sailed out of Pearl Harbor 16 June 1945 
laden with landing craft for Guam and Eniwetok. 
Through the remainder of the war, she ferried landing 
craft, dredges, and other equipment from Espiritu 
Santo to Kwajalein, Guam, and the Philippines. On 19 
August she cleared Guam with special equipment to be 
used in the occupation of Japan, and on 26 August she 
stood up Tokyo Bay. Here she operated a boat pool and 
tended landing craft until 6 October, when she cleared 
on the first of two voyages to Manila to ferry troops 
and boats for the Japanese occupation. After a final 
voyage from Guam to Samar, Catamount cleared for 
San Francisco and Norfolk, where she arrived 11 Feb- 
ruary 1946. Joining the Atlantic Fleet, Catamount took 
part in amphibious training and midshipman cruises 
until the outbreak of the Korean Conflict. 

Leaving Norfolk 15 August 1950, Catamount called 
at San Diego "fen route Kobe where she embarked ma- 
rines bound for the magnificently planned and executed 
invasion of Inchon. In the landings at Wonsan, Cata- 
mount sailed with the important repair and salvage 
group. It was in November 1950, at Chinnampo, port 
city of Pyongyang, that Catamount achieved a notable 
first, when she became the first LSD to take part in 
minesweeping operations. It was essential that this port 
be opened so that the advancing Army ashore could be 
supplied by sea, and all types of minesweepers were 
summoned for the urgent task. Catamount served as 
tanker and supply ship to this varied fleet, as well as 
mothering a swarm of LCVP’s which were able to sweep 
waters too shallow for larger craft. 

In December, Catamount took part in the skillful 
withdrawal of marines and soldiers from Hungnam to 
Pusan, then returned to Yokosuka to replenish. She 
returned to tend landing craft at Korean ports through 
April 1951, when she began duty transporting equipment 
and supplies from Sasebo to Inchon and Pusan. On 31 
May, she cleared Yokosuka for an overhaul at San Diego. 

Catamount had two more tours of duty in the Korean 
War, from 3 November 1951 to 24 July 1952, and from 
29 October 1952 to 8 April 1953. She made her first 
post-war tour from 5 August 1953 to 18 April 1954. 
During each of these tours, she tended small craft, and 
transported personnel, as well as taking part in exercises 
off Japan and Okinawa. From her base at San Diego, 
she conducted local operations, and in the summer of 
1954, made two voyages to Naknek, Alaska, with landing 
craft and oil barges. 

On 3 January 1955, Catamount cleared for the Far 
East once again, arriving at Yokosuka 25 January. 
Almost at once she sailed for the Taiwan Straits to take 
part in the evacuation of the Tachen Islands early in 
February. She returned to San Diego 24 April. After 
local operations, she spent 16 January to 30 August 1956 
in the central Pacific in Operation “Redwing,” a nuclear 
test. In the summer of 1957, Catamount sailed from 
Seattle, Wash., on resupply missions to stations of the 
Distant Early Warning Line in the Arctic. From 12 
June to 8 December 1958, she cruised in the Far East 
once more, returning for duty off the coast of southern 
California. Among her assignments was qualifying 
helicopter pilots in landings on ships of her type, and 
participating in amphibious landing exercises based on 
the relatively new concept of vertical envelopment. 
Special operations off the northwest coast of the United 
States and British Columbia in the spring and summer 
of 1959 preceded a deployment to Hawaii for amphibious 
training. Later in the year she was overhauled in 
Portland, Oreg., returning to operations from San Diego 
25 March 1960. After a brief period of operations and 
supplementary overhaul in San Diego, Catamount 
sailed on 25 June on a special mission, carrying landing 
craft to southern Chile, devastated by earthquakes. 
Transferred to the Chilean Navy, these landing craft 


provided critically needed transportation in regions 
where piers had been destroyed by tidal waves. Cata- 
mount returned to San Diego on 13 August, operated 
on the west coast and on 22 November sailed for another 
tour with the 7th Fleet in the Far East. 

Catamount received seven battle stars for Korean 
War service. 

Catapult, see LSM—445 

Catawba 

A river in North Carolina. 

I 

Catawba, a Canomcus class monitor, was launched 13 
April 1864 by Alexander Swift and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
The vessel was accepted by the Navy in June 1865 and 
placed in ordinary until early in 1868 when she was sold. 

II 

The second Catawba (YT-32), ex-Howard Greene 
(renamed 20 July 1920), served as a district tug at 
Washington from 1918 to 1922, at Norfolk from 1922 to 
1933, and at Charleston from 1933 through 1946. On 
26 December 1946, Catawba was transferred to the 
Maritime Commission for disposal. 


Catawba (AT-68) was renamed Arapaho (q.v.) 5 
August 1941, prior to her launching. 

Ill 

(ATA-210: dp. 835 (f.) ; 1. 143'; b. 34'; dr. 15'; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 45; a. 1 3") 

The third Catawba (ATA-210) was laid down as 
ATR-137, reclassified ATA-210 on 15 May 1944, and 
launched 15 February 1945 by Gulfport Boiler and 
Welding Works, Port Arthur, Tex., under a Maritime 
Commission contract; acquired by the Navy 18 April 
1945; and commissioned the same day, Lieutenant (jun- 
ior grade) R. W. Standart, USNR, in command. 

Catawba cleared Galveston, Tex., 16 May 1945 on 
towing duty bound for San Diego, where she arrived 
19 June. She sailed on to San Francisco to pick up 
another tow, which she brought into Pearl Harbor 10 
July. Proceeding to the Marshalls, Catawba was at sea 
between Kwajalein and Guam with two tows when the 
war ended. A brief voyage to the Philippines preceded 
her return to the east coast. 

From 1946 through 1962, Catawba has been based at 
Norfolk, Va., Jacksonville, Fla., and Charleston, S.C., for 
the miscellany of towing duties which makes her and her 
sister tugs an essential although little-heralded part of 
the U.S. Navy. Disabled ships are brought to safety, or 
taken from one port to another for repairs; targets are 
towed in gunnery exercises; large fleet units are aided 
in docking and undocking. Although operating primarily 
off the southern coast, Catawba has frequently cruised 
to more northern ports to deliver ships to overhauling 
yards. In the summer of 1959, she joined the task force 
conducting Operation “Inland Sea,” the first penetration 
of the Great Lakes by American naval forces passing 
through the Saint Lawrence Seaway. For the larger 
ships of the force, it was often a close fit, and the 
services of Catawba and other tugs were essential. 

Catbird 

An American songbird, dark gray with black cap 
and reddish undertail coverts. 

(AM-68: dp. 570; 1. 147'10"; b. 28'8"; dr. 12'; s. 12 k.; 
a. 1 3") 


53 


Catbird (AM-68) was built in 1938 by Charleston 
Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Charleston, S.C., as 
Bittern ; acquired by the Navy 12 August 1940; and 
commissioned 27 November 1940; Lieutenant E. Johnson, 
USNR, in command. 

Catbird operated in New England waters through 
31 March 1941, engaged in tests and exercises. After 
overhaul at Brooklyn she sailed on 5 October for Cristo- 
bal where she remained until 29 January 1944, on duty 
in the 15th Naval District. Returning to the east coast 
she engaged in local operations at Norfolk until 16 April 
1944 when she sailed to Boston arriving 19 April. She 
was reclassified IX-183, 15 August and was placed out of 
commission in service 17 August 1944. 

Catbird provided services out of New York until 23 
May 1945, then operated in Cape Cod waters until 3 June 
under direction of Naval Mine Testing Facilities. Re- 
turning to New York 4 June, she was placed out of 
service and laid up 7 November 1945, and transferred to 
the Maritime Commission for disposal 24 January 1947. 


Catclaw 

A species of the acacia tree. 

( YN-81 : dp. 1,100; 1. 194'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13'6"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 56; a. 1 3"; cl. Ailanthus) 

Catclaw (YN-81) was launched 22 May 1943 by Snow 
Shipyards, Inc., Rockland, Me.; sponsored by Mrs. F. R. 
Draper; commissioned 14 January 1944, Lieutenant 
T. A. Wall, USNR, in command; and reclassified AN-60 
20 January 1944. 

Catclaiv reported at New London, Conn., 10 April 
1944 to lay experimental underwater detection and sonar 
gear until 10 June. At Brooklyn Navy Yard, she was 
supplied with welding and diving equipment and had 
radar equipment installed, then sailed on 23 June for a 
month and a half of duty at Clyde, Scotland. On 20 
August she arrived at Cherbourg, where she based until 
14 September while laying moorings at Morlaix Roads 
for cargo ships bypassing the harbor at Brest. Through 
November, she played an essential part in the huge 
task of clearing the harbor of Le Havre, and after a 
month of operations at Plymouth, England, sailed for 
Charleston, S.C., 9 January 1945, aiding in the escort 
of a group of disabled ships including LCT-421 which 
she took in tow. 

After overhaul, Catclaw sailed from Charleston 15 
February 1945 for San Diego to load nets for Pearl 
Harbor. Here she had duty from 27 March until 25 
May, when she cleared for Eniwetok and Guam to 
deliver nets. After receiving a new propeller at Guam, 
she sailed to Saipan and Okinawa, where from 13 July 
to 8 September she conducted salvage operations. From 
10 September to 14 October, she laid harbor buoys and 
issued dry stores at Sasebo, then returned to Okinawa 
to load acoustic minesweeping equipment for use in 
Japanese waters. She operated to support minesweepers 
off northern Kyushu through January 1946, then oper- 
ated at Kobe until 14 March. Catclaw sailed then to 
Shanghai, where she was decommissioned 19 April 1946. 
The next day she was transferred to the Department 
of State for sale to China. 


Cates 

Bom in Drummonds, Tenn., 30 April 1916, William 
Finnie Cates enlisted in the United States Naval Re- 
serve 21 January 1942. While serving as Seaman Sec- 
ond Class in San Francisco (CA-38), Cates was killed 
in action 12 November 1942 when a Japanese torpedo 
plane, which he kept under fire while refusing to leave 
his station, crashed aboard the ship. For this heroism, 
he received the Navy Cross posthumously. 


(DE-763 : dp. 1,240; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 11'8"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3”, 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct. ; 
cl. Cannon) 

Cates (DE-763) was launched 10 October 1943 by 
Tampa Shipbuilding Co., Inc., Tampa, Fla.; sponsored by 
Mrs. P. Dyer; commissioned 15 December 1943, Lieu- 
tenant G. A. Prouse, USNR, in command; and reported 
to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Between 27 February and 1 May 1944, Cates guarded 
two convoys carrying American troops to ports in Ire- 
land and Wales in the lengthy preparations for the 
Normandy Invasion. Overcoming the threat of subma- 
rine attack and the everpresent hazards of vicious North 
Atlantic weather, she aided in the completely safe pas- 
sage of critically needed men. 

After a brief period training with submarines from 
New London, Conn., Cates completed 1944 with five 
convoy voyages from New York to ports in Ireland, 
Great Britain, and France escorting tankers, carrying 
critical petroleum products to support the push of the 
Allies across Europe. Cates opened 1945 with a brief 
training period in Casco Bay, Maine, then a return to 
tanker convoy duty from Boston to Scotland, returning 
to New York 18 February. Two weeks later she sailed 
in the escort of another convoy, but had to break off 
and return to Earle, New Jersey, for repairs, followed 
by refresher training in Casco Bay. This training be- 
came most realistic when Cates took part in a 214-week 
antisubmarine sweep along the northeast coast. She 
returned to New York 20 April, and sailed 4 days later 
escorting tankers to Liverpool. 

Returning to New York with empty tankers 23 May 
1945, Cates sailed on to training in Cuban waters, passed 
through the Panama Canal, and arrived at Pearl Har- 
bor 31 July for training and overhaul. Arriving at Eni- 
wetok 30 August, she began 6 months of convoy escort 
supporting the redeployment of troops in the Far East, 
calling at ports in the Philippines, Japan, and Okinawa 
until 18 February 1946, when she cleared for San Pedro, 
Calif., Norfolk, Va., and Green Cove Springs, Fla. She 
arrived at the latter port 22 April for duty training re- 
servists until 28 March 1947, when she was decommis- 
sioned there. Cates was transferred to France under 
the Military Assistance Program on 11 November 1950. 
She serves in the French Navy as Soudanais. 

Catfish 

Any of various species having catlike teeth, barbels 
around the mouth, including the common bullhead. 

(SS-339: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20k.; 
cpl. 66; a. 1 5", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Catfish (SS-339) was launched 19 November 1944 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
J. J. Crowley; and commissioned 19 March 1945, Lieu- 
tenant Commander W. A. Overton, USNR, in command. 

Catfish sailed from New London 4 May 1945 for Pearl 
Harbor, arriving 29 June. After training and the instal- 
lation of new equipment, she proceeded to Guam for spe- 
cial training, then departed 8 August for her first war 
patrol, a special mission to locate a minefield off Kyu- 
shu. When the cease-fire order was given 15 August, she 
was ordered to the Yellow Sea for surface patrol and 
lifeguard duty. She returned to Guam 4 September, 
thence to the west coast, arriving at Seattle 29 Sep- 
tember. 

Based at San Diego, Catfish operated locally on the 
west coast and made two cruises to the Far East during 
which she conducted simulated war patrols and provided 
services to the 7th Fleet. 

Catfish was extensively modernized (August 1948- 
May 1949), giving her greater submerged speed and 
endurance. She was on another Far Eastern cruise 
when war broke out in Korea in which area she made 


54 


a reconnaissance patrol in support of the United Nations 
forces. Catfish returned to the “States” 20 October 
1950 and was based at San Diego. Since that time the 
submarine has carried out training exercises with Naval 
Reservists off the west coast, operated with Canadian 
forces in joint antisubmarine warfare exercises, and 
made several cruises to the Far East. Catfish has con- 
tinued this employment through 1963. 

Catfish received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Catherine Johnson 

Former name retained. 

Catherine Johnson (No. 390), formerly Edith B., was 
a freight lighter purchased by the Navy and placed in 
service on 15 June 1918. She transported supplies within 
the 3d Naval District for the next 14 years. Her name 
was canceled and she was reclassified YF-161 on 17 
July 1920. She was placed out of service on 19 Novem- 
ber 1930, reclassified YC-660, and sold on 29 Septem- 
ber 1932. 


Catlin, see George Washington (No. 3018) 


Catoctin 

A mountain in Maryland. 

( AGC-5 : dp. 7,430; 1. 459'3"; b. 63'; dr. 24'; s. 16.4 k.; 
cpl. 633; a. 2 5"; cl. Appalachian) 

Catoctin (AGC-5) was launched as SS Mary Whitridge 
23 January 1943 by Moore Dry Dock Co., Oakland, Calif., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Miss A. H. Morton; acquired by the Navy 31 August 
1943; and commissioned as Catoctin the same day, Com- 
mander H. B. Olsen, USNR, in command. 

Between 14 September and 11 October 1943, Catoctin 
sailed from Long Beach, Calif., to Philadelphia, where 
she was decommissionad upon arrival. Converted to a 
combined operations and communications headquarters 
ship, Catoctin was recommissioned 24 January 1944, 
Commander C. O. Comp in command, and reported to 
Atlantic Fleet. 

Shakedown complete, Catoctin cleared Norfolk 5 
March 1944 for Algiers, where she reported on 19 March 
as flagship for Commander, 8th Fleet. She remained 
at Algiers and later Oran until 8 July, when she sailed 
to Naples, Italy. On 24 July, at Naples, King George 
VI of England visited on board the ship. For several 
months, Catoctin had been headquarters for the plan- 
ning of the invasion of southern France, and on 13 
August, she sailed from Naples for the assault, carrying 
Secretary of the Navy J. V. Forrestal, and the com- 



USS Catoctin (AGC-5) 


manders of the 7th Army, VI Corps, 12th Air Force, 
and French Naval Forces. 

At early dawn of 15 August 1944, Catoctin arrived 
in position off the assault beaches, and began her historic 
role as heart of one of the most painstakingly planned, 
carefully coordinated, and magnificently executed am- 
phibious assaults of the war. From her antennas flashed 
the commands which controlled the activities of thous- 
ands of men, in ships, landing craft, and airplanes, 
ashore, afloat, and aloft. On 18 August, 6 of her crew 
were killed and 31 wounded by exploding shrapnel dur- 
ing a German air raid. Arriving at Toulon 9 September, 
Catoctin greeted the return to France of the French fleet 
and General Charles DeGaulle on 15 September. On 
25 September, she cleared Toulon for Naples, her base 
for the remainder of the year. 

Catoctin left Naples 15 January 1945, and after a 
brief repair period at Palermo, Sicily, sailed to Sevas- 
topol, Russia. Arriving 26 January, she served as com- 
munications ship and as headquarters for the advance 
party planning the Yalta Conference. Her crew operated 
transportation, canteen, hospital, and dental facilities 
ashore, and in cooperation with other Allied facilities, 
operated an air-sea rescue net. On 11 February, she 
welcomed President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his party, 
including Fleet Admiral W. D. Leahy, for an overnight 
stay. Catoctin cleared Sevastopol 15 February, return- 
ing to Naples 5 days later, then sailed for Oran. 

The command ship embarked military passengers at 
Oran, and proceeded to Philadelphia, where she under- 
went overhaul, followed by refresher training. On 20 
June, she stood down Delaware Bay, bound for Pearl 
Harbor, where she arrived in July. Underway once 
more on 10 August, Catoctin arrived at Jinsen, Korea, 
8 September to accept the surrender of Japanese forces 
there. She sailed to Okinawa to embark Marines whom 
she transported to Taku, North China, where they were 
to maintain order until the representatives of China’s 
Nationalist Government could establish normal govern- 
ment. During October and most of November, Catoctin 
was headquarters for negotiations with the Chinese 
Communists, in power in Shantung and Manchuria, in 
which attempts were made to allow the officially recog- 
nized Nationalist Government to reestablish itself. 

Catoctin stood out of Shanghai, China, 25 November 
1945 for Norfolk, where she arrived 28 December. She 
served from this port as flagship for Commander Am- 
phibious Force, Atlantic, until 18 September 1946, then 
underwent inactivation. On 26 February 1947, she 
was decommissioned at Philadelphia, and placed in 
service in reserve. On 30 December 1959, Catoctin was 
transferred to the Maritime Administration. 

Catoctin received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Catron 

A county in New Mexico. 

( APA-71 : dp. 4,247; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 320, a. 1 5"; cl. Gilliam) 

Catron (APA-71) was launched 28 August 1944 by 
Consolidated Steel Corp., Wilmington, Calif., under a 
Maritime Commission Contract; sponsored by Mrs. H. G. 
Chalkley; acquired by the Navy 27 November 1944; 
commissioned 28 November 1944, Lieutenant Comman- 
der D. Maclnnes, USNR, in command; and reported to 
the Pacific Fleet. 

Catron stood out of San Pedro, Calif., 18 January 
1945, bound for training in the Solomon and Florida 
Islands. She arrived at Purvis Bay 5 February, and on 
21 March reported at Ulithi, Caroline Islands, to com- 
bat load for the assault on Okinawa. Carrying men of 
the 6th Marines and their cargo, she arrived off Oki- 
nawa for the initial assault on 1 April; this first assault 
was carried out by the ship with the skill born of thor- 


55 


ough training. Through the first week of the last great 
campaign of the Pacific War, Catron remained off the 
island, landing cargo to support the Marines in their 
rapid push across the island. 

Leaving Okinawa astern 7 April 1945, Catron sailed 
to San Francisco to load cargo which she delivered to 
Guam 13 June. Here she embarked 297 Japanese pris- 
oners of war with whom she arrived at San Francisco 
5 July. After a brief overhaul, she was underway with 
cargo for Okinawa, where she called from 12 to 24 
August. Her next passage was to the Philippines, where 
she embarked occupation troops for transportation to 
Japan, arriving 25 September. Here Catron took aboard 
her most satisfying group of passengers, 552 former 
prisoners of war whom she carried home to San Fran- 
cisco, arriving 19 October. 

Catron made two more voyages from San Francisco 
to carry troops to the Philippines between 29 October 
1945 and 12 February 1946, when she reported at Pearl 
Harbor to be stripped in preparation for Operation 
“Crossroads,” the atomic tests at Bikini. She was de- 
commissioned 29 August 1946, and remained in the Pa- 
cific for radiological and structural study until sunk 
on 6 May 1948. 

Catron received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Catskill 

A northward extension of the Appalachian Mountain 
Range into southeastern New York State. 

I 

(Monitor: t. 1,875; 1. 200'; b. 46'; dr. 11'6"; s. 4 k. ; a. 

1 15'' sb„ 1 11" sb.) 

Catskill, a single-turreted monitor, was launched 16 
December 1862 by Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, 
N.Y.; outfitted at New York Navy Yard; commissioned 
24 February 1863, Commander G. W. Rodgers in com- 
mand; and reported to the South Atlantic Blockading 
Squadron. 

Catskill reported for duty at Port Royal, S.C., on 5 
March 1863, and for the remainder of the war operated 
intensively on the blockade off Charleston, S.C. In the 
lengthy series of operations against the strongly forti- 
fied and stoutly defended harbor, Catskill repeatedly 
took part in attacks on the batteries and forts protect- 
ing Charleston from the sea. She also cruised on picket 
duty, guarding other ships of the squadron from the 
determined and ingenious attacks launched against 
them, and patrolling constantly against blockade run- 
ners. 

Catskill’s commanding officer, Commander Rodgers, 
was killed in action 17 August 1863, while directing the 
fire of his ship against Charleston’s forts. The ship was 
hit by Confederate gunfire on several occasions, but 
skillful work by her crew returned her to action without 
returning for repairs. When Charleston was evacu- 
ated, on 18 February 1865, Catskill boarded and took 
possession of the grounded blockade runner, Deer, and 
later in that day raised the flag over another grounded 
steamer, Celt. 

Relieved from duty, Catskill cleared Charleston 13 
July 1865, and sailed to the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
where she was decommissioned 26 July 1865. Here she 
remained in ordinary until 1873. During that time she 
was briefly renamed Goliath (15 June-10 August 1869). 
Repaired at New York during 1874 and 1875, Catskill 
joined the North Atlantic Squadron, with whom she 
cruised along the northeast coast between 4 March 1876 
and 5 November 1877. From 1878 to 1895, Catskill was 
in ordinary at various anchorages in Virginia, and from 
1895 to 1898, in ordinary at Philadelphia’s League Island 
Navy Yard. 



USS Catskill (LSV-1) 


Upon the outbreak of the Spanish- American War, 
Catskill was one of the craft recommissioned for patrol 
duty in New England waters, thus releasing more 
modern ships for active fighting. This period of com- 
mission lasted from 16 April 1898 to 22 September 
1898, after which Catskill returned to League Island 
until sold 4 December 1901. 

II 

( AP-106 : dp. 5,875 ; 1. 455'5" ; b. 60'2" ; dr. 20' ; s. 20 k. ; 
cpl. 664; a. 2 5"; cl. Terror) 

The second Catskill (AP— 106) was reclassified to CM- 
6, 1 May 1943; to LSV-1, 21 April 1944; and to MCS-1, 
18 October 1956. She was launched 19 May 1942 by 
Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg. ; spon- 
sored by Mrs. J. G. McPherson; and commissioned 30 
June 1944, Captain R. W. Chambers, USNR, in 
command. 

Catskill sailed from San Diego 12 August 1944 for 
Hawaii, where she embarked marines, and proceeded by 
way of Eniwetok for Manus, where she joined the trans- 
port group of the Southern Attack Force for the assault 
on Leyte. This group sailed 14 October for the return to 
the Philippines, and entered Leyte Gulf without event, 
anchoring off Dulag 20 October to launch the initial 
attack. Smooth execution of brilliant plans resulted in a 
highly successful landing, and Catskill completed her 
offloading and was able to retire in the afternoon of 22 
October, before the commencement of the epic Battle for 
Leyte Gulf. 

Catskill returned to New Guinea, then sailed to 
Morotai, where from 5 to 10 November 1944 she loaded 
troops and cargo under almost continuous enemy air 
raids. As her convoy proceeded north with these rein- 
forcements for Leyte, it came under enemy air attack 
on 13 November, and Catskill’s gunners aided in splash- 
ing one of the Japanese aircraft. Unloading in Leyte 
Gulf took place on 14 November, and Catskill got under- 
way at once for Manus, and New Guinea, where she 
took part in special training. 

Returning to Manus 21 December 1944, Catskill sailed 
10 days later with the Lingayen Attack Force, which 
came under air attack, although not in Catskill’s sector, 
as it made its final approach. On 9 January 1945 the 
landings were successfully made on beaches so difficult 
that the Japanese had considered an amphibious assault 
there impossible. The force was under repeated air 
attack. Catskill nevertheless accomplished her part of 
the landing skillfully, and cleared Lingayen for Leyte 
10 January. Anchoring 2 days later, she loaded Army 
troops and cargo for the first reinforcement of Lingayen 
27 January. 

Arriving in the Solomon Islands 11 February 1945, 
Catskill began intensive training for the Okinawa oper- 
ation. On 21 March, she anchored in Ulithi, staging 


56 


area for the massive assault which was to come, and on 
27 March got underway for the initial assault on 1 
April, in which she landed units of the 6th Marines. 
That night, she moved out to sea, and for the next 4 
days, returned to the beachhead area daily to complete 
her unloading of men and cargo. Returning to Saipan 9 
April, Catskill continued on to San Francisco, arriving 
13 May. 

Between 16 May and 14 June 1945, Catskill made a 
voyage from San Francisco to Pearl Harbor carrying 
vehicles and general cargo, and steamed to Pearl Harbor 
once again. She loaded troops there for Eniwetok, Sai- 
pan, and Guam, and after carrying out this assignment, 
proceeded to Manila, arriving 5 July. Here she re- 
mained until 20 September, when she sailed laden with 
Army troops for the occupation of Japan. Catskill 
anchored in Wakayama Bay 25 September, and cleared 
Japan 1 October for the Philippines, where she em- 
barked homeward-bound servicemen. She arrived in 
San Francisco 27 October, and sailed again 10 November 
on the first of two more voyages to bring troops home 
from Guam, Ulithi, Peleliu, and Eniwetok. 

On 10 February 1946, Catskill arrived at San Diego, 
where she was placed out of commission in reserve 30 
August 1946. 

Catskill received three battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Caution 

To notify of danger or risk. 

(AM-158: dp. 530; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 104; a. 1 3"; cl. Admirable) 

Caution (AM-158) was launched 7 December 1942 by 
Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg. ; com- 
missioned 10 February 1944, Lieutenant Commander 
F. G. Crane, USNR, in command; and reported to the 
Pacific Fleet. 

Clearing San Francisco 21 April 1944, Caution ar- 
rived at Pearl Harbor 1 May. Until 1 August, she 
escorted convoys from Pearl Harbor to Majuro and 
Eniwetok; then sailed to Saipan, arriving 25 August. 
Assigned to the Saipan-Tinian Patrol and Escort Group, 
Caution also guarded convoys to Eniwetok and back to 
the Marianas. On 5 April 1945, she cleared Eniwetok 
for Portland, Oreg., and overhaul. 

Caution arrived at Cold Bay, Alaska, 11 July 1945 to 
train a Russian crew. She was decommissioned 16 
August 1945, and transferred under lend-lease to the 
Soviet Union, in whose custody she remains. She was 
reclassified MSF-158 on 7 February 1955. 

Cauto 

Merchant name retained. 

(AC: dp. 8,060; 1. 368'; b. 47'; dr. 22'6"; s. 14 k.; cpl. 62; 

a. 2 3") 

Cauto (No. 1538) was launched in 1916 by Seattle 
Construction and Dry Dock Co., Seattle, Wash.; ac- 
quired by the Navy from the Shipping Board 12 July 
1918; commissioned 13 July 1918, Lieutenant Com- 
mander J. R. Curtis, USNRF, in command; outfitted at 
Philadelphia; and reported to the Naval Overseas 
Transportation Service. 

Between 21 July 1918 and 9 February 1919, Cauto 
made three transatlantic voyages carrying supplies for 
the American Expeditionary Force in France. She was 
decommissioned at Philadelphia 22 February 1919, and 
returned to her owner. 

Cavalier 

A county in North Dakota. 


(APA-37: dp. 8,100; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 26'6"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 523; a. 2 5"; cl. Bayfield ) 

Cavalier (AP-82) was reclassified APA-37, 1 Feb- 
ruary 1943; launched 15 March 1943 by Western Pipe 
and Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. 
M. W. Jackson; acquired 19 July 1943; fitted out as an 
attack transport by Bethlehem Steel Co., Hoboken, N.J.; 
and commissioned 15 January 1944, Captain R. T. Mc- 
Elliott, USCG, in command. 

Cavalier cleared Davisville, R.I., 17 February 1944 
with men and equipment of two construction battalions, 
whom she disembarked at Honolulu 16 March. After 
special amphibious training in the Hawaiian Islands, she 
sailed by way of Kwajalein for the invasion beaches of 
Saipan in the Joint Expeditionary Force Reserve. When 
stiff Japanese resistance was encountered on D-Day, 15 
June, Cavalier’s group was summoned to unload rein- 
forcements, and landings began at dusk on 16 June. 
Working at top speed, since the Japanese fleet was 
known to be approaching, Cavalier landed her troops, 
but was ordered to retire before she could get off the 
artillery she carried. Leaving many of her boats behind 
for shuttle duty, she drew away to the east while the 
classic air Battle of the Philippine Sea was fought, then 
returned to the beachhead area 25 June to complete off- 
loading artillery and to embark casualties. Next day, 
Cavalier cleared for Eniwetok, where the wounded were 
put ashore, and cargo, including 37 tons of dynamite for 
use in underwater demolition, was loaded. 

Returning to Saipan 13 July 1944, Cavalier delivered 
her cargo, and loaded troops and vehicles of the 2d 
Marines for the assault on Tinian. She arrived off 
Tinian’s “White Beach” 24 July, successfully landed 
troops and vehicles, loaded casualties, and sailed on 28 
July for Pearl Harbor. 

After brief repairs, Cavalier joined in rehearsal land- 
ings in the Hawaiians, and on 15 September 1944, sailed 
for Manus, and final preparations for the Leyte land- 
ings, first step in the liberation of the Philippines. With 
the Southern Attack Force, she sailed 14 October, and 
after a quiet passage, arrived off Dulag on Leyte 20 
October. Thorough planning and training paid off. 
Cavalier’s boats landed troops and equipment smoothly. 
She remained off the beach, completing her unloading 
and receiving casualties, until 23 October, when she 
cleared for Manus on the eve of the Battle for Leyte 
Gulf. 

After disembarking casualties at Manus, Cavalier 
sailed to New Guinea to load reinforcements, with whom 
she returned to Leyte on 18 November 1944. Then she 
returned to New Guinea to train for the Lingayen as- 
sault, for which she sailed 28 December in the San 
Fabian Attack Force. They suffered enemy air and 
surface attacks enroute. On the night of 7 January 
1945, Cavalier made the first radar contact with the 
Japanese destroyer Hinoki, later destroyed by the ac- 
companying escorts of her group. Still later, other 
ships of her force were damaged by kamikazes. On 9 
January, Cavalier took position to launch her boats on 
White Beach where Japanese mortar fire damaged many 
of her barges. Unhesitatingly her men carried out as- 
signed duties, although six were injured during the day. 
Three more were injured, one mortally, by exploding 
shrapnel during the dusk attack by suicide planes. As 
she retired from Lingayen Gulf next day, her gunners 
took a suicide plane under fire, only to see it crash into 
Dupage (AP-41). 

Cavalier loaded troops at Leyte, and on 26 January 
1945 stood out for the northern Luzon landings on 29 
January. Since Philippine guerillas had secured the 
assault area 2 days previously, no opposition was met, 
and Cavalier set sail for Leyte the same day. On 30 
January, while off Manila Bay, she was suddently shaken 
by a violent underwater explosion, presumably a torpedo 
fired from the Japanese submarine RO-115. Hit port 
side aft, Cavalier suffered 50 men injured, some flooding, 


57 


and buckled decks. Engines stopped and steerageway 
was lost. Flooding and damage were quickly controlled, 
but since her propeller was jammed, she had to be towed 
by Rail (ATO-139) to Leyte, arriving 4 February. Re- 
pairs there and at Pearl Harbor continued through 12 
September. 

Sailing from Pearl Harbor to the Philippines, Cavalier 
embarked military passengers for transportation to San 
Francisco, where she arrived 1 November 1945. From 
1 January to 22 February 1946, she voyaged to Samar, 
Guam, Eniwetok, and Kwajalein, again to load pas- 
sengers for San Francisco. Repairs there preceded a 
tour of duty off China from 5 May 1946 to 30 April 1947, 
from which she returned to San Diego. A second tour of 
China duty from 25 March to 9 December 1948 found 
Cavalier transporting rice furnished by American relief 
agencies for Chinese refugees at Tsingtao. Three short 
cruises to mid-Pacific islands preceded a deployment to 
the Far East for which she sailed 3 April 1950. 

Thus Cavalier was in Japanese waters upon the out- 
break of the Korean war. She quickly prepared for the 
first amphibious landing of the conflict, and on 15 July 
1950, sailed from Yokosuka with troops of the 1st 
Cavalry. They landed at Pohang 18 July, and Cavalier 
returned to Yokosuka 23 July. Assigned to the daring 
Incho invasion, Cavalier next cleared Yokosuka 3 Sep- 
tember, paused at newly secured Pusan from 5 to 12 
September, and in the early evening of 15 September, 
came into position to begin the arduous landings over 
the seawalls of Inchon, against enemy resistance which 
stiffened with each assault wave. Cavalier remained off 
Inchon, receiving casualties, until 20 September, when 
she cleared for Yokosuka. In October, she carried men 
and ammunition to both Inchon and Wonsan, and on 1 
November, cleared for San Diego, overhaul, and local 
training. 

On 14 July 1951, laden with Marines, Cavalier once 
more departed San Diego for the Far East. Arriving at 
Kobe, Japan 29 July, she replenished, and loaded addi- 
tional small arms ammunition and provisions. On 5 
August, she put into Pusan to offload men and cargo, 
returning to Japan for training operations through the 
fall. From 27 November to 7 December, she carried men 
and vehicles of the 45th Infantry to Inchon, and after 
operations in Japanese waters and a visit to Hong Kong, 
made a similar voyage to Inchon late in January 1952. 

Cavalier returned to the west coast 23 April 1952, and 
took part in intensive training along the California 
coast and in Hawaii until 3 July 1953, when she again 
sailed for Yokosuka. From 1 to 27 August, she was at 
Inchon, aiding in the transfer of prisoners of war under 


the Korean Armistice Agreement, and after amphibious 
landing exercises off Japan, Okinawa, and Iwo Jima, 
returned to Long Beach, Calif., 23 April 1954. 

From the close of the Korean war through 1960, 
Cavalier has completed three tours of duty in the Far 
East, from 11 January to 4 October 1956; from 10 Feb- 
ruary through 12 December 1959; and from 16 February 
to 25 July 1960. 

Cavalier received five battle stars for World War II 
service, and four for Korean war service. 

Cavalla 

A salt water fish of the pompano family inhabiting 
waters off the eastern coast of the Americas from Cape 
Cod to Rio de la Plata. 

( SS-244 : dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"_.._ b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 60; a. 1 3", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Cavalla (SS-244) was launched 14 November 1943 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. M. 
Comstock; and commissioned 29 February 1944, Lieu- 
tenant Commander H. J. Kossler in command. 

Departing New London 11 April 1944, Cavalla arrived 
at Pearl Harbor 9 May for voyage repairs and training. 
On 31 May 1944 she put to sea, bound for distant, 
enemy-held waters. 

It was on her maiden patrol that Cavalla rendered the 
distinguished service that earned her a Presidential Unit 
Citation. En route to her station in the eastern Philip- 
pines, she made contact with a large Japanese task 
force 17 June 1944. Cavalla tracked the force for several 
hours, then relayed invaluable information which con- 
tributed heavily to the overwhelming United States 
victory scored in the Battle of the Philippine Sea — the 
famous “Marianas Turkey Shoot” on 19-20 June 1944. 
With this great service completed, Cavalla continued 
her pursuit. On 19 June she caught the carrier Shokaku 
landing planes and quickly fired a spread of six tor- 
pedoes for three hits, enough to send Shokaku to the bot- 
tom in 11°50' N., 137°57' E. After a severe depth 
charging by three destroyers, Cavalla escaped to con- 
tinue her patrol. 

Cavalla’s second patrol took her to the Philippine Sea 
as a member of a wolfpack operating in support of the 
invasion of Peleliu 15 September 1944. 

On 25 November 1944 during her third patrol, Cavalla 
encountered two Japanese destroyers, and made a daring 
surface attack which blew up Shimotsuki in 02°21' N., 
107°20' E. The companion destroyer began depth charg- 



i -f - 


USS Cavalla (SS-244) 


58 



ing while elusive Cavalla evaded on the surface. Later 
in the same patrol, 5 January 1945, she made a night 
surface attack on an enemy convoy, and sank two con- 
verted net tenders in 05°00' S., 112°20' E. 

Cavalla cruised the South China and Java Seas on her 
fourth and fifth war patrols. Targets were few and far 
between, but she came to the aid of an ally on 21 May 
1945. A month out on her fifth patrol, the submarine 
sighted HM Submarine Terrapin, damaged by enemy 
depth charges and unable to submerge or make full 
speed. Cavalla stood by the wounded submarine and 
escorted her on the surface to Fremantle, arriving 27 
May 1945. 

Cavalla received the cease-fire order of 15 August 
while lifeguarding off Japan on her sixth war patrol. 
A few minutes later she was bombed by a Japanese 
plane that apparently had not yet received the same 
information. She joined the fleet units entering Tokyo 
Bay 31 August, remained for the signing of the sur- 
render on 2 September, then departed the next day for 
New London, arriving 6 October 1945. She was placed 
out of commission in reserve there 16 March 1946. 

Recommissioned 10 April 1951, Cavalla was assigned 
to Submarine Squadron 8 and engaged in various fleet 
exercises in the Caribbean and off Nova Scotia. She was 
placed out of commission 3 September 1952 and entered 
Electric Boat Co. yard for conversion to a hunter-killer 
submarine (reclassified SSK-244, 18 February 1953). 

Cavalla was recommissioned 15 July 1953 and assigned 
to Submarine Squadron 10. Her new sonar made Cavalla 
valuable for experimentation and she was transferred to 
Submarine Development Group 2 on 1 January 1954, to 
evaluate new weapons and equipment, and participate in 
fleet exercises. She also cruised to European waters 
several times to take part in North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization exercises, and visited Norfolk, Va., for the 
International Naval Review (11-12 June 1957). She 
remained active with the Fleet through 1963; on 15 Au- 
gust 1959, her classification reverted to SS-244. 

In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation, Cavalla 
received four battle stars for service in World War II. 
Of her six war patrols, the first and third were desig- 
nated as Successful War Patrols. She is credited with 
having sunk a total of 34,180 tons of shipping. 

Cavallaro 

Salvatore John Cavallaro, born 6 September 1920 in 
New York City, enlisted in the Naval Reserve 6 January 
1942, and was commissioned ensign 28 January 1943. 
After training in landing craft, he joined Lyon ( AP-71). 
In the invasion of Sicily, he was assigned to guide the 
landing of the waves of assault boats, and with skill and 
courage, under repeated strafing and bombing attacks, 
carried on throughout the night and early daylight hours 
of 10 July 1943. Assigned similar duty in the invasion 
of Salerno Gulf 9 September 1943, he was killed in 
action when his LCT was struck by shellfire. He was 
posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his gallant 
service at Sicily. 

( APD-128 : dp. 1,450; 1. 306'; b. 36'10"; dr. 13'; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 256; a. 1 5"; cl. Crosley) 

Originally DE-712, Cavallaro was reclassified APD- 
128 on 17 July 1944 and converted to a high speed trans- 
port during construction. She was launched 15 June 
1944 by Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, Mich.; spon- 
sored hy Mrs. A. Cavallaro; and commissioned 13 May 
1945, Lieutenant Commander E. P. Adams, USNR, in 
command. 

Arriving for training at Pearl Harbor 30 May 1945, 
Cavallaro sailed 13 June for convoy escort duty out of 
Ulithi to the Philippines and Okinawa until 20 Septem- 
ber, when she arrived at Sasebo, Japan. She carried 
men between Japanese ports and on 12 October departed 
Tokyo Bay, bound for San Francisco. After operating 


along the west coast, she was decommissioned and placed 
in reserve at San Diego 17 May 1946. 

Cavallaro was recommissioned 4 September 1953, and 
after intensive training, sailed for Japan 12 March 1954. 
She served as primary control ship in several large 
amphibious exercises during this tour of duty in the 
Far East, and transported underwater demolition teams 
in day and night practice reconnaissance missions. In 
the fall of 1954, she was stationed at Haiphong and 
Saigon, Vietnam, as headquarters for those supervising 
the debarkation of refugees from Communist North 
Vietnam carried south by the U.S. Navy in Operation 
“Passage to Freedom.” She returned to San Diego 23 
November. 

From March 1955, Cavallaro was homeported at Long 
Beach, conducting operations along the California coast 
and exercising with marines. Between 12 January 1956 
and 4 October, she served again in the Far East, joining 
in a reenactment of the assault on Iwo Jima made for 
training purposes, and visiting ports in Japan and the 
Philippines, as well as Hong Kong. Her final cruise to 
the Orient, between 10 February 1959 and 23 May, 
found her exercising with both Korean and American 
Marines. Cavallaro returned to Long Beach to prepare 
for transfer to the Republic of Korea, and was decom- 
missioned and transferred 15 October 1959. She serves 
in the Korean Navy as Kyung-Nam (APD-81). 

Cayuga 

One of the six Iroquois tribes; a county, village, and 
lake in New York State bear their name. 

I 

(ScStr : t. 507; 1. 158'; b. 28'; dr. 10'3"; s. 10 k.; a. 1 20- 
pdr. r., 1 11'' sb., 2 24-pdr. sb.) 

Cayuga, a screw steamer, was launched 21 October 
1861 by Gildersleeve and Son, East Haddam, Conn.; 
outfitted at New York Navy Yard; commissioned 21 
February 1862, Lieutenant N. B. Harrison in command; 
and reported to the West Gulf Blockading Squadron. 

Cayuga arrived at Ship Island in Mississippi Sound 
26 March 1862, for service in the lower Mississippi, its 
tributaries, and along the Gulf coast of Texas. Only 
once did she leave this area, from 1 May to 8 July 1862, 
during which she made repairs at New York Navy Yard. 

Playing an important part in the blockade which cut 
the Confederacy off from overseas sources of supply, 
Cayuga took an impressive number of prizes, including 
schooner Jesse J. Cox (25 March 1862), schooner Tam- 
pico (3 April 1863), sloop Blue Bell (2 July 1863), 
schooner J. T. Davis (10 August 1863), and schooner 
Wave (22 August 1863). In addition, she shared in the 
capture of sloop Active (21 June 1863). 

Cayuga also joined in the engagement with Forts 
Jackson and St. Philip below New Orleans in April 
1862, which led to the fall of the city to Flag Officer 
Farragut and bombarded Donalsonville, La., 9 August 
1862. On 18 April 1863, at Sabine Pass, Texas, Cayuga’s 
commanding officer, Lieutenant D. A. McDermut, led a 
party of men ashore in a reconnaissance designed as the 
last step in a plan to cut out Confederate steamers 
lying at Sabine, then to establish control of the Sabine 
River, separating southern forces in Texas from those in 
Louisiana. The party was surprised by Confederate 
soldiers; and McDermut, mortally wounded, and six men 
were taken prisoner. 

Cayuga’s active service ended with her departure from 
Galveston, Texas, 4 July 1865 for New York, where she 
arrived 26 July. She was decommissioned 31 July 1865, 
and sold 25 October 1865. 

II 

On 1 September 1917, the tug Powhatan (q.v.) was 
renamed Cayuga. 


59 


Cayuga County, see LST—529 
Cebu 

An island of the central Philippines. 

( ARG-6 : dp. 4,621; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 23'; s. 12.5 
k.; cpl. 583; a. 1 5"; cl. Luzon) 

Cebu (ARG-6) was launched 18 October 1943 by 
Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards, Inc., Baltimore, Md., 
under a Maritime Commission contract as Francis P. 
Duffy; sponsored by Mrs. M. C. Bird; acquired by the 
Navy 27 October 1943; and commissioned 15 April 
1944, Captain G. W. Scott in command. 

Cebu’s special mission was providing shops and 
trained men for the repair of internal combustion en- 
gines, but through the course of the war, her men per- 
formed an impressive variety of tasks, ranging from the 
repairing of ship’s clocks to major work on battleships. 
She arrived at Manus in the Admiralty Islands 10 Sep- 
tember 1944. At this great fleet base, she prepared small 
craft and larger ships for their role in the Philippine 
operations, working many times around the clock in 
order to insure the readiness of ships vital to the success 
of the invasion assaults. 

At Manus on 10 November 1944, Cebu was anchored 
only 800 yards from Mount Hood (AE-11) when the 
ammunition ship exploded, showering Cebu’s decks with 
bomb fragments and heavy projectiles. Five of her men 
were killed and six wounded, but quick work prevented 
serious damage to the ship itself. She was able to con- 
tinue her essential work without interruption, preparing 
ships for the Lingayen and Iwo Jima assaults. 

Cebu was stationed at Ulithi from 22 January 1945 
to 12 February when she sailed for San Pedro Bay, P.I. 
Her work continued at a furious rate as victims of sui- 
cide attacks required immediate repairs. Her services 
to small craft at Leyte continued until 21 September, 
when she sailed for occupation duties at Okinawa and 
Japan until 11 March 1946. 

Cebu prepared at Pearl Harbor from 29 March 1946 
to 11 May for her role supporting the atomic tests of 
Operation “Crossroads” at Bikini and Kwajalein in the 
summer of 1946. She arrived at San Diego 28 Septem- 
ber, and was placed out of commission in reserve at 
Stockton, Calif., 30 June 1947. 

Cebu received one battle star for World War II service. 

Cecil 

A county in Maryland. 


The contract for the building of Cecil (APR-4) was 
cancelled 12 March 1943. 

I 

( APA-96 : dp. 8,100; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 26'6''; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 575; a. 2 5''; cl. Bayfield) 

Cecil (APA-96) was launched as Sea Angler by West- 
ern Pipe and Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. S. 
Belither; acquired by the Navy 26 February 1944; 
placed in reduced commission 27 February 1944; con- 
verted at Continental Iron Works, Portland, Oreg. ; and 
placed in full commission 15 September 1944, Captain 
P. G. Hale in command. 

Cecil cleared San Francisco 26 November 1944 for 
amphibious training in the Hawaiians, and preparations 
for the invasion of Iwo Jima at Eniwetok and Saipan. 
She cleared Saipan with her task group 16 February, 
and 3 days later, took position off Iwo Jima for the 
initial assault. As naval and air bombardment pounded 
the island, her men skillfully played their part. Remain- 
ing off the hard-fought beaches, Cecil completed unload- 


ing troops, cargo, and vehicles, and embarked casualties, 
with whom she sailed 28 February to Saipan. 

Cecil continued on to Tulagi and Espiritu Santo, 
where she loaded men and cargo of the 27th Infantry. 
On 9 April 1945, she landed these reinforcements 
through high surf on Okinawa. She remained for a week 
continuing her unloading under enemy air attacks, aid- 
ing in fighting them off as she loaded and landed her 
boats. On 16 April she got underway for Saipan and 
Ulithi, where she received minor repairs and replen- 
ished. On 21 May, Cecil arrived in Subic Bay, P.I., for 
transport and training duty until 27 August, when she 
departed Luzon with troops and cargo of the 1st Cav- 
alry, bound for occupation duty in Japan. 

Cecil called at Yokohama from 2 to 4 September 1945, 
then returned to the Philippines to load more occupation 
troops. On the return passage to Japan, she was ordered 
into Okinawa from 25 September to 3 October to avoid 
a threatening typhoon, then proceeded on to disembark 
her troops at Aki Nada. She sailed to San Pedro, Calif., 
for a minor overhaul in November, then made another 
voyage to the Philippines to return men and equipment 
to San Pedro 22 January 1946. In March she sailed to 
Norfolk, Va., where she was decommissioned 24 May 
1946, and returned to the Maritime Commission the 
next day. 

Cecil received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cecil, Charles P see Charles P. Cecil 

Cecil J. Doyle 

Born 10 August 1920 in Marshall, Minn., Cecil John 
Doyle enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve 26 March 
1941 and following aviation training at Corpus Christi, 
Tex., was appointed a Second Lieutenant 6 April 1942. 
Lieutenant Doyle was declared missing in action 7 
November 1942. For his extraordinary heroism while 
attached to a Marine fighting squadron in combat with 
enemy forces in the Solomons from 18 to 25 October, 
he was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. 

(DE-368: dp. 1,350; 1. 306'; b. 36'7''; dr. 13'4"; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 2 5", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh), 2 dct. ; 
cl. John C. Butler) 

Cecil J. Doyle (DE-368) was launched 1 July 1944 
by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex.; sponsored 
by Mrs. O. P. Doyle; and commissioned 16 October 1944, 
Lieutenant Commander D. S. Crocker, USNR, in com- 
mand. 

Cecil J. Doyle carried out her first mission while still 
in shakedown, when she cruised on an air-sea rescue 
station during the flight of Government officials to the 
Yalta Conference. On 30 January 1945, she rendez- 
voused with HMS Ranee, and guarded the escort car- 
rier through the Panama Canal and north to San Diego. 
Cecil J. Doyle continued on to Pearl Harbor and Eni- 
wetok, where she arrived 28 March to join the Mar- 
shalls-Gilbert Patrol and Escort Group. Her escort 
duties took her to Guam, and Ulithi, where on 30 April 
she was transferred to the Carolines Surface Patrol 
and Escort Group. On 2 May, Cecil J. Doyle’s command- 
ing officer became Commander, Screen, Peleliu, protect- 
ing the great anchorage in Kossol Roads. 

While on patrol, Cecil J. Doyle several times rescued 
downed aviators, and on 27 May 1945, bombarded a by- 
passed Japanese garrison on Koror Island. On 2 August, 
she was ordered to the rescue of a large group of men 
in rafts reported at 11°30' N., 133°30' E., and bent on 
top speed to be the first to reach the survivors of tor- 
pedoed Indianapolis (CA-35). It was Cecil J. Doyle’s 
melancholy duty to radio the first report of the cruiser’s 
loss. She rescued 93 survivors, and gave final rites 
to 21 found already dead. Remaining in the area search- 


60 


ing until 8 August, Cecil J. Doyle was the last to leave 
the scene. 

From 26 August 1945, when she sailed into Buckner 
Bay, Okinawa, the destroyer was assigned to occupa- 
tion duty. She sailed with hospital ships to Wakayama, 
Japan, to evacuate released prisoners of war, then 
screened carriers providing air cover for landing of 
occupation troops. Through 12 November, she cruised 
on courier duty between Japanese ports, and after dry- 
docking at Yokosuka, sailed for San Francisco, arriv- 
ing 13 January 1946. She was decommissioned and 
placed in reserve at San Diego 2 July 1946. 

Cedar 

A fragrant evergreen of the pine family. 

Cedar, a sea-going lighthouse tender, was built at 
Long Beach, Calif., for service in Alaska. She was ac- 
quired from the Lighthouse Service in August 1917, and 
operated throughout World War I as a patrol vessel 
assigned to the 13th Naval District. She was returned 
to the Lighthouse Service under an Executive order of 
1 July 1919. 

Cedar Creek 

Former name retained. 

Cedar Creek, a tanker, was built by Sun Shipbuilding 
and Dry Dock Co., Chester, Pa., in 1943, and lend leased 
to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 30 April 
1944. She was returned to the Maritime Commission in 
March 1948, acquired by the Navy and classified AO-138 
in July 1948, and operated in a noncommissioned status 
by a civilian company under contract with the Navy. 
In October 1949 she was assigned to the Military Sea 
Transportation Service and continued operations with 
a civilian crew. On 28 September 1954 she was placed 
in reserve at San Diego where she remained until 1 
November 1956 when she again transferred to MSTS. 
She was stricken from the Naval Register and turned 
over to the Maritime Administration on 14 October 
1957. 


Celebes 

Celebes, the English name given to the island of Sula- 
wesi, Republic of Indonesia. 

(AK: t. 5,875; 1. 394'; b. 51'6"; dr. 25'11"; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 62) 

Celebes (No. 2680), a cargo vessel, was launched in 
1907 by Furness, Withy Company, Limited, West 
Hartlepool, England; seized by Customs officials at 
Newport News, Va., under the Presidential Proclama- 
tion of 20 March 1918; transferred from the Shipping 
Board the following day; and commissioned 6 April 
1918, Lieutenant Commander O. E. May, USNRF, in 
command. 

Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Serv- 
ice, Celebes made four transatlantic voyages from New 
York calling at St. Nazaire, Verdon, and La Pallice, 
France, between 2 May 1918 and 15 February 1919. 
After providing this supply support to the American 
Expeditionary Force, she sailed from New York 15 
March for Amsterdam, Netherlands. Here she was 
turned over to the Shipping Board 2 May 1919 for 
transfer to her Dutch owners. 


Celeno 

A star in the constellation Pleiades. 

(AK-76: dp. 4,672; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; s. 
12 k. ; cpl. 214; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Crater) 


Celeno (AK-76) was launched 12 December 1942 as 
Redfield Proctor by Permanente Metals Corp., Rich- 
mond, Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. G. G. Sherwood; transferred to the 
Navy 19 December 1942; and commissioned 2 January 
1943, Lieutenant Commander N. E. Lanphere, USNR, 
in command. 

Celeno joined the Pacific Fleet and cleared San Fran- 
cisco 10 January 1943 with cargo for Noumea, New 
Caledonia. She arrived 1 February to support the oper- 
ations on Guadalcanal and throughout the Solomons 
with cargo brought from New Zealand to Noumea, 
Tulagi, and Guadalcanal itself. Unloading cargo off 
Guadalcanal on 16 June, Celeno was attacked by a 
swarm of Japanese bombers. As the freighter’s anti- 
aircraft guns roared into action, the dive bombers 
scored three near misses, then hit Celeno’ s stern, putting 
her 5" gun out of operation. Her men stood to the 
remaining guns, and aided in downing at least three 
enemy planes and damaging several others. A second 
direct hit set two of Celeno’s holds on fire, and another 
near miss sent her deck cargo of diesel oil and gasoline 
flaming. With her rudder jammed from the first hit, 
Celeno circled, as her crew determined to save her. Skill- 
ful damage control and superb seamanship beached 
her safely on Lunga Point, and when the air attack 
had been fought off. Celeno was towed off for repairs at 
Port Purvis. Fifteen of her valiant crew were killed and 
19 wounded in the attack. 

Further repairs at Espiritu Santo and San Francisco 
fitted Celeno for action once more, and the fighting ship 
returned to the South Pacific in January 1944 to con- 
tinue her support of the Solomons campaign. As the 
seizure of bases in the Admiralty Islands began, Celeno 
brought troops and cargo to Manus through the spring 
of 1944, and continued to operate throughout the Solo- 
mons, Bismarcks, and Marianas. She sailed to Australia 
and New Zealand, then made a cargo run to newly 
secured Iwo Jima. Returning to Noumea, Celeno per- 
formed rear-area support for the Okinawa operation by 
voyages to Eniwetok and Ulithi, en route to Okinawa 
itself, where she arrived 18 June. She returned to 
Ulithi 3 July, and resumed cargo operations through- 
out the South Pacific. 

In November 1945, Celeno sailed to Iwo Jima to em- 
bark troops for transportation to Saipan, where she 
picked up another group of men bound for the west 
coast. Celeno was decommissioned at San Francisco 1 
March 1946, and transferred to the Maritime Commis- 
sion. 

Celeno received three battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Celeritas 

Former name retained. 

Celeritas (No. 665), a motorboat, was purchased by 
the Navy on 28 May 1917 and assigned to the 2d Naval 
District where she performed patrol duty in a non- 
commissioned status. She was stricken from the Navy 
List on 17 May 1919 and sold. 


Celtic 

Of or pertaining to the Celts or their language. 

I 

( AF-2 : dp. 6,750; 1. 383'1"; b. 44'7"; dr. 21'; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 182) 

Celtic (AF-2) was built in 1891 by Workman, Clark 
and Co., Ltd., Belfast, Ireland, as Celtic King; pur- 
chased by the Navy 14 May 1898; fitted out at New 
York Navy Yard; and commissioned 27 May 1898, Lieu- 
tenant Commander N. J. K. Patch in command. 


61 


From 11 June to 25 September 1898, Celtic supplied 
fleet units in Cuban and Floridan waters with medical 
supplies, fresh provisions, and ice. On 12 October, she 
cleared New York to round Cape Horn on the long 
route to the Asiatic Station, arriving at Cavite, P.I., 
30 March, for service as storeship. Supporting the 
quelling of the Philippine Insurrrection, Celtic carried 
stores and passengers between the Philippines and 
Australian ports until 16 July 1903, when she weighed 
anchor for Puget Sound Navy Yard. Here she was 
out of commission between 18 September 1903 and 19 
October 1905. 

Returning to New York City 24 January 1906, Celtic 
began supply operations with the Atlantic fleet until 
23 February 1907, when she again went out of com- 
mission. Recommissioned at Boston Navy Yard 23 Octo- 
ber 1908, Celtic crossed the Atlantic with relief supplies 
for earthquake-damaged Sicily, where she set up a tent 
city at Messina. She returned to her east coast and 
Caribbean operations 15 April 1909. Key supply ship for 
the Veracruz operation, Celtic lay anchored off the 
Mexican city from 16 June 1914 to 24 July 1915, except 
for occasional voyages to Key West, Fla., and Cape 
Haitien, Haiti, for replenishment. 

Her voyages carrying stores from New York to 
Caribbean forces ended 2 July 1917, when Celtic cleared 
New York to carry cargo to American bases at Queens- 
town, Ireland, and Brest, France. She returned to New 
York 27 August and resumed her Caribbean runs until 
1 July 1918. Transferred then to the Naval Overseas 
Transportation Service, she crossed the Atlantic twice 
to English ports and once to the Adriatic with am- 
munition and stores. Reassigned to the Pacific Fleet on 
30 June 1919, Celtic cleared New York 31 August, 
arriving at San Pedro, Calif., 22 September. She cruised 
the west coast carrying and issuing stores to the Fleet 
until 22 March 1921, when she was assigned to duty 
as cold storage station ship at Apra, Guam. Celtic 
sailed from Guam on her last naval passage 17 May 
1922, arriving at Cavite 26 May. There she was decom- 
missioned 23 June 1922, and sold 23 January 1923. 

II 

(IX-137 : dp. 20,000 (f.) ; 1. 485'; b. 62'6"; dr. 31'6"; 
s. 10 k. ; cpl. 114; a. 1 4", 1 3") 

The second Celtic (IX-137) was built in 1921 as 
Kerry Patch by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, 
Mass.; acquired by the Navy 17 January 1944; and 
commissioned the same day, Lieutenant J. S. Loring, 
USCG, in command. 

Acquired at Noumea, New Caledonia, Celtic sailed 
15 February 1944 for duty as station tanker, suc- 
cessively, at Efate and Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides; 
Port Purvis, Gavutu, and Empress Augusta Bay in the 
Solomons; and at Noumea itself until 31 March 1945, 
when she joined a convoy for Leyte, arriving 25 May. 
Here she served as station tanker until 1 July, sailing 
then for duty off Okinawa from 17 July. Her support of 
the occupation continued until 29 October when she 
cleared for Mobile, Ala., arriving 11 December. A career 
of humble but essential service ended with her decom- 
missioning 6 February 1946. Celtic was delivered to 
the War Shipping Administration for disposal 24 
December 1946. 


Centaur, see Saugus 


Centaurus 

A southern constellation. 

I 

(AKA-17 : dp. 6,556; 1. 459'3''; b. 63'; dr. 26'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 247; a. 1 5"; cl. Andromeda) 


Centaurus (AKA-17) was launched 3 September 
1943 by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Kearny, N.J., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. J. L. Wilson; acquired by the Navy 
20 October 1943; and commissioned the next day, Cap- 
tain G. E. McCabe, USCG, in command. 

Centaurus put to sea from Norfolk, Va., 11 December 
1943 with cargo for Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 
30 December. On 22 January 1944, she cleared with 
the Southern Attack Force, bound for Kwajalein Atoll 
in the Marshall Islands, off which she arrived 31 Janu- 
ary. During the initial assault, she landed four waves 
of cargo-laden craft under the protective fire of Penn- 
sylvania (BB-38) with a smoothness belying her new- 
ness at amphibious warfare, and until 5 February she 
remained off the atoll landing combat cargo to support 
troops ashore as they encountered stiffening opposition. 
She returned to Noumea for training and cargo duty 
until 31 March, when she sailed from Tulagi to carry 
men and cargo to Manus and proceeded to Langemak 
Bay, New Guinea. Here she loaded for the landings on 
northern New Guinea, and on 15 April put to sea in 
the second assault echelon for Aitape. While her land- 
ings here on 23 April were unopposed, difficult surf and 
beach conditions challenged her skill. After several brief 
voyages to other New Guinea ports to transport re- 
inforcements to the Hollandia area, Centaurus sailed 
for amphibious exercises in the Solomon Islands. 

From 3 June to 30 June 1944, the attack cargo ship 
was at sea as part of the reserve force standing by 
during the invasion of the Marianas, and then returned 
to Eniwetok to prepare for the return of U.S. forces to 
Guam. She sailed in the Southern Attack Force for this 
assault 17 July, and on 21 July, day of the initial attack, 
began landing combat cargo on the difficult beaches near 
Agat, where Japanese forces offered stiff resistance. 
She completed offloading cargo and vehicles, and em- 
barking casualties, a week later when she cleared for 
Eniwetok. 

After brief overhaul at Espiritu Santo, Centaurus 
sailed to Guadalcanal to embark cargo and vehicles 
for the assault on the Palau Islands, for which she 
cleared 8 September. At Peleliu on 15 September 1944 
she began landing her cargo as heavy opposition de- 
veloped from the Japanese defenses, cleverly concealed. 
A fierce fight developed for the marines ashore, and 
Centaurus remained off the island pouring ashore the 
equipment essential to the maintenance of the offensive. 
Taking on board casualties and prisoners of war, the 
attack cargo ship also carried marines when she cleared 
on 4 October for the Russells, where all passengers were 
disembarked. She herself continued on to San Francisco, 
where from 25 October to 22 December she was in 
overhaul. 

Centaurus returned to the Pacific by way of Guam, 
and after rehearsal landings in the Solomons, joined 
the Northern Attack Force for the invasion of Okinawa, 
with which she sailed from Ulithi 27 March. Arriving 
off the island for the assault on 1 April, Centaurus 
began to discharge cargo at an ever-quickening pace, 
as she supported the first rapid advances of the 6th 
Marines across the island. Operations went smoothly 
despite heavy kamikaze attacks; Centaurus’ guns helped 
splash two. She cleared Okinawa 9 April for Pearl 
Harbor, where she loaded additional cargo for the Oki- 
nawa operation. Returning to Okinawa 3 June, she 
offloaded and on 14 June sailed for the United States 
via Pearl Harbor, and between 19 July and 23 August 
was in after overhaul at Seattle. Centaurus returned to 
the Far East and operated in the redeployment of troops. 
On 31 January 1946 she returned to Seattle and thence 
proceeded to New York City, where she arrived on 23 
March and was decommissioned 30 April 1946. She re- 
turned to the Maritime Commission 11 September 1946. 

Centaurus received six battle stars for World War II 
service. 


62 


II 

The second Centaurus (AK-264) was acquired from 
the Army 12 June 1951 and lent to South Korea the same 
day. 

Center, Robert, see Robert Center 


Centipede 

The popular name for numerous varieties of many- 
legged insects. 

(Gy: t. 70; I. 75'; b. 15'; dph. 4'; cpl 40; a. 1 24-pdr., 
1 18-pdr. col.) 

The galley Centipede was launched by Adam and 
Noah Brown, Vergennes, Vt., about June 1814, and was 
commissioned later in that year, Sailing Master Daniel 
Hazard in command. 

Centipede was part of the force commanded by Com- 
modore Thomas Macdonough which decisively defeated 
a British squadron on 11 September 1814 in the Battle 
of Lake Champlain. This great naval victory forced 
the British to abandon plans for an overland march 
thrusting into the United States from Canada. 

Following the war, Centipede was laid up, and the 
galley was sold at Whitehall, N.Y., in 1825. 

Cepheus 

A northern constellation. 

I 

(AKA-18: dp. 6,556; 1. 459'3"; b. 63'; dr. 24'; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 404; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Andromeda) 

Cepheus (AKA-18) was launched 23 October 1943 
by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, 
N.J., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored 
by Miss J. Sharpe; transferred to the Navy 15 Decem- 
ber 1943; and commissioned the next day, Captain R. B. 
Hall, USCG, in command. 

Cepheus put to sea from Staten Island 27 February 
1944, bound in convoy for Liverpool. Although several 
submarine contacts were reported in the convoy, effec- 
tive work by the escorts prevented any attacks, and 
the convoy arrived safely 9 March, with its cargo 
destined for the Normandy invasion. Joining her as- 
signed division in Scottish waters, Cepheus sailed for 
Oran, where she arrived 6 April to report to the Eighth 
Amphibious Force. After training exercises along the 
Algerian coast, she loaded vehicles and troops for the 
passage to Naples, where she unloaded 19 June to 23 
June. After training at Palermo and Salerno, she re- 
turned to Naples to offload combat vehicles, then cleared 
for Castellammar near Palermo to combat load for the 
invasion of Southern France. 

Cepheus put to sea with the Camel Beach Attack 
Group 13 August 1944, and after a safe passage along 
a route designed to camouflage the convoy’s destination, 
arrived off the beaches east of Saint Raphael just before 
dawn of 15 August. Her swift and competent unloading 
was a significant contribution to the successful passage 
over those beaches, and although the latter stages of 
unloading were accomplished under enemy air attack 
and through defensive smoke screen, Cepheus was empty 
before midnight, and moved out to await orders for her 
return to Naples, where she arrived on 18 August. 

Between 23 August and 7 October 1944, Cepheus sup- 
ported the rapid advance of forces ashore by four more 
voyages, two from Naples to the assault area, and two 
from Oran to Marseilles, captured at the end of August 
after heavy naval bombardment of its defenses. Clear- 
ing Oran in convoy 25 October, she arrived at Norfolk, 
Va., 8 November. Here she prepared for duty in the 
Pacific, and on 18 December was underway for Pearl 


Harbor with cargo. Arriving 10 January 1945, she 
joined in training exercises until 26 February, when 
she put to sea combat loaded for the Okinawa assault. 

Cepheus arrived in the transport area off Okinawa 
on 1 April 1945, and since her cargo was destined for 
use after the initial assault, sent her boats for use in 
unloading three other transports. She retired seaward 
for the night, and came under enemy air attack while 
returning to the island next morning. During that raid, 
she fired upon seven Japanese aircraft, and aided in 
downing three. She remained off the island, unloading 
and aiding other ships to unload, firing on enemy air- 
craft, until 16 April, when she cleared for replenish- 
ment at Saipan. Through May and June, she made a 
voyage from the Marianas to New Zealand to load 
cargo, and on 12 July, returned to Ulithi to join an 
Okinawa-bound convoy. At Hagushi anchorage, she un- 
derwent several air attacks, then moved to Kerama 
Retto to unload. She returned to New Caledonia and the 
New Hebrides to load construction equipment, which 
she carried to the Philippines, arriving at Lingayen 16 
September. Four days later, she put to sea for the first 
of two voyages from the Philippines to Japan with 
occupation supplies, and on 28 October, she cleared for 
Portland, Oregon, from Hiro Wan. One more voyage 
was made from the west coast to the Far East, during 
which Cepheus carried cargo to Tientsin, China, before 
15 February 1946, when the cargo transport left San 
Francisco astern, bound for New York City. Here she 
was decommissioned 22 May 1946, and returned to the 
Maritime Commission. 

Cepheus received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

II 

The second Cepheus (AK-265) was acquired from 
the Army 12 June 1951 and lent to South Korea the same 
day. 

Cerberus, see LST—316 
Ceres 

In Greek mythology, the goddess of grain and 
harvests. 

(SwStr: t. 150; 1. 108'4"; b. 22'4''; d. 6'3"; s. 9 k.; cpl. 

45; a. 1 30-pdr. r., 1 32-pdr. sb.) 

Ceres, an armed side-wheel merchant steamer, was 
built at Keyport, N.J., 1856; purchased 11 September 
1861; fitted out at the Washington Navy Yard; and 
commissioned during September, Acting Master J. L. 
Elliott in command. 

Originally assigned to the Potomac Flotilla, Ceres 
was ordered on 18 September 1861 to report to the 
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and for the re- 
mainder of the war, aside from repair periods at Balti- 
more, operated in the rivers and sounds of Virginia and 
North Carolina. Here she maintained the close watch 
for southern merchantmen through which the blockad- 
ing forces provided so important a part of the Navy’s 
contribution in the Civil War. She was successful in 
capturing four blockade runners during her service, as 
well as aiding in the seizure of others. 

Another crucial assignment carried out by Ceres’ 
squadron was support for Army forces holding or at- 
tempting to take coastal positions, as well as providing 
boats and cover for amphibious operations, raids, and 
reconnaissance. She took part in the capture of Roanoke 
Island on 7 and 8 February 1862, during which she was 
hit while firing on Confederate shore positions. When 
nearby Confederate naval ships retired up Albemarle 
Sound as Roanoke fell, Ceres joined in following them, 
and next took part in the naval engagement off Eliza- 
beth City. During this action, in which one of her men 
was wounded, she captured CSS Ellis. 


63 


Continuing her operations in North Carolinian 
waters, Ceres took the steamer Wilson on 9 July 1862 
while covering the landing of an Army raiding party 
near Hamilton. Through most of 1863, she protected the 
forces holding such posts as Fort Anderson at New 
Bern, and the positions near Washington, N.C., coming 
under fire from Confederate batteries on several oc- 
casions. In the lengthy series of attacks around Ply- 
mouth, N.C., Ceres lost two men killed and six wounded 
when she was taken under heavy fire from Fort Grey, 
upriver from Plymouth, on 17 April 1864. Two days 
later, it was Ceres who gave warning of the approach 
of the formidable Confederate ram Albemarle, and took 
part in the first engagement with the ram which fol- 
lowed. On 5 May, her group again was engaged with 
Albemarle and two other steamers. 

Following the dramatic sinking of the ram by Lieu- 
tenant W. B. Cushing, and later salvage, Ceres towed 
Albemarle north to Norfolk at the close of the war. 
After a final patrol period off North Carolina, Ceres 
was decommisisoned at New York 14 July 1865, and 
sold 25 October 1865. 


Cero 

A large food and game fish of the mackerel family, 
found chiefly in the West Indies. 

I 

The first Cero (No. 1189), a motorboat, served in the 
2d Naval District in a noncommissioned status during 
1917-18. 

II 

(SS-225; dp. 1,526: 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k.; cpl 60; a. 1 3", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato ) 

The second Cero (SS-225) was launched 4 April 1943 
by Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
D. E. Barbey; and commissioned 4 July 1943, Com- 
mander D. C. White in command. 

Cero cleared New London 17 August 1943 for Pacific 
action waters, and on 26 September sailed from Pearl 
Harbor on her first war patrol, which was conducted 
in the East China and Yellow Seas. At dawn on 12 
October, she made her first attack on a convoy of three 
freighters escorted by two destroyers. After heavily 
damaging one of the merchantmen, Cero plunged deep 
to endure the depth charging which followed. During 
the same patrol, she damaged two other freighters, and 
a small patrol boat which she engaged on the surface. 

After refitting at Midway from 16 November to 13 
December 1943, Cero made her second war patrol, an 
unproductive one, along the Truk-New Ireland route, 
then put in to Milne Bay, New Guinea, from 12 Janu- 
ary to 4 February 1944. Returning to the Truk-New 
Ireland shipping lanes, she attacked a freighter (later 
sunk by one of her sister submarines) and inflicted 
damage on another merchantman. She put in to Bris- 
bane, Australia, 2 March, and sailed on her fourth war 
patrol, to be conducted off the Palau Islands, 3 April. 
Her most successful day to date came on 23 May, when 
she attacked two freighters and a tanker, sinking one 
cargo ship, and damaging the tanker. 

Cero was refitted at Seeadler Harbor, Manus, from 
2 to 26 June 1944, then put to sea for the dangerous 
waters off Mindanao, where on 5 August, she sent a 
Japanese tanker to the bottom. Fifteen days later she 
arrived at Brisbane, and on 19 September cleared Dar- 
win, Australia, for the Mindanao and Sulu Seas. She 
called en route at Mios Woendi, where she took on board 
17 tons of supplies for Philippine guerillas, along with 
16 soldiers headed for behind-the-lines operations in 
Luzon. Although not permitted by her orders to attack 
escorted merchantmen while on this mission, Cero en- 
countered two small craft on 27 October, and in the 


resulting gun action, damaged both and forced them 
ashore. On 3 November, north of Manila, she made 
contact with the guerillas, landed the soldiers and sup- 
plies, and took four evacuees on board. Later taken 
under attack by a Japanese submarine, Cero was able 
by alert bridge action to evade a torpedo aimed at her. 
Mission completed, she returned to Pearl Harbor 24 
November, then sailed to the west coast for overhaul. 

Cero shoved off for action from Pearl Harbor once 
more 31 March 1945, on her seventh and most productive 
war patrol. Cruising off Honshu and Hokkaido, she not 
only provided lifeguard services for air strikes on 
Japan, but sank two and damaged one Japanese picket 
boats, as well as sending three freighters and a large 
trawler to the bottom. Refitted at Guam and Saipan 
between 27 May and 27 June 1945, Cero had lifeguard 
and picket duty off Honshu for her eighth war patrol. 
On 15 July, she rescued three survivors of a downed 
bomber, and later that day bombarded the Japanese 
lighthouse and radio station at Shiriya Saki, Honshu. 
On 18 July, while sailing for the Kurile Islands, Cero 
came under enemy air attack, and was damaged so 
severely by a bomb landing close aboard that she was 
forced to leave her patrol area for Pearl Harbor, arriv- 
ing 30 July. 

Cero made prolonged visits to New Orleans and Baton 
Rouge before arriving 5 November 1945 at New London, 
where she was decommissioned and placed in reserve 
8 June 1946. Here she was recommisioned 4 February 
1952, and on 22 March, Cero arrived at her home port 
at Key West. For the next year she cruised in the Carib- 
bean and aided in the work of the Fleet Sonar School, 
then sailed north for inactivation. She was again de- 
commissioned and placed in reserve at New London 23 
December 1953. 

Cero received seven battle stars for World War II 
service. Of her eight patrols, all but the second were 
designated as successful war patrols. She is credited 
with having sunk a total of 18,159 tons of shipping. 

Cetus 

An equatorial constellation. 

(AK-77 : dp. 4,023; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr 28'4"; s. 12 
k.; cpl. 198; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Crater ) 

Cetus (AK-77) was launched 26 December 1942 by 
Permanente Metals Corp., Yard No. 2, Richmond, Calif., 
as George B. Cortelyou under a Maritime Commission 
contract; sponsored by Mrs. N. F. Potter; acquired by 
the Navy 4 January 1943; and commissioned 17 January 
1943, Lieutenant Commander N. T. Gansa, USNR, in 
command. 

Cetus’ assignment, for which she sailed from San 
Francisco 1 February 1943, was carrying cargo among 
South Pacific bases, and from ports in New Zealand. 
She arrived at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 24 Feb- 
ruary, and began her share of the buildup of Solomon 
and Society Islands bases from which naval forces 
fought north through the Bismarcks. On 12 July 1944, 
she sailed from Guadalcanal for Eniwetok, where she 
prepared for her support of the invasion of Guam. She 
put to sea again 23 July, and arrived off Guam 27 July, 
6 days after the initial assault. With bitter fighting 
continuing ashore, Cetus offloaded her much needed 
cargo over reefs and beaches, then returned to the 
South Pacific. 

In September and October 1944, Cetus brought cargo, 
some of which eventually played its part in the liberation 
of the Philippines, from Espiritu Santo to Ulithi and 
Manus. Cetus lay just outside Manus Harbor 10 No- 
vember when ammunition ship Mount Hood (AE-11) 
exploded, but escaped injury. She returned to Auckland 
and Wellington, New Zealand, to load cargo after brief 
overhaul, and on 18 March 1945 arrived at Guam to aid 
in preparations for the invasion of Okinawa, carrying 


64 


cargo to Saipan, and then to Ulithi. On 26 April she 
herself arrived off Okinawa, with cargo to support the 
determined fighting ashore. Cetus unloaded under the 
constant hazard of enemy air and surface suicide at- 
tack, but received no injury. She then sailed for San 
Francisco, arriving on 12 June for a major overhaul 
which kept her there until after the close of the war. 
She proceeded on to Norfolk, Va., where she was decom- 
missioned 20 November 1945, and returned to the Mari- 
time Commission the following day. 

Cetus received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Chachalaca 

A species of bird, the Texan guan. 

Chachalaca (AMC-41) was launched on 11 June 1941 
by the Bristol Yacht Building Co., South Bristol, Maine. 
She was placed in service on 11 September 1941 and 
assigned to the 10th Naval District where she performed 
minesweeper duties. On 4 January 1946 she was placed 
out of service and stricken on 8 May of that year. 

Chadron, see PC— 56k 


Chaffee 

Born in Hartland Township, Ohio, 5 May 1915, Davis 
Elliott Chaffee enlisted in the Navy 4 January 1941. 
He was appointed Ensign 6 September 1941, and naval 
aviator 1 October 1941. While serving with Bomber 
Squadron 5 based on Yorktown (CV-5), he was killed in 
action during the Battle of the Coral Sea 8 May 1942. 
He was posthumously awarded a Navy Cross for his 
courage in participating in an attack in which an enemy 
carrier was sunk. 

(DE-230: dp. 1,450; 1. 306'; b. 36'10"; dr. 9'8"; s. 24 k.; 

cpl. 186; a. 2 5", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct. ; 
cl. Rudderow) 

Chaffee (DE-230) was launched 27 November 1943 by 
Charleston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. L. C. Chaffee; 
and commissioned 9 May 1944, Lieutenant Commander 
A. C. Jones, USNR, in command. 

After operating on the east coast as a target ship in 
submarine training, and as a training ship for prospec- 
tive escort vessel crews, Chaffee cleared Bayonne, N.J., 
14 October 1944. She arrived at Hollandia 21 November 
for operations in the New Guinea area screening LSTs, 
in gunnery and antitorpedo exercises, and on patrol at 
the entrance to Aitape. 

Chaffee began her role in the liberation of the Philip- 
pines when she sailed from Hollandia 17 December 1944 
to escort landing craft to Leyte. She cleared Hollandia 
again 8 January 1945 with reinforcements for the re- 
cently landed San Fabian Attack Force at Lingayen, 
where she arrived 21 January. Assigned to patrol in 
Lingayen Gulf, Chaffee underwent a unique experience 
23 January, when a Japanese aerial torpedo passed 
through her bow without exploding, or causing any 
injuries to her crew. By 2 February, temporary repairs 
had been completed, and Chaffee returned to patrol 
duties. She continued to escort convoys in the Philip- 
pines, as well as conduct patrols, in support of the 
Mindanao operation until 29 April, when she cleared 
Parang for Morotai. She returned to the southern 
Philippines for escort duty 2 May. A week later, she 
guarded the landing of reinforcements at Davao. 

Chaffee arrived at Morotai from the Philippines 19 
June 1945 to train for the Borneo operation, and cleared 
on 28 June to escort reinforcements which landed at 
Balikpapan 3 July. For the remainder of the war, 
Chaffee escorted convoys between Morotai and Hollandia 
and the Philippines. She aided in the establishment of 


the base in Subic Bay, conducted local patrols and escort 
missions, and escorted a troop ship to Okinawa in Sep- 
tember, then returned to Philippine operations until 10 
January 1946, when she cleared Subic Bay for home. 
She arrived at San Francisco 5 February, where she was 
decommissioned 15 April 1946. She was sold 29 June 
1948. 

Chaffee received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Chaffinch 

A European bird of the finch family. 

I 

(AM-81: dp. 401; 1. 122'6"; b. 23'1"; dr. lO'll"; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 36; a. 1 3"; cl. Goldcrest) 

Chaffinch (AM-81) was built in 1928 by the Bethle- 
hem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass., as Trimont; 
purchased by the Navy 29 November 1940; and commis- 
sioned 16 July 1941, Lieutenant Edward Fluhr, USNR, 
in command. 

Assigned to the 3d Naval District, Chaffinch arrived 
at New York City 10 August 1941. For the next year 
and a half, alert to the mounting German submarine 
menace, she swept for mines and patrolled waters off 
New York and New London. From 13 February 1943 
until 8 January 1944 she performed similar duty off 
Newport, R.I., under the 1st Naval District. 

Continuing her essential support to the movement 
both of coastwise convoys, and those bound for distant 
ports, Chaffinch again served at New York harbor until 
1 August 1945, when she cleared for Charleston, S.C. 
There she was decommissioned 12 December 1945, and 
transferred to the Maritime Commission 23 September 
1946. 

II 

LSIL-69k (q.v.) was reclassified and named Chaffinch 
( AMCU-18), 7 March 1952. 

Chahao 

A Navajo word meaning “shade” or “shelter.” 

Chahao (YTB-496) was built by Ira S. Bushey and 
Sons, Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1944-1945. She was placed 
in service in March 1946 and assigned to the Pacific 
Fleet for a brief time prior to her transfer to Advanced 
Bases, Pacific Area. She continues to perform her tug 
services in the Subic Bay area. 

Chain 

A series of links or rings, usually of metal, fitted into 
each other. 

(ARS-20: dp. 1,478; 1. 213'6"; b. 39'; dr. 14'8"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 120; a. 4 40mm.; cl. Diver) 

Chain (ARS-20) was launched 3 June 1943 by Basalt 
Rock Co., Napa, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. P. F. Roach; 
and commissioned 31 March 1944, Lieutenant Com- 
mander F. J. George, USNR, in command. 

Chain sailed from San Diego 14 May 1944, bound for 
the Panama Canal, and Trinidad, which she reached 2 
June. She towed barge YF-324 to Recife, Brazil, where 
on 2 July she joined the 4th Fleet for operations as tug 
and salvage ship from Recife and Bahia, Brazil, until 
18 June 1945, when she cleared Recife for Norfolk. Her 
essential support played an important, if humble, part in 
enabling the 4th Fleet to carry out its mission of pro- 
tecting the South Atlantic. 

After overhaul and training at Norfolk, Chain cleared 
for Key West 22 September, where she made rendezvous 
with three Italian submarines. Sailing east, her little 


65 


convoy was enlarged by four additional Italian sub- 
marines at Bermuda, and she arrived at Taranto, Italy 
with her charges 3 November. Chain returned by way of 
Palermo, Sicily, where she took barge YF— 445 in tow, to 
Charleston, S.C., arriving 31 December. 

Chain operated along the east coast towing barges and 
decommissioned ships until she grounded in Block Island 
Sound 29 March 1946. Quickly floated by Coast Guard 
Cutter Dix, Chain’s bottom was heavily damaged, and 
from 3 April until 25 June, she was repaired at New 
London, Conn. She left New London astern 25 June, 
steaming to Orange, Tex., where she was decommis- 
sioned and placed in reserve 9 November 1946. 

Chalcedony 

A translucent variety of quartz, commonly pale blue 
or grey with a waxlike luster. 

(PYC-16: dp. 500; 1. 195'1"; b. 30'; dr. 13'6"; s. 14 k.; 
a. 1 3") 

Chalcedoyiy (PYC-16) was built in 1931 as Valero III 
by Craig Shipbuilding Co., Long Beach, Calif.; pur- 
chased from the University of Southern California 15 
December 1941 ; converted at San Diego Marine Con- 
struction Co., San Diego, Calif.; and commissioned 27 
February 1942, Lieutenant (junior grade) E. E. Smith, 
USNR, in command. 

Chalcedony served in the 11th Naval District until 21 
April 1942 when she sailed from San Diego for Pearl 
Harbor, arriving 1 May. She spent the remainder of the 
war under the command of Hawaiian Sea Frontier on 
weather station duty. Departing Pearl Harbor 5 Novem- 
ber 1945, Chalcedony arrived at San Francisco 15 No- 
vember. She was decommissioned there 10 January 1946 
and delivered to the Maritime Commission for disposal 
17 October 1946. 

Challenge 

An invitation to engage in a contest. 

I 

(AT: dp. 346; 1. 122'; b. 22'2"; dr. 12'6"; s. 14 k.; cpl. 

31; a. 2 3-pdr.) 

Challenge (No. 1015) was built in 1889 by J. H. 
Dialogue and Sons, Camden, N.J., as the tug Defiance; 
commandeered by the Navy 13 June 1918; delivered 24 
June; outfitted at Mare Island Navy Yard; and com- 
missioned 29 July 1918, Lieutenant M. J. Downes, 
USNRF, in command. She was renamed Challenge 15 
August 1918. 

Challenge towed oil barges between California and 
Mexico until 31 May 1920, when she arrived at Bremer- 
ton, Wash., for duty under the 13th Naval District. She 
served as a harbor tug at Puget Sound Navy Yard until 
decommissioned 13 May 1922. 

Recommissioned and reclassified AT-59 on 21 Febru- 
ary 1925, Challenge resumed duty as a yard tug at 
Puget Sound. On 31 January 1936, she was reclassified 
YT-126; on 2 December 1940, decommissioned and 
placed “in service”; reclassified YTM-126 on 13 April 
1944; and on 16 October 1946, transferred to the Mari- 
time Commission. 

II 

ATA-201 (q.v.) was assigned the name Challenge 
16 July 1948. 

Challenger 

One who issues an invitation to a contest. 

(AK: dp. 16,100 (n.) 1. 410'; b. 56'; dr. 30'; s. 11 k.; 
cpl. 70) 


Challenger (No. 3630), a cargo ship, was built in 1918 
by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif., under a 
Shipping Board contract; transferred to the Navy 4 
October 1918; commissioned the same day, Lieutenant 
Commander G. T. January, USNRF, in command; and 
reported to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. 

Challenger cleared San Francisco 9 October 1918 for 
Mejillones and Antofagasta, Chile, where she loaded 
nitrates. Sailing on to deliver her cargo at Pensacola, 
Fla., 11 December, Challenger was next ordered to New 
Orleans to load cotton and steel for the French govern- 
ment. She was transferred to J. H. W. Steele Co. for 
operation. After a voyage in January and February 
1919 carrying cargo to France to supply the Army of 
Occupation, Challenger returned to Baltimore, Md. She 
was decommissioned there 2 May 1919, and returned to 
the Shipping Board the same day. 

Cham bers 

Born in LaHabra, Calif., 10 June 1914, Russell Frank- 
lyn Chambers was appointed aviation cadet, USNR, 5 
December 1938 and commissioned ensign 4 November 
1939. On duty in the Philippines when the United States 
entered World War II, Ensign Chambers was reported 
missing in action 27 December 1941 after an engage- 
ment with the enemy over Jolo. He was officially de- 
clared dead 28 December 1942. 

( DE-391 : dp. 1,200; 1. 306'; b. 36'7''; dr. 8'7"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; 
cl. Edsall) 

Chambers (DE-391) was launched 17 August 1943 by 
Brown Shipbuilding Co., Houston, Tex.; sponsored by 
Mrs. R. F. Chambers; commissioned 22 November 1943, 
Commander H. A. Loughlin, USCG, in command; and 
reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

After a period as training ship for prospective escort 
vessel crews, Chambers cleared Norfolk 13 February 
1944 on the first of eight convoy escort crossings to 
North African ports from Norfolk and New York. 
Steadfast to her important duty of guarding the men 
and materiel vital to the success of operations in the 
European theater, Chambers defied the hazards of the 
sea and the enemy to bring her charges safely to port. 

On 8 July 1945 Chambers sailed from New York for 
Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 16 August to transport 
homeward bound servicemen to San Pedro, Calif. She 
put out to sea from San Pedro for the east coast 11 
September, and on 22 April 1946, was decommissioned 
and placed in reserve at Green Cove Springs, Fla. 

Loaned to the Treasury Department, Chambers was 
commissioned as a Coast Guard ship 11 June 1952, and 
redesignated WDE-491. Operating from New Bedford, 
Mass., she served on Atlantic weather patrols and made 
several cruises to Newfoundland until 30 July 1954, 
when the Coast Guard decommissioned her and returned 
her to the Navy. Returned to reserve status, Chambers 
was reclassified DER-391 on 28 October 1954, and began 
conversion to a radar picket escort vessel. 

Chambers was recommissioned 1 June 1955 for radar 
picket duty out of Newport, R.I. She was assigned to 
the Atlantic Barrier Patrol in June 1956, with which 
she operated until placed out of commission in reserve 
20 June 1960, at Philadelphia. 

Chambers, James S., see James S. Chambers 


Chame 

Former name retained. 

Chame, the former tug River sdale, was taken over by 
the Commandant, 15th Naval District to form a part of 
the Canal Zone district defense force during World War 


66 


I. Her period of service from 1 February to 17 Decem- 
ber 1918 was spent in the performance of duties of 
station ship, net guard, towing and transportation of 
cargo as well as minesweeping and patrol along the 
Atlantic coast of the Panama Canal Zone. She was re- 
turned to her owner on 31 December 1918. 


Champion 

One acknowledged superior to all competitors. 

I 

(Xebec: 8 guns) 

The Continental xebec Champion, commanded by 
Captain James Josiah, served in the Delaware in a force 
composed of ships of the Continental and Pennsylvania 
State Navies. It was this force that contested British 
efforts to establish sea communications with their forces 
in Philadelphia in the fall of 1777. After several months 
of gallant fighting against heavy odds, the American 
ships attempted to run past Philadelphia. The State 
galleys succeeded but the Continental fleet, including 
Champion was burned by its own officers on 21 November 
1777, when tide and winds turned against them. 

II 

(SwStr : t. 115; 1. 145'8"; b. 26'5"; dr. 3'6"; s. 4 k.; a. 2 
30-pdrs. r., 1 24-pdr. sb., 1 12-pdr. sb.) 

Champion, an armed river steamer, was built in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, in 1859 as Champion No. J; purchased 
there 14 March 1863; fitted out at Cairo, 111.; and com- 
missioned 26 April 1863, Acting Master Alfred Phelps, 
Jr., in command. 

Operating almost continuously from 27 April 1863 to 
9 June 1865, Champion patrolled the Mississippi, Ten- 
nessee, and Red Rivers. She transported troops, prison- 
ers, supplies, and cotton; towed and convoyed ships; and 
delivered dispatches. Her yeoman service ended at 
Mound City, 111., where she was decommissioned 1 July 
1865. Champion was sold 29 November 1865. 

III 

(AM-314: dp. 890; 1. 221'2"; b. 32'2"; dr. 10'9"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 105; a. 1 3"; cl. Auk) 

The third Champion (AM-134) was launched 12 De- 
cember 1942 by General Engineering and Dry Dock Co., 
Alameda, Calif.; and commissioned 8 September 1943, 
Lieutenant Commander J. H. Howard, Jr., USNR, in 
command. 

Clearing San Diego 7 December 1943, Champion ar- 
rived at Pearl Harbor 13 December. Between 8 January 
and 4 March 1944, she was assigned the task of guarding 
vital shipping between Pearl Harbor and San Francisco. 
More direct support to frontline operations came from 
18 March to 10 April, when she escorted two resupply 
convoys to Tarawa, after which she screened a convoy to 
Kwajalein from 19 April to 7 May in support of the 
Marshalls operation. After a short overhaul, she sailed 
to Saipan for minesweeping operations and local escort 
duty in late June, then returned to Pearl Harbor for 
more extensive overhaul. From 13 September to 17 
November, she guarded convoys from Pearl Harbor to 
Eniwetok and Saipan, before training for the Iwo Jima 
Operation. 

Champion arrived off Iwo Jima 16 February 1945, as 
the preliminary 3-day bombardment of the island began. 
Except for the period 21 February to 4 March, when 
she sailed escorting unloaded assault shipping to Saipan, 
from which she returned with resupply echelons, Cham- 
pion remained off Iwo Jima until 7 March. After pro- 
visioning and fueling at Ulithi, she sailed for Kerama 
Retto and Okinawa. In these dangerous waters she 
conducted minesweeping operations, and served in 


screens, from 24 March to 19 June, aside from a convoy 
escort voyage to Saipan from 25 April to 19 May. On 16 
April, a suicide plane crashed close aboard Champion, 
spraying debris which slightly uamaged her, and 
wounded four of her men. She returned to Seattle 20 
July for an overhaul which lasted through the end of 
the war. 

In support of Far Eastern occupation activities, 
Champion sailed from San Pedro 4 December 1945, 
called at Pearl Harbor and Eniwetok, and arrived at 
Sasebo, Japan, 1 February 1946. From this port she 
swept mines and patrolled in Tsushima Straits until 6 
December, when she cleared for the west coast. Cham- 
pion was decommissioned and placed in reserve at San 
Diego 30 January 1947. She was reclassified MSF-314, 
7 February 1955. 

Champion received three battle stars for service in 
World War II. 


Champlin 

Born in Kingston, R.I., 17 November 1789, Stephen 
Champlin entered the Navy as a sailing master 22 May 
1812. He commanded the schooner Scorpion in her cap- 
ture of the British Little Belt during the Battle of Lake 
Erie, and later in the War of 1812 was wounded when 
his ship was taken on Lake Huron. Retired in 1855, 
Captain Champlin was later promoted to Commodore 
on the retired list, and died in Buffalo, N.Y., 20 Febru- 
ary 1870. 

I 

(DD-104: dp. 1,191; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'9"; dr. 9'2"; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 122; a. 4 4", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Wickes) 

Champlin (DD-104) was launched 7 April 1918 by 
Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by 
Miss G. H. Rolph; and commissioned 11 November 1918, 
Lieutenant Commander F. M. Knox in command. 

Champlin arrived at Newport, R.I., 12 December 1918 
for duty with the Atlantic Fleet. After training opera- 
tions in the Caribbean, she cleared New York City 19 
November 1919 for San Diego, Calif. Arriving 24 De- 
cember 1919, she went into reserve with the Pacific 
Fleet the same day, and cruised on training assignments 
with a reduced complement until decommissioned 7 June 
1922. Laid up at San Diego until her assignment for 
use in experiments on 19 May 1933, Champlin was sunk 
in tests 12 August 1936. 

II 

(DD-601 : dp. 1,620; 1. 347'9"; b. 36'1"; dr. 17'4"; s. 38 
k. ; cpl. 252; a. 4 5", 5 21" tt. ; cl. Benson) 

The second Champlin (DD-601) was launched 25 July 
1942 by Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River, Quincy, Mass.; 
sponsored by Mrs. A. C. Brendel; and commissioned 12 
September 1942, Lieutenant Commander C. L. Melson 
in command. 

After escorting a convoy to Argentia, Newfoundland, 
and another to the Panama Canal Zone, Champlin sailed 
from New York 11 December 1942 on her first convoy 
crossing to Casablanca, returning to New York 7 Febru- 
ary 1943. She sailed again on 4 March guarding a con- 
voy which was constantly shadowed by German sub- 
marines for 6 days after it passed the Azores on 12 
March. On that day, a radar contact was made ahead 
of the convoy, and Champlin charged ahead to investi- 
gate, finding the submarine on the surface. She opened 
fire, and attempted to ram the enemy, which made a 
crash dive. Champlin hurled a pattern of depth charges 
into the swirl, and sank U-130 in 37°10' N., 20°21' W. 
As the convoy plodded east, Champlin and the other 
escorts fought a constant battle to protect it, but 
Champlin’s was the only kill, while the convoy lost three 
merchantmen before reaching Casablanca. Champlin 


67 


rescued every member of SS Wyoming’s 127-man crew, 
as well as taking aboard two survivors from SS Molly 
Pitcher. The return convoy which arrived at Boston 15 
April was without incident. 

Champlin sailed from New York 1 May 1943 with a 
slow convoy of small craft and support ships which 
called at Bermuda before arriving at Oran 26 May. 
She put to sea again to bring a convoy in from Gibraltar, 
then took part in training as well as conducting patrols 
in the western Mediterranean. On 5 July, she cleared 
Oran for the invasion of Sicily, escorting a convoy to 
the transport area south of Scoglitti arriving 9 July. 
Leaving her charges, she sped ahead to join in the pre- 
assault bombardment the next day, during which she 
aided in driving off an enemy air attack. While covering 
the landing and initial advances the same day, she 
answered the request from shore for a bombardment of 
the village of Camerina, so successfully that the enemy 
there surrendered. 

Champlin left Sicily guarding a convoy for Oran and 
New York, arriving 4 August 1943. Continuing this 
essential task, she made four more Atlantic crossings on 
convoy escort duty from New York to North Africa and 
the British Isles between 21 August 1943 and 11 March 
1944. While undergoing refresher training in Casco 
Bay in March 1944, Champlin was ordered out on a sub- 
marine hunt, joining an all-day operation 7 April. At 
1632, she made contact and dropped deep-set depth 
charges, driving the submarine to the surface. Imme- 
diately, her guns opened fire scoring several hits, in 
eluding one on the conning tower, which started a furi- 
ous fire. Champlin dashed in for the kill, ramming the 
stern of the submarine, and U-856 sank in 40° 18' N., 
62° 18' W. The cost, however, included Champlin’ s com- 
manding officer, Commander John J. Shaffer III, 
wounded by shrapnel during the attack, who died the 
next morning despite emergency surgery. 

After repairs to her bow, damaged in the ramming, 
Champlin left New York 21 April 1944 with a convoy 
for Oran. On 15 May, she reported at Naples for duty 
supporting the operations striving to break loose from 
the Anzio beachhead. She conducted patrols, escorted 
convoys, and provided fire support for minesweepers, 
and the Army ashore. Returning to Palermo, she sailed 
from that port 13 August for the invasion of southern 
France, in which she was assigned to patrol southwest 
of the transport area as a reserve fire support unit. 
On 18 August, she rescued a downed Army pilot from 
h*is raft, and on 19 August, she was fired upon by enemy 
shore batteries as she steamed off Cannes. Next day she 
returned to the area to locate those batteries and destroy 
them, and the 21st, blocked the Gulf of Napoule while 
enemy E-boats thus trapped were destroyed. Continuing 
her fire support, she knocked out a bridge across the 
Var River near Nice upon Army request on 24 August, 
and a week later left the area to guard merchantmen 
bound for Oran. She continued to New York, escorting 
a division of battleships, and began a program of train- 
ing and plane guard operations which lasted through the 
remainder of 1944. 

On 6 January 1945, Champlin returned to Atlantic 
convoy escort, sailing for Oran. On 30 January, she 
cleared Oran to rendezvous with the group bringing 
President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Malta, where he was 
to enplane for the Yalta Conference. She later escorted 
this same group back into the Atlantic, and on 20 Feb- 
ruary returned to Gibraltar for patrol and convoy escort 
duty in the western Mediterranean. On 22 April, she 
departed Oran for New York and preparations for de- 
ployment to the Pacific. 

Champlin passed through the Panama Canal 4 June 
1945, arrived at Pearl Harbor 10 July, and after train- 
ing, sailed 24 July for the attack on Wake Island 1 
August. Continuing to Okinawa, she arrived 12 August 
for local escort and patrol duty until 4 September, 
when she cleared on the first of two voyages to Japan in 


connection with occupation arrangements. On 31 Oc- 
tober, she sailed from Okinawa with homeward-bound 
servicemen, calling to embark more at Saipan and Pearl 
Harbor. She disembarked her passengers at San Diego 
21 to 24 November, then sailed for the east coast, where 
she was placed in commission in reserve at Charleston 
28 March 1946, and out of commission in reserve 31 
January 1947. 

Champlin received six battle stars for World II 
service. 

Chanagi 

Variant spelling of the name of an Indian village. 

Chanagi was built as YT-380 by Gulfport Boiler and 
Welding Works, Port Arthur, Texas, and launched on 2 
July 1944 as YTB-380. She was attached to Service 
Force, Pacific Fleet prior to being placed in the Reserve 
Fleet in March 1946. She was placed in active service 
again in October 1957 and assigned to the 5th Naval 
District where she remains. 

Chandeleur 

A sound eastward of the delta of the Mississippi 
River. 

(AV-10: dp. 5,300; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 23'9"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 1,075; a. 1 5"; cl. Tangier) 

Chandeleur (AV-10) was launched 29 November 1941 
by Western Pipe and Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. F. McCrary; transferred to the Navy 19 November 
1942; and commissioned the same day, Captain W. Sin- 
ton in command. 

From 15 January to 9 May 1943, Chandeleur sup- 
ported South Pacific bases and operations by carrying 
cargo from San Diego to Efate, Espiritu Santo, Samoa, 
and Noumea. She cleared San Diego 3 June with cargo 
for Pearl Harbor, Midway, and Wallis, and arrived at 
Espiritu Santo 1 July. Here she provided tender services 
to, and served as base for, Patrol Squadron 71 until 13 
October. 

Chandeleur returned to cargo duty, now in support of 
the Treasuries-Bougainville operations. Until 2 March 
1944, she sailed between the New Hebrides Islands and 
Guadalcanal, carrying men and aviation equipment. 
Following overhaul on the west coast, the seaplane 
tender made a cargo voyage to Pearl Harbor, then 
cleared Oakland, Calif., 18 May for Kwajalein and Eni- 
wetok, arriving 21 June. At both Eniwetok and Saipan, 
Chandeleur tended Patrol Squadrons 202 and 216 as they 
flew missions during the invasion and capture of the 
Palau Islands. 

In September 1944, with Commander, Fleet Air Wing 
1 embarked, Chandeleur sailed to Kossol Roads, where 
she tended seaplanes providing part of the air cover for 
the long awaited invasion of the Philippines. At Ulithi 
from 25 December until 8 February 1945, she provided 
tender services for Patrol Squadron 21. 

Chandeleur arrived at Kerama Retto 28 March 1945, 
and her seaplanes began their essential support of the 
invasion of Okinawa, covering the initial assault 1 April. 
These planes took part in sinking 1-8 the Japanese 
submarine off Okinawa 31 March, and on 7 April 
spotted the battleship Yamato, which was promptly 
sunk by carrier planes. On 15 July, the seaplane base 
was moved to Okinawa, where Chandeleur continued to 
tend seaplanes in support of the pounding 3d Fleet raids 
on the Japanese home islands. After a brief call at 
Eniwetok, Chandeleur sailed for Ominato Ko, Honshu, 
Japan, where she tended seaplanes taking part in the 
occupation of Japan until 16 October. 

After a west coast overhaul, Chandeleur sailed to the 
Philippines to embark men for transportation to Seattle, 


68 


Wash., where she arrived 11 January 1946. She pro- 
ceeded to the east coast, and was placed in service in 
reserve at Philadelphia 12 February 1947. 

Chandeleur received five battle stars for World War 
II service. 

Chandler 

William Eaton Chandler was born in Concord, New 
Hampshire, 28 December 1835, and graduated from Har- 
vard Law School in 1854. Chandler served as Secretary 
of the Navy from 1882 to 1886, and as Senator from 
New Hampshire from 1887 to 1901. He died at Concord, 
30 November 1917. 

(DD-206: dp. 1,215; 1. 314'4"; b. 31'9"; dr. 9'10"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 122; a. 4 4", 12 21“ tt. ; cl. Clemson) 

Chandler (DD-206) was launched 19 March 1919 by 
William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa.; sponsored by Mrs. L. H. 
Chandler; and commissioned 5 September 1919, Lieu- 
tenant Commander F. Cogswell in command. 

Assigned to Destroyer Squadron 3 of the Atlantic 
Fleet, Chandler sailed from Newport, R.I., 19 December 
1919 for duty with U.S. Naval Forces, Turkey. After 
carrying a diplomatic mission to the Crimea, and aiding 
the American Red Cross in its relief work with Russian 
refugees, Chandler joined the U.S. Naval Detachment, 
Adriatic. She served as station ship at Venice, Italy, 
and had relief duty throughout the Adriatic until Jan- 
uary 1921. 

Sailing through the Suez Canal, Chandler arrived at 
Cavite, P.I., 15 February 1921. She served with the 
Asiatic Fleet, protecting American interests throughout 
the Far East, until 25 August 1922. Clearing Chefoo, 
China, she arrived at San Francisco 30 September. She 
was decommissioned 20 October 1922, and placed in re- 
serve at Mare Island Navy Yard. 

Chandler was recommissioned 31 March 1930 for 
operations off the west coast, Hawaii, the Panama 
Canal Zone, and in the Caribbean. In 1934, she sailed 
to New York for the Presidential Fleet Review of 31 
May. In 1936 she took part in radio sound tests, and in 
1940, served as plane guard during the flight of the 
Secretary of the Navy to Hawaii. 

Reporting to Mare Island Navy Yard in October 
1940, Chandler was reclassified DMS-9 on 19 November, 
and converted to a high-speed minesweeper. She arrived 
at Pearl Harbor 12 February 1941 to begin operational 
training and patrol. At sea on 7 December, she returned 
to her devastated base 2 days later. Until 30 June 1942, 
she escorted convoys to San Francisco, Palmyra, Christ- 
mas, and Midway Islands, and swept and patrolled in 
Hawaiian waters. 

While en route to operations in the Aleutians on 27 
July 1942,- Chandler and Lamberton (DMS-2) collided 
in a heavy fog, and although none of Chandler’s men 
was hurt, she spent 11 August to 27 September under 
repair at Mare Island Navy Yard. On 5 October, she 
reported at Dutch Harbor for duty patrolling and escort- 
ing convoys in the Aleutians. In May 1943, she covered 
the landings at Attu, and in August, those at Kiska. 
Leaving the fog and difficult waters of the Aleutians 
behind in October, Chandler was readied at San Fran- 
cisco for arduous duty in the Pacific. 

Reporting at Pearl Harbor 1 January 1944, Chandler 
quickly proved that her age was no barrier to skillful, 
aggressive action. In a succession of landings, at Majuro 
(31 January), Eniwetok (17 February-6 March), Saipan 
(13 June-20 July), and Tinian (21-24 July), the aging 
ship swept mines and screened assault shipping. Pa- 
trolling watchfully in each invasion area as the opera- 
tion developed, Chandler joined with Newcomb (DD- 
586) in sinking the Japanese submarine 1-185 on 22 
June, in 15°55' N., 147°09' E. 


On 17 October 1944, Chandler resumed her yeoman 
service in landings, as she sailed into Leyte Gulf in 
advance of the major force for the assault, sweeping a 
path for the attack amphibious ships. She remained on 
duty, sweeping, patrolling, and screening, through the 
start of the landings, retiring on 25 October for Manus 
after the delay caused by the Battle for Leyte Gulf. 

Called upon for similar duty in the Lingayen opera- 
tion, Chandler, came under heavy fire from Japanese 
aircraft on the night of 6-7 January 1945. Fire from 
Chandler and Hovey (DMS-11) splashed one of the 
enemy, but not before he torpedoed Hovey, which sank 
within 3 minutes. Chandler stood by, recovering 229 
officers and men from her stricken sister. Chandler re- 
mained on duty in Lingayen Gulf until 10 January, 
when she cleared for convoy escort operations through 
mid-February. The grand old lady had one more assault 
in her, for at Iwo Jima from 16 February to 28 Febru- 
ary, she gave her experienced aid in sweeping, patrol- 
ling, and screening for the assault and its buildup. 

Chandler returned to the west coast for overhaul in 
April. While there, she was reclassified AG-108, 5 June 

1945, and after training, she began a tour of towing 
targets in gunnery exercises for new ships engaged in 
shakedown training. While performing this essential 
task she based on both San Diego and Pearl Harbor. 
After the end of hostilities, Chandler proceeded to Nor- 
folk, Va., arriving 21 October 1945. There she was de- 
commissioned 21 November 1945, and sold 18 November 

1946. 

Chandler received eight battle stars for service in 
World War II. 

Chandler, Theodore E., see Theodore E. Chandler 
Chandra, see LST—350 
Change 

Change has many definitions, the general sense of 
them being “to make different.” 

(AM-159; dp. 530; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 104; a 1 3"; cl. Admirable) 

Change (AM-159) was launched 15 December 1942 
by Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg. ; 
commissioned 28 February 1944, Lieutenant F. M. Lin- 
derman in command ; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Change arrived at Kwajalein 2 June 1944 for convoy 
escort duty between Pearl Harbor, Kwajalein, Majuro, 
and Eniwetok. Providing essential services in guarding 
the enormous volume of men and cargo moved in rear 
areas to provide support for the frontline campaigns, 
Change based at Eniwetok from 15 September. Her 
operations took her to Guadalcanal, Manus, Ulithi, 
Guam, Iwo Jima, and Saipan before 5 August 1945, when 
she cleared for Seattle, Wash. 

After overhaul, Change sailed to Pearl Harbor in No- 
vember 1945, then cleared for the east coast. She was 
placed out of commission in reserve at New Orleans 3 
July 1946, and was reclassified MSF-159 on 7 February 
1955. 

Chanticleer 

In French literature, Chanticleer is the personal 
name given the cock. 

I 

The first Chanticleer, a motor boat, served in the 2d 
Naval District during 1917-18. 

II 

The second Chanticleer (AMC— 60) was placed in 
service 5 April 1941. Although she carried the designa- 


69 



USS Chandeleur (AV-10) 


tion, she was never converted to a minesweeper. On 1 
May 1941 she was reclassified YF-381 and her name 
was cancelled. 

Ill 

( ASR-7 : dp. 1,780; 1. 251'4"; dr. 14'3"; s. 16 k.; cpl. 

102; a. 2 3"; cl. Chanticleer) 

The third Chanticleer (ASR-7) was launched 29 May 
1942 by Moore Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Oakland, 
Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. W. K. Kilpatrick; commis- 
sioned 20 November 1942, Lieutenant Commander R. E. 
Hawes in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Calling en route at Pearl Harbor, island bases, and 
Australian ports, Chanticleer arrived at Fremantle, 
Australia, 8 May 1943. With her primary assignment 
the support of the submarines based at Fremantle, 
Chanticleer provided tender services to the submarines 
as they came in to refit between war patrols, trained 
divers, cared for small craft, repaired antitorpedo nets, 
and carried out salvage operations. In October 1944, 
Chanticleer moved north to provide similar services at 
Port Darwin, Australia, returning to Fremantle in 
January 1945. 

Chanticleer arrived in Subic Bay, Luzon, 19 March 
1945 to take part in the enormous task of clearing 
Philippine waters by salvaging United States and Japa- 
nese ships, and locating sunken vessels which hazarded 
navigation. A voyage to Fremantle for salvage opera- 
tions in September was followed by a resumption of her 
Philippine duty until January 1946, when she cleared for 
the east coast of the United States. 

Arriving at Key West, Fla., 18 February 1946, 
Chanticleer operated to Cuba, and along the east coast 
until June 1950, when she was transferred to the Pacific 
Fleet. Homeported at San Diego, she has alternated 
local operations and exercises with tours of duty in the 
Far East at intervals of about a year. In the Far East, 
she has sailed with the guardian 7th Fleet, and has 
carried out numerous salvage and diving assignments. 
This duty continued through 1963. 

Chapin Bay (CVE-63) , see Midway (CVE-63) 
Chapin Bay (CVE-99), see Admiralty Islands 
Chapin, M. W see Anacostia (I) 


Chara 

A star in the constellation Canes Venatici. 

( AKA-58 : dp. 6,737; 1. 459'3"; b. 63'; dr. 26'4"; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 380; a. 1 5"; cl. Achernar) 

Chara (AKA-58) was launched 15 March 1944 by 
Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, N.J., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. E. P. McHugh; acquired by the Navy 16 March 
1944; and commissioned 14 June 1944, Commander C. B. 
Hamblett, USNR, in command. 

Chara cleared Norfolk 22 July 1944 for Pearl Harbor, 
arriving 10 August for training. Her initial combat 
action came on 20 October when she hove to in Leyte 
Gulf, P.I., with the Southern Attack Force, and swiftly 
landed troops and cargo in the momentous assault that 
was the first step in the liberation of the Philippines. 
Chara withdrew on 24 October, while the decisive naval 
Battle for Leyte Gulf raged in the area. She returned to 
New Guinea to reload essential supplies which she de- 
livered to support the continuing land battle for Leyte 
on 18 November. 

After rehearsal landings in New Guinea, and staging 
at Manus, Chara cleared 31 December 1944 for the 
assault on Lingayen. As TF 97 penetrated Philippine 
waters, on 8 January 1945, a Japanese kamikaze attack 
was hurled at them and succeeded in damaging one 
escort carrier of the group. On board Chara, three men 
were wounded, one fatally, as a result of the heavy anti- 
aircraft fire thrown up by the task force. The assaults 
were made on 9 and 10 January, Chara’s men landing 
their troops and cargo successfully despite heavy surf 
conditions and a beach so difficult that the Japanese 
never anticipated an amphibious assault in the location. 
Chara remained in the Leyte area, participating in the 
landings on San Antonio on 26 January, until 26 March, 
when she steamed from San Pedro Bay combat-loaded 
for the beaches of Okinawa. 

Once again at Okinawa, her men worked skillfully 
in an amphibious assault, as Chara landed troops and 
heavy equipment on 1 April 1945. She remained off 
Okinawa in this invasion, famous for the Japanese 
desperation kamikaze attacks, to unload reinforcements 
and additional equipment until 6 April. After overhaul 
in the States and a return to Okinawa with cargo on 5 
July, Chara returned to San Francisco where she loaded 
supplies for the Philippines, calling en route for addi- 


70 



USS Chara (AKA-58) 


tional supplies at Pearl Harbor, thus beginning a period 
of cargo operations in the Philippines and to Japan in 
support of the occupation. 

She returned to the States in December 1945, then 
continued to support forces in the Far East until 1950, 
carrying men and cargo for the Naval Transportation 
Service, and after 1 October 1949, for the Military Sea 
Transportation Service. 

With the outbreak of the Korean war, Chara was 
transferred to Service Force, Pacific Fleet, for duty as 
an ammunition ship, transporting and transferring all 
types of ammunition at sea to fleet units. She cleared 
San Francisco 16 September 1950 to replenish TF 77 
and support the evacuations of Hungnam and Wonsan 
before returning to San Francisco for overhaul 26 
March 1951. In her second Korean tour, 19 July 1951 
to 18 May 1952, she joined the Mobile Logistics Sup- 
port Force in operations in the Wonsan-Songjin bomb- 
line triangle, and in emergency lifts of Korean POWs 
from Koje-do to Ulsan. Another tour of providing at-sea 
replenishment of ammunition preceded the end of hos- 
tilities. 

Chara alternated duty in the western Pacific with 
training and upkeep on the west coast. In December 
1954 and January 1955, she took part in the evacuation 
of the Tachen Islands. Active through 1958, Chara was 
placed out of commission in reserve at Astoria, Oreg., 
21 April 1959. 

Chara received four battle stars for service during 
World War II, and seven for service during the Korean 
war. 


Charger 

Royal Navy name retained. 

( AVG-30: dp. 8,000; 1. 492'; b. 69’6"; ew. 111'2"; dr. 
26'3"; s. 17 k. ; cpl. 856; a. 1 5"; cl. Charger ) 

Charger (AVG-30) was launched 1 March 1941 by 
Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Chester, Pa.; as 
Rio La Plata; sponsored by Mrs. F. Espil; commis- 
sioned as HMS Charger (BAVG-4), Captain George 
Abel-Smith, RN, in command: transferred to the U.S. 
Navy 4 October 1941; reclassified AVG-30, 24 January 
1942; commissioned 3 March 1942, Captain T. L. 
Sprague in command; and reported to the Atlantic 
Fleet. 

Charger’s area of operations throughout the war was 


Chesapeake Bay, and her duty the basic task of train- 
ing pilots’ and ships’ crews in carrier operations. Men 
trained on her decks played an important role in the 
successful contest for the Atlantic with hostile sub- 
marines carried out by the escort carrier groups. Re- 
classified ACV-30 on 20 August 1942, and CVE-30 on 
15 July 1943, Charger left Chesapeake Bay for two 
ferry voyages, one to Bermuda in October 1942, and one 
to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in September 1945. 

Charger was decommissioned at New York 15 March 
1946, and sold 30 January 1947. 

Chariton River, see LSMR-407 


Charles 

A masculine proper name. 

(AP: t. 3,737; 1. 403'; b. 51'3"; dr. 19'; s. 22 k.; cpl. 211) 

Charles (No. 1298) was built in 1907 by Delaware 
River Shipbuilding Co., Chester, Pa., as Harvard; com- 
mandeered by the Navy 21 March 1918 (purchased 28 
August 1918) ; outfitted as a transport at Mare Island 
Navy Yard; and commisisoned 9 April 1918, Lieuten- 
ant Comander M. F. Tarpey, USNRF, in command. Two 
days later she was renamed Charles. 

Reaching Hampton Roads from Mare Island 26 June 
1918, Charles loaded troops and sailed from Newport 
News for Brest, France, 10 July. She arrived 21 July, 
and on 27 July reported at Southampton, England, for 
duty as a cross-channel ferry for troops. Charles made 
about 60 voyages between Southampton and Le Havre 
or Boulogne, carrying troops of all nationalities, bound 
for action at the front, or for occupation duty, until 5 
May 1919. 

Charles embarked passengers for transportation to 
the United States at Rotterdam and Brest, and on 15 
June 1919, arrived at New York City. Her support of 
Army operations in Europe at an end, the transport 
sailed into the Philadelphia Navy Yard 24 July, and 
there was decommisisoned 10 June 1920. Renamed 
Harvard 29 July 1920, she was sold 14 October 1920. 

Charles Ausburn(e) 

Charles Lawrence Ausburne was born in New 
Orleans, La., 26 July 1889, and enlisted in the Navy 


71 


25 February 1908. As an Electrician First Class, Aus- 
bume manned the emergency wireless station in the 
Army transport Antilles, and following the ship’s fatal 
torpedoing 17 October 1917, stood to his duty until the 
ship sank beneath him. His gallantry was recognized 
in the posthumous award of the Navy Cross. 

Since other family members spelled their name as 
Ausburn, the first ship to bear his name followed that 
spelling. It was later found that he himself signed as 
Ausburne, and the second ship’s name was so spelled. 

I 

(DD-294: dp. 1,215; 1. 314'4"; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'10"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 122; a. 4 4", 1 3", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Clemson) 

Charles Ausburn (DD-294) was launched 18 Decem- 
ber 1919 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Squantum, 
Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. D. K. Ausburn; and commis- 
sioned 23 March 1920, Lieutenant M. W. Hutchinson, 
Jr., in command. 

Assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, Charles Ausburn 
operated from Charleston, Norfolk, and Newport along 
the Atlantic coast and in the Caribbean through 1924, 
serving with a reduced complement from October 1920 
to May 1922. During those years, as she participated 
in fleet exercises and training maneuvers, she aided in 
the development and application of new ideas in naval 
warfare. In the fall of 1923, Charles Ausburn was 
equipped to carry a seaplane, with which she performed 
experiments in the rapidly developing field of naval 
aviation. It was service such as this in peace time which 
prepared the Navy for its tremendous expansion and 
swift use of new techniques in World War II. 

In late summer of 1924, Charles Ausburn cruised to 
northern latitudes to provide plane guard service in 
the round-the-world flight of Army aircraft, maintain- 
ing stations off Greenland and Newfoundland for the 
historic event. On 18 June 1925, she sailed from Boston 
for a year of duty off Europe and in the Mediterranean, 
visiting at a large number of ports before her return 
to New York 11 July 1926. She continued her opera- 
tions with the fleet, often providing facilities for the 
training of reservists, until 1 May 1930, when she was 
decommissioned at Philadelphia. There she was sold 
17 January 1931. 

II 

(DD-570: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 273; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. Fletcher) 

The second Charles Ausburne (DD-570) was 
launched 16 March 1942 by Consolidated Steel Corp., 
Orange, Tex.; sponsored by Mrs. W. H. Cotten; and 
commisioned 24 November 1942, Lieutenant Commander 
L. K. Reynolds in command. 

Charles Ausburne’s first mission which took place 
between 1 April and 8 May 1943 was to escort a convoy 
to Casablanca from New York, returning with another. 
At Boston on 11 May, she joined Destroyer Squadron 
23 upon its activation, and was assigned as flagship 
for Destroyer Division 45. Sailing to the Pacific she 
arrived at Noumea, New Caledonia, 28 June to begin 
a summer of patrol and escort duties supporting the con- 
quest of Guadalcanal, guarding convoys to that island, 
and between such ports as Efate and Espiritu Santo. 
From 27 August, she was based at Port Purvis, where 
she was part of a striking force designed to inter- 
rupt the passage of the “Tokyo Express,” the nightly 
runs of Japanese destroyers evacuating troops from 
the Solomons to Bougainville and New Britain. Her first 
patrol “up the Slot” on the night of 27-28 August, was 
uneventful, and her first contact with the enemy came 
on 7 September, when her group came under enemy 
air attack. During this time, she guarded the move- 
ment of transports and LSTs redeploying men in the 
Solomons, and took part in experiments with night 
fighters. 


It was on the night of 27-28 September 1943 that the 
enemy first felt Charles Ausbume’s accurate fire, when 
she sank two barges in the waters off Vella LaVella. 
Early in October, she returned to Espiritu Santo for 
replenishment and training, and here on 23 October the 
squadron’s most famous Commander, Captain Arleigh 
A. Burke, broke his pennant in Charles Ausburne. 
Under his command, the “Little Beavers,” as he nick- 
named the squadron, were to win an immortal place in 
naval history, recognized by the awarding of the Presi- 
dential Unit Citation. Their continual series of opera- 
tions against Japanese naval forces and shore installa- 
tions played a large part in the winning of the Solo- 
mon Islands, and Charles Ausburne was in the thickest 
action from 31 October 1943 to 23 February 1944. 

Her support of the invasion of Bouganville began on 
the night of 31 October 1943, when her task force sortied 
from Port Purvis to neutralize the Japanese airfields at 
Buka with heavy gunfire. Charles Ausburne fired on 
shore batteries here and on the Shortlands, which the 
task force passed on its way south to refuel. In the 
early morning of 1 November, troops stormed ashore 
at Empress Augusta Bay, and word was received of 
the movement of four Japanese cruisers and six destroy- 
ers south from Rabaul to attack the transports off 
Bougainville. Immediately, Charles Ausburne and her 
force put north to meet and engage the enemy. First 
contact was made at 0227, 2 November, when the targets 
were clear on the flagship’s radar, and Charles Aus- 
bume and three other “Little Beavers” maneuvered for 
a torpedo attack, which the Japanese evaded. Next, they 
ser.t the cruiser Sendai . already blazing from the attack 
of American cruisers, to the bottom, then sped at 32 
knots to close the destroyer Hatsukaze. With Spence 
(DD-512) joining in the attack, Charles Ausburne sank 
the Japanese destroyer, then dashed to the assistance 
of torpedo-damaged Foote (DD-511) whom she escorted 
to Purvis Bay at the close of this Battle of Empress 
Augusta Bay. 

Through the remainder of November, Charles Aus- 
burne patrolled and conducted bombardments in the 
Bougainville area, several times escorting resupply 
echelons to that island. Devastating fire poured on to 
the Japanese airfield at Bonis, and antiaircraft actions 
were fought off the beachheads, as the squadron was 
almost constantly underway. On 24 November 1943, 
while the squadron refueled in Harbom Sound, orders 
came to intercept Japanese forces believed to be moving 
down to evacuate men from Buka. Immediately, the 
five American destroyers then composing the squadron 
moved north to search the Rabaul-Buka line, and at 
0141 on 25 November, a radar surface contact was 
made as the squadron patrolled in St. George Channel. 
Charles Ausburne with two others headed in for a 
torpedo attack on two Japanese destroyers as Burke’s 
two remaining destroyers provided cover. Hits disin- 
tegrated Onami, and broke Makinami in two. Quickly 
as the covering ships polished Makinami off, Charles 
Ausburne and the others turned to attack three de- 
stroyer transports now visible, who turned and fled with 
the American destroyers in pursuit. At 0215, acting on 
sound estimate, Captain Burke ordered his ships to 
make a sharp change of course to the right to evade 
torpedos. Just a minute later came the slam of tor- 
pedoes exploding in the wake of his ships. Now the 
“Little Beavers” opened fire on the fleeing enemy, while 
maneuvering to avoid return fire. As the three targets 
took divergent courses, Charles Ausburne continued her 
pursuit of Yugiri hitting her repeatedly. Soon blazing 
from stem to stern, the Japanese ship made a last des- 
perate attempt to open the range but was quickly over- 
hauled and sunk. Approaching daylight now made it 
imperative that the squadron withdraw to put distance 
between themselves and the Japanese airbase at Rabaul. 
Thus ended the classic destroyer battle off Cape St. 
George, marked by outstanding devotion to duty, skill, 
and aggressiveness in the American squadron. Three 


72 



USS Charles Ausburne (DD-570) ; 
Painting: “31 Knots” 


DECLASSIFIED I*** ■ 

| is a. is: 718 

A16-3 U.S.S. CHARLES AUSBURNE 

Serial Clio c/o Fleet Post'OffiOe 

San Francisco, Cal, 


25 November 1943. 


From 

To 

Via 


Subject : 


The Commanding Officer; 

Tho Commandor-in-ehiof , First Fleet. 

(1) The Commander; Destroyer Squadron Twenty-threo. 
(2| Tho Commander; Task Force Thirty-nine. 

(3) Tho Command or, Third Fleet. 

Action Report of Night Surface Engagement off 
Cape St. George, night of November 24-25. 1943. 


Enclosure (A) to CO USS CHARLES AUSBURNE Secrot Letter A16-3, 

Serial 0119 of 25 November 1943. 

i'4 7 -L* 


NARRATIVE OF ACTION 


1. Comments on and summary of out standing ovents. 

A. Composition of our own forcos* 

Commander Destroyer Squadron 23 Copt. A.A. BURKE, USN. 


At 0132 Speed, was reduced to 23 knots and patrol commenced 
along the Rabaul - Buka line, at 01 v.O Changed course to north 
and Desdlv 46 took station bearing 225° (T), lntorval 5000 yards. 

At 0142 SPENCE reported two surface contacts bearing 075 
distant 22000 yarde. CLAXTON reported terget courso 280. speed 
20 knots. At 0143 tho squadron changed co ^”e tO'035 JT) 

CHARLES AUSBIFNE picked up targot bearing 089°(T), distant 20900 
yards. At 0145 all gyTo ropeators went out Cue to an oj®rl<y on 
the SG Radar boaring repoaters. This was isolated by the I/B, 

Room and all gyro repeaters wore back in operation within oh* half 


Tho range was closed on various courses and at 0156, Daadlv 
45 fired one holf salvo of torpedoes at throe enemy ships, bearing 
069°(T) range 5500 yards. At this time the onemy group was in 
column on course 280°(T) , spood 25 knots. This ship was using the 
oentor target as a point of aim. It lookod like a porfeot torpedo 
-. 4 . v, n-onon./'tino r.nrppf. _ a do strove rs offloer’s droan. 


At 0157 Desdiv 45 cano right to courso 190°(T) by a ship 
turn movement. At 0159 a second group of three enemy ships was 
picked up by SG Radar bearing 090°(T), range 13,470 yarus, Daadlv 
45 came leftjto 120°{T) and made preparetlona to attack with tor- 
pedoes. Desdiv 46 was ordered to finish off the first group of 
targets. 


At 0200$ several torpedo hits were seon on the first group 
of targets. One ship otploded and sank at once. One ship explod- 
ed and sank more slowly. The third targot slowed and started cir- 
cling. 

At 0202 tho seoond oneny group started swinging right and et 
0205 steadied on course 015°(T), speed 24 knots. Targets were bear- 
ing 059°(T), distant 9400 yards. At 0207 Desdiv 45 came to oourse 
030°(T) to close the enemy. 


At 0211 target group was rig z egging end increasing speed. 
Desdiv 45 increased speed to 32 knots. At 0215 swung right to 
060° (T) to avoid posslblo enemy torpedoes and then came beak to 
course 015°(T). From this time on the division was oonstantlv 
fishtailing to throw off enemy gunfire and keep him from getting 
a good firecontrol setup. 

At 0216 four hoevy underwater explosions were felt and it 
was momentarily thought that possibly CIAXTON or DYSON had been 
torpedoed, but such was not the oaso. 

At 0217 tho division was ordered to take eohelon to the left 
and prepare to slow the enemy with gunfire so that we could dose 
and torpedo him. At 0222 Desdiv 45 opened fire. This ship me 
firing on the leading one of three targets. The enemy at this tin* 
was in a wedgo shaped formation. 


0 


At 0239 the left hand target slowed and ran to port in e 
westerly dlreotion. He had obviously been hit. Pursuit of the other 


two targets was continued and the single ship went off of the 
radar screen in a westerly diroction. The left hand ship of the 
two on the screen now headed off to port and eventually went off 
the radar screen in a northwesterly direction at a speed of about 
26 knots. It is believod that this ship nay have escaped to Ra- 
baul. At 0257 our targot slowed to 15 knots but by 0300 was back 
up to 32 knots and tho ohaso oontlnuod. 

The situation at 0300 was follows: Dosdiv 45 was firing on 
a ship bearing 028°(T). distant 8100 yards, on course north, spood 
31 knots. A second ship was bearing 276° (T), distant 17.000 
yards, on northwesterly course at 26 knots. Desdiv 46 had finish- 
ed off the last target In the first group and was rejoining Desdiv 
45. 


Destroyer Division 45 


Commander Dostroyor Division 45 Ccpt. A.A. BURKE, USN. 


CHARLES AUSBURNE (DD570) (F) 
DYSON (DD572) 

CLAXT0N( DD571 ) 


Cdr. L.K. REYNOLDS. USN. 
Cdr. R.A. GANO, USN. 

Cdr. H.F. STOUT, USN. 


Destroyer Division 46 

Commander Destroyer Division 46 

CONVERSE (DD509) 

• SPENCE (DD512) 


Cdr. B.L. AUSTIN, USN. 

Cdr. D.C. HAMBERGER, USN. 
Cdr. H.J. ARMSTRONG, USN, 


B. Narrative. 


At noon on Novoubor 24, 1943. Doaron 23 was fueling In 
Hathorn Sound when orders wero received from Cansopao to proceod 
north and west of Point "Hide" for offensive operations against 
posslblo attempts by the Japanese to evacuate porsonnel from tho 
Buka Area. At 1345 the forty sixth Division proceeded ahead al- 
ong our proposod track conducting A/3 sound search at 2D knots. 
Tho CHARLES AU3B URNE end CLAXTON established an A/S petrol at 
the entranoe to Hathorn Sound while DYSON fueled. At 1545 AUSBUR- 
NE and CLAXTON started out of Kula Gulf at 25 knots. DYSON was 
ordorod to follow and close at maximum speed. At 1650 DYSON took 
station astern of CLAXTON end Desdiv 45 proceeded north of Koloo- 
bangara to close Desdiv 46 . At 1745 Dosdiv 46 was on station as- 
tern of Desdiv 45, and tho squadron proceeded north of Vella La- 
Volla and south of Troasury Islands to point "Undo". 


Orders wore rooolvod from Comsopao to prococd north and 
establish an offonslve patrol aoross the Buka - Rabaul route about 
fifty five miles west* of Buka until 0300. If no oontaots wore 
obtained by that hour, tho squadron wes orderod to retire. 

At 1956 Desdiv 46 took station bearing 190° (T), interval 
3000 yards. At midnight. Interval wae to be opened to 5000 yards. 

A few snoopors were ploked up on the radars during the 
evening but none of them dosed sufficiently to spot our foroea. 
-^vAt 2340 all ships exoept CLAXTON turned on I.F.F.. as we had a 
Cf/ report that friendly snooper was patrolling Rabaul - Buka routs 
loaded for beer. 


At 0305$ there were severd explosions and fires on Desdiv 
45’ s target and it slowod rapidly to 5 knots and then stopped. 

Desdiv 45 steamed past the target on oouree north, passing 
it abeam at 4000 yards with all three ships firing full salvos. 

At 0316 Desdiv 45 countermarched to oourse 180°(T) and reopened 
fire on the target. At 0319 passod target abeam to port, distant 
3850 yards. At 0323 coased firing. The target was still afloat 
but flaming, frreo stem to stern an d exploding. At 0328 DYSON 
fired torpedoes at target to finish him off but he sank before 
they roaohed him. 

At 0329 Desdiv 45 oame to course 270° (T) in column. At 
0331 speed was dropped to 30 knots and Desdiv 46 took station 
bearing 190°(T), interval 5000 yards. 

At 0335 courso was ohanged to 265° (T) to pass about five 
miles south of Cape St , Georg*. In persult of two enemy ships thAt? 
escaped to the wes tward. 

At 0404 pursuit was abandoned and course changed to 150°(T) 
and we headed for the barn. Speed 31 knots. 

At 0505 sighted a flare from our fighter boaring 010°(T) 
distant 35 milos. Our fighter reported that he wns over ship 
dead in the water with many firqs and explosions. It is believed 
that this may have been the first ship which escaped to the west- 
ward. 


At 0550 Doaron 23 took an air defense disposition as follows: 
CLAXTON guide at center, CHARLES' AUSBURNE 1.5-030, DYSON 1.5-090, 
CONVERSE 1.5-330, SPENCE 1.5-270, axis 150°(T). Cirele spa o lag ' 
1000 yards. 

Proceeded through point "Unde", north of Treasury Islands, 
and down the "Slot", arriving in Purvis Bay, Florida Island at 
2100, 25 November, 1943. What a Thanksgiving Dayf) 

At 0651 slxteon P-36's arrived over the formation for day 
fighter oover and were gratefully greeted by all hands. It weeced 
as though a simultaneous sigh of relief went up from the A ole ship. 


Document on night surface engagement, 
Cape St. George 


73 


enemy ships had been sunk and another badly dam- 
aged, while no damage was received by the American 
ships. 

Through December 1943, Charles Ausburne continued 
her patrol, escort, antiaircraft, and bombardment duties 
in support of the Bougainville operation. After brief 
overhaul in Australia she returned to the northern Solo- 
mons 30 January 1944, and on 3 February sailed for 
action once more, fighting off a heavy Japanese air 
attack to break through for a bombardment mission on 
the northern coast of Bougainville. A series of patrols 
to cover the landings on Green Island and many searches 
for enemy surface craft were conducted, along with a 
punishing bombardment of Kavieng Harbor on 18 Feb- 
rary. The enemy’s port facilities, airstrip, and supply 
dump were almost completely destroyed in this attack. 

From 20 to 24 February 1944, the squadron swept the 
waters of New Ireland for Japanese shipping, sinking 
a tug, a coastal minelayer, a small freighter, and many 
barges, then returned to escorting amphibious craft 
until 5 March, when they sailed on a patrol north of the 
Bismarcks. 

On 26 March 1944, Charles Ausburne joined the 5th 
Fleet at sea, and next day Captain Burke left the ship 
to assume new responsibilities as Chief of Staff. With 
the powerful carrier striking force TF 58, Charles Aus- 
burne sailed for air strikes in the Palaus and on Yap, 
Ulithi, and Woleai between 30 March and 1 April, then 
replenished at Majuro. Later in the month she sailed 
with the group formed around Yorktown, screening as 
the carrier offered direct air support during the land- 
ings at Holandia, and launched strikes against Truk 
and Ponape. Returning to Majuro, Charles Ausburne 
joined in exercises preparing for the next great opera- 
tion, the assault upon the Marianas. 

On this mission, Charles Ausburne was at sea from 
6 June to 6 July 1944, primarily steaming in the screen 
guarding the carriers of TF 58 as they repeatedly struck 
Tinian, Saipan, Pagan, Guam, and Iwo Jima. This neu- 
tralization of enemy airfields and island defenses made 
feasible the series of landings in the Marianas. Charles 
Ausburne also bombarded shore defenses on Guam, and 
screened carrier Essex while the carrier hurled strikes 
at Saipan to support the initial landings on Guam and 
the advancing troops on Saipan. 

After overhaul on the west coast, Charles Ausburne 
returned to Ulithi 5 November 1944, and through the 
remainder of November guarded carriers providing 
air cover for convoys to Leyte. Heavy air action came 
in December, when from the 19th to the 24th, the de- 
stroyer led the first resupply convoy from San Pedro 
Bay to Mindoro. On the 21st, four separate raids, one 
of which included kamikazes, met the fire of the screen- 
ing destroyers, and more raids were fought off as the 
convoy unloaded. 

Continuing her support of the return to the Philip- 
pines, Charles Ausburne screened transports from San 
Pedro Bay, sailing 4 January 1945, north for Lingayen 
Gulf. On 7 January, the escort fought off an enemy 
air attack, and later, Charles Ausburne, with three other 
destroyers, sped off to investigate a radar contact. It 
was the Japanese destroyer Hinoki, quickly dispatched 
to the bottom by the effective fire of the four American 
ships. On 9 and 10 January, she shielded the assault 
landings then hurled 5-inch shells ashore to aid advanc- 
ing troops. Returning to San Pedro 15 January, Charles 
Ausburne began 2 months of convoy escort and patrol 
duty to Lingayen, and around San Pedro Bay. 

Through late March and April 1945, the destroyer 
screened landings at Panay and Negros, and provided 
night illumination and call-fire support at both Negroes 
and Parang on Mindanao. On 13 May, she sailed from 
San Pedro Bay to rejoin the 5th Fleet and on 16 May 
reached Okinawa’s Hagushi anchorage. After a period 
of antisubmarine patrol, during which she twice drove 
off enemy air attack, she protected landings at Aguni 
Shima, and on 23 June, received her first assignment 


to the inferno of radar picket duty, which she survived 
without damage. She remained on patrol off Okinawa 
through the remainder of the war. 

Charles Ausburne left Okinawa 10 September 1945, 
and arrived at Washington, D.C., 17 October to receive 
her Presidential Unit Citation. After a visit to New 
York, she reached Charleston, S.C., where she was 
placed out of commission in reserve 18 April 1946. Here 
on 12 April 1960 she was transferred to the Federal 
Republic of Germany, with whom she serves as Z-6. 

In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation awarded 
her squadron, Charles Ausburne received 11 battle stars 
for World War II service. 

Charles B, Mason 

Former name retained. 

Charles B. Mason (No. 1225), a motorboat, was 
chartered by the Navy on 1 June 1917, and assigned 
to the 5th Naval District where she performed patrol 
duty. On 21 December 1918 she was placed out of serv- 
ice and returned to her owner. 

Charles B. Penrose, see Penrose 

Charles Berry 

Charles Joseph Berry was born 10 July 1923 in 
Lorain, Ohio, and enlisted in the Marine Corps 1 Octo- 
ber 1941. Corporal Berry was killed in action at Iwo 
Jima 3 March 1945, when he saved his comrades from 
an exploding hand grenade by throwing himself upon 
it. This unhesitating and selfless sacrifice of his life led 
to the pothumous award of the Medal of Honor. 

(DE-1035 : Classified) 

Charles Berry (DE-1035) was launched 17 March 
1959 by Avondale Marine Ways, Inc., Avondale, La., 
under subcontract from American Shipbuilding Co., 
Lorain, Ohio; sponsored by Mrs. C. Berry; and com- 
missioned 25 November 1959, Lieutenant Commander 
R. C. Robinson in command. 

Charles Berry arrived at San Diego, her home port, 
3 February 1960, and after shakedown training and 
overhaul, cleared on 14 June for a tour of duty in the 
Far East which took her to United Nations trust terri- 
tories in the charge of the United States, as well as on 
a good will cruise to Philippine ports. She returned 
to the west coast late in 1960. 


Charles Carroll 

Charles Carroll, a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, was born in Annapolis, Md., 20 September 
1737. A lawyer, he studied at Paris and London, where 
he was admitted to membership in the Inner Temple. 
He died in Baltimore, Md., 14 November 1832. 

(A P-58 : dp. 8,409; 1. 491'; b. 65'6"; dr. 25'8"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 612; a. 4 3"; cl. Crescent City ) 

Charles Carroll (AP-58) was launched as Del Uru- 
guay 24 March 1942 by Bethlehem Steel Corp., Spar- 
rows Point, Md.; sponsored by Mrs. C. W. Flesher; 
acquired by the Navy 13 August 1942; and commis- 
sioned the same day, Commander H. Beisemeier in com- 
mand. 

The transport departed Norfolk, Va., 24 October 
1942 in the Center Attack Group for the landings in 
North Africa, and on 8 November arrived off Fedhala, 
French Morocco, to begin the difficult landing of 
soldiers and their equipment over a beach whose nar- 
row entrance was confined by rocky entrances. Her 
untried boat crews completed their part in the landing 
successfully, and on 15 November, Charles Carroll got 


74 


underway for Norfolk, which she reached 26 November. 
After replenishment, she sailed 27 December, bound for 
the Pacific, but while approaching the Canal Zone, 
struck a mine, and had to put into Balboa for repairs. 
On 1 February 1943, she was reclassified APA-28, and 
in March 1943 returned to Chesapeake Bay for training 
operations. On 8 June, the attack transport sailed for 
action once more. 

Arriving at Oran 22 June 1943, Charles Carroll re- 
hearsed, then loaded, for the assault on Sicily, and on 10 
July, began putting troops ashore through the heavy 
surf of the Scoglitti beaches. Remaining off Sicily for 6 
days, the attack transport repeatedly fired on attacking 
planes in the furious German air attacks on the assault 
forces. After ferrying reinforcements from North 
Africa, she returned to Oran 18 August to prepare for 
the invasion of Italy itself, for which she sailed 5 Sep- 
tember. 

Operating with the Southern Attack Force, Charles 
Carroll began landing the initial attack waves at Saler- 
no 9 September, where a strong defense of the beach 
called for, and received, skill and determination from 
the boat crews. As resistance stiffened, Charles Car-roll 
joined in bringing fresh troops into action, continuing 
support until 17 November. After short overhaul in 
Norfolk from 2 January 1944 to 11 February, on 22 
February, she arrived in British waters to begin her 
share of the long and intricate preparations for the 
return to the continent. 

On 5 June 1944, Charles Carroll left England astern 
headed for formidably protected Omaha Beach with 
the initial landing force. Overcoming the difficult ob- 
stacles placed by the Germans there, her boat crews 
successfully landed troops of the 29th Division under 
enemy fire, and all through that historic 6 June plied 
back and forth, landing additional troops and equip- 
ment, and evacuating casualties. Charles Carroll sailed 
for England that evening. 

After training off Scotland and in Italian waters, 
Charles Carroll sailed from Naples 13 August 1944 
for the invasion of southern France, assigned to the 
thoroughly mined, well-defended beaches of Saint 
Raphael, where she got her troops ashore without mis- 
hap on 15 August. Until October, she continued to sup- 
port the advance of troops in southern France with 
voyages to Marseilles from Naples and Oran with 
French, British, and American troops, and Italian 
labor battalions. 

Charles Carroll returned to Norfolk 8 November 
1944 for overhaul, and to prepare for Pacific deploy- 
ment. The veteran of five major assaults reached Espi- 
ritu Santo, Noumea, 19 January 1945. On 27 March 
1945, she sailed from Ulithi in the Northern Attack 
Force for Okinawa, carrying elements of the 1st 
Marines to the Hagushi beaches. She landed her troops 
1 April in the deceptively quiet opening hours of this 
later fierce campaign, and remained to support the 
rapid advance of the Marines across the island for 4 
days, firing in the many kamikaze attacks which began 
to sketch the bloody pattern of this operation. She 
returned by way of Saipan to Pearl Harbor, where she 
embarked passengers for San Francisco, arriving 22 
August. 

After the war, Charles Carroll made five voyages 
from the west coast to the Philippines and the Far East, 
carrying occupation troops west-bound, and returning 
servicemen east-bound. Ports of call included Manila; 
Nagoya, Sasebo, and Yokosuka, Japan; Tientsin, Shang- 
hai, Tsingtao, and Taku, China; and Guam. She was de- 
commissioned and placed in reserve at San Francisco 
27 December 1946. She was transferred to the Maritime 
Commission 29 October 1958. 

Charles Carroll received six battle stars for World 
War II service. 


Charles E. Brannon 

Charles E. Brannon, who was born 2 August 1919 
in Montgomery, Ala., enlisted in the Naval Reserve 14 
April 1941 for aviation training. Ensign Brannon re- 
ported for duty in Torpedo Squadron 8 in carrier Hornet 
(CV-8) 3 February 1942, and was killed in action 4 
June 1942 during the Battle of Midway. He was awarded 
a Navy Cross posthumously for his extraordinary hero- 
ism in pressing home an attack against a Japanese 
carrier. 

(DE-446 : dp. 1,350; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 9'5"; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 2 5”, 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct; 
cl. John C. Butler) 

Charles E. Brannon (DE-446) was launched 23 April 
1944 by Federal Shipbuilding Co., Newark, N.J.; spon- 
sored by Second Lieutenant D. Brannon, WAC; and 
commissioned 1 November 1944, Commander E. W. Todd 
in command. 

Putting out from New York 27 January 1945, Charles 
E. Brannon escorted cargo ships by way of the Panama 
Canal, and the Galapagos and Society Islands to Manus, 
arriving 15 March. Routed on to San Pedro Bay, P.I., 
she began the important task of guarding interisland 
convoys. Late in April, she sailed in the screen of the 
assault forces bound for Tarakan, Borneo, off which she 
lay from 1 to 8 May, covering the landings and giving 
call fire support. Her effective gunfire won many com- 
pliments from the troops whose advance was thereby 
expedited. Charles E. Brannon gave similar support 
during the assault on Brunei Bay which began 10 June. 

From the beginning of July through mid-September 

1945, Charles E. Brannon escorted convoys sailing from 
the Philippines to Okinawa, then participated in the 
occupation of China operating between Okinawa and 
Hong Kong. She returned to San Francisco 1 February 

1946, and on 21 May 1946 was placed out of commission 
in reserve at San Diego. 

From August 1946 into 1960, Charles E. Brannon 
was assigned to the reserve training program. In cruises 
along the west coast over weekends and in more extended 
periods, active reservists manned her in refresher train- 
ing. From 21 November 1950 to 18 June 1960, Charles 
E. Brannon performed this service in commissioned 
status, and since the latter date has been in service 
under an officer-in-charge, with a reserve officer in 
command when she puts to sea with her reserve training 
group. 

Charles E. Brannon received one battle star for World 
War II service. 


Charles F. Adams 

Charles Francis Adams, born 2 August 1866 in 
Quincy, Mass., graduated cum laude from Harvard 
College in 1888 and from Harvard Law School in 1892. 
A successful lawyer, business man, outstanding civic 
leader, and well-known yachtsman and ocean racer, he 
served as Secretary of the Navy from 1929 to 1933. He 
vigorously promoted public understanding of the Navy’s 
indispensable role in international affairs, and worked 
strenuously to maintain naval strength and efficiency 
during a period of severe economic depression. He 
served at the London Naval Conference in 1930 where 
he successfully maintained the principle of United 
States naval parity with Great Britain. He died in 1954 
and is buried in Mount Wollaston Cemetery, Quincy, 
Mass., where the two Presidents, who were his ancestors, 
lie with other members of this distinguished American 
family. 

(DDG-2: dp. 4,500 (f.) ; 1. 437'; b. 47'; dr. 22'; s. 30+ k.; 
cpl. 354; a. “Tartar” guided missiles, 2 5"; cl. Charles 
F. Adams) 

Charles F. Adams (DDG-2) was launched 8 Septem- 
ber 1959 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; sponsored 


75 


by Mrs. R. Homans, sister of Mr. Adams; and com- 
missioned 10 September 1960, Commander W. R. Mon- 
roe, Jr., in command. 

From commissioning through the end of 1960, Charles 
F. Adams operated along the east coast on shakedown 
training. 

Charles F. Hughes 

Charles Frederick Hughes, born in Bath, Maine, 14 
October 1866, graduated from the United States Naval 
Academy 8 June 1888 and was commissioned Ensign 
1 July 1890. He first saw action in the bombardment 
of Manila while serving in Monterey during the Span- 
ish-American War. Hughes commanded New York dur- 
ing World War I, and for his fine performance of duty 
while operating with the British Grand Fleet was 
awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. After a 
series of major commands and appointments, Admiral 
Hughes climaxed his career with service as Commander 
in Chief, U.S. Fleet, and from 10 October 1927 until 
his retirement 11 September 1930, as Chief of Naval 
Operations. Admiral Hughes died 28 May 1934 in 
Chevy Chase, Md., and is buried in Arlington National 
Cemetery. 

(DD-428 : dp. 1,620; 1. 348'3"; b. 36'1"; dr. 11'9"; s. 33 
k.; cpl. 191; a. 5 5", 2 21" tt.; cl. Benson ) 

Charles F. Hughes (DD-428) was launched 16 May 

1940 by Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash.; 
sponsored by Mrs. C. F. Hughes; and commissioned 5 
September 1940, Lieutenant Commander G. L. Menocal 
in command. 

After training operations in the Caribbean, Charles 
F. Hughes reported at Newport 3 April 1941 to join 
in the U.S. Navy’s support of Britain. In September 

1941 Charles F. Hughes and other American destroyers 
took up the responsibility for providing convoy escort 
in the western Atlantic. 

Twice during this period Charles F. Hughes rescued 
survivors from sunken merchantmen. The first rescue 
came as she steamed escorting the Marine forces bound 
for the occupation of Iceland in July 1941, when she 
saved fourteen survivors, including four American Red 
Cross nurses, from a torpedoed Norwegian freighter. 
On 16 October, she rescued seven men from a lifeboat, 
survivors of a ship sunk a few days previously. 

When the United States entered the war, Charles F. 
Hughes guarded merchant shipping in coastal convoys, 
Caribbean sailings, and from the midocean meeting 
points to Iceland and New York. Between 30 April and 
19 May 1942, she made her first complete crossing of 
the Atlantic in a convoy to Belfast, Northern Ireland, 
returning to Boston to resume western Atlantic duty. 
From August 1942, transatlantic convoy duty was her 
service, with Northern Ireland her usual destination. 
On 2 November, she sailed from New York to escort 
the first reinforcement convoy for the north African 
landings to Casablanca, arriving 18 November. Here 
she remained on patrol for a month before returning 
to her usual escort duties. 

In 1943 Charles F. Hughes joined in regular convoy 
voyages of tankers from the Bristol Channel to the 
Netherlands West Indies. The first of these, on which 
she sailed from Londonderry 15 February, was almost 
constantly under attack or shadowed by wolfpacks. 
Charles F. Hughes and the other escorts kept losses 
low by their aggressive attacks, and only one submarine 
attack, on the night of 23-24 February, was successful 
in penetrating the alert screen. 

Charles F. Hughes escorted a convoy to Casablanca, 
returning to New York, in November and December 
1943, and on 4 January 1944, sailed from Norfolk, Va., 
to join the 8th Fleet in the Mediterranean. After convoy 
operations in North African waters supporting the 
buildup of forces on the bitterly contested Anzio beach- 
head, on 7 February she moved north to base at Naples. 


Through early March, she returned to Anzio again and 
again, to provide shore bombardment, screening, and 
patrol services. For the American troops dug in under 
almost constant German counterattack, the whistle of 
shells over head from such ships as Charles F. Hughes 
was a most comforting sound. From 3 March to 4 April, 
the destroyer resumed convoy escort duties in north 
African waters and patrol at Gibraltar, then returned to 
operate off Anzio until just before the final breakout 
from the beachhead late in May. 

Returning to antisubmarine patrol and escort duties 
in the western Mediterranean, Charles F. Hughes ar- 
rived at Naples 30 July 1944 to prepare for the in- 
vasion of southern France. While protecting the eastern 
flank of the shipping off the beachhead from attack on 
the night of 19-20 August, she spotted three German 
E-boats attempting to penetrate the screen, and forced 
two of them to beach while she sank the third by gun- 
fire. With the beachhead secure, Charles F. Hughes 
resumed patrol and escort services throughout the west- 
ern Mediterranean, particularly in the Gulf of Genoa. 
Between 7 and 16 December, she provided call-fire sup- 
port off Monaco, previously bypassed because of its 
neutrality, but now under attack because German forces 
had invested it. 

Charles F. Hughes returned to Brooklyn for over- 
haul 12 January 1945, and after a final convoy escort 
voyage to Oran, got underway for duty in the Pacific. 
She arrived at Ulithi 13 June, and through the re- 
mainder of the war escorted convoys to Okinawa. 
Through September and October, she sailed with con- 
voys from Ulithi and the Philippines to Japanese ports, 
and on 4 November, was homeward bound from Tokyo. 
She arrived at Charleston, S.C., 7 December, and on 
18 March 1946 was placed out of commission in reserve. 

Charles F. Hughes received four battle starts for 
World War II service. 


Charles H. Roan 

Charles Harold Roan, born 16 August 1923 in Claude, 
Tex., enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve 12 December 
1942. He was killed in action 18 September 1944 on 
Peleliu. For his selfless heroism in absorbing the impact 
of a hand grenade to save the lives of his four com- 
panions, Private First Class Roan was posthumously 
awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. 


The name Charles H. Roan was originally assigned 
to DD-815, whose construction was cancelled 12 August 
1945. 

I 

(DD-853 : dp. 2,425; 1. 390'6"; b. 411"; dr. 18'6"; s. 
35 k.; cpl. 367; a. 6 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

Gearing ) 

Charles H. Roan (DD-853) was launched 15 March 
1946 by Bethlehem Steel Co., Shipbuilding Division, 
Quincy, Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. L, Roan; and com- 
missioned 12 September 1946, Comamnder R. B. Derick- 
son in command. 

From her home port at Newport, R.I., Charles H. 
Roan operated through 1960 on training exercises along 
the east coast and in the Caribbean which prepared her 
for the many and varied overseas deployments with 
which she made her contribution to the key role of the 
United States Navy in the preservation of peace 
throughout the world. Typifying the manifold missions 
of the destroyer, she trained with carriers, with sub- 
marines, in convoy escort exercises, and in amphibious 
operations. In addition, she gave service as part of the 
midshipman training squadron, as engineering school 
ship for Destroyer Force, Atlantic, and in North Atlan- 
tic Treaty Organization exercises. Her operating areas 


76 


ranged from frigid Arctic to the steaming Persian Gulf, 
and her assignments took her around the world. 

On her first overseas deployment, Charles H. Roan 
sailed from Newport 9 February 1948 for a cruise which 
took her to the Mediterranean and service with the 6th 
Fleet, then into the Persian Gulf to aid in representing 
American strength in this critical area with the Middle 
East Force. She returned to Newport 26 June, and took 
up the training schedule necessary to prepare her for 
a 1949 Mediterranean tour. In 1950 her armament was 
extensively altered, and her next lengthy cruise came 
in summer 1953, when she carried midshipmen to South 
American ports. 

On 2 August 1954, Charles H. Roan stood down Nar- 
ragansett with her division on the first leg of a round 
the world voyage. She sailed on to the western Pacific for 
5 months of operations with the mighty 7th Fleet, on 
patrol in the Taiwan Straits, and in carrier and am- 
phibious exercises off Japan, Okinawa, and the Philip- 
pines. The division took departure from Subic Bay, P.I., 
20 January 1955, and continued westward to call at 
Persian Gulf ports, transit the Suez Canal, and visit 
in the Mediterranean before returning to Newport 14 
March. She resumed her training operations until 7 
Julv, when she was ordered north to take station as a 
picket off Iceland and Greenland during the flight of 
President D. D. Eisenhower to the Geneva Summit Con- 
ference. 

Charles H. Roan’s next Mediterranean cruise began 
with her sailing from Newport 14 September 1956 to 
join the 6th Fleet. With the eruption of the Suez crisis 
that fall, she patrolled in the eastern Mediterranean, 
aiding in the prevention of further violence. Since the 
Suez Canal was now blocked, December found Charles 
H. Roan bound for the Cape of Good Hope, rounding 
the African continent for 2 months of duty with the 
Middle East Force. Between 20 and 27 January 1957, 
she served as flagship for the Force Commander in 
a passage up the Shatt-al-Arab to visit Barsa, Iraq. Her 
return passage to Newport found her rounding the Cape 
of Good Hope once more, and she reached home 3 April, 
in good time to take part in the International Naval 
Review in Hampton Roads in June. Late summer saw 
her crossing the Atlantic once more for visits to Ply- 
mouth, England, and Copenhagen, Denmark, while par- 
ticipating in North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Operation “Strikeback.” 

Charles H. Roan’s 1958 midshipmen cruise is a strik- 
ing illustration of naval reaction to an international 
emergency. Arriving at Annapolis 12 July to take the 
midshipmen on board, Charles H. Roan got underway 
on what was to be a brief cruise. But plans swiftly 
changed upon the outbreak of the trouble in the Middle 
East which led to the landing of American Marines by 
the fleet in Lebanon. First, Charles H. Roan proceeded 
to Norfolk, Va., to take on board additional stores and 
ammunition necessary for a lengthy deployment, then 
sailed south to escort an amphibious group to training 
operations designed as preparation for any extension of 
the Middle Eastern trouble. She proceeded on across 
the Atlantic, arriving at Naples 14 August to transfer 
the midshipmen to other ships. Thus released, she sailed 
on to the coast of Lebanon, where she and Forrest Royal 
(DD-872) patrolled in support of the forces ashore. 
Now trouble flared up in the Far East, as the Chinese 
Communists menaced peace by resuming the bombard- 
ment of the Nationalist-held offshore islands. Charles 
H. Roan and Forrest Royal joined the Essex (CVA-9) 
group, augmenting the screen of two destroyers already 
accompanying the carrier. The group passed through 
the Suez Canal 29 August, and until 27 September, 
patrolled off Taiwan. Her return passage to Newport 
took her around the Cape of Good Hope. She arrived 
home 18 November to a colorful welcome in Narragan- 
sett Bay. 

Adding to her list of historic operations, Charles H. 
Roan in the summer of 1959, participated in Operation 


“Inland Sea,” the first passage of a naval force through 
the Saint Lawrence Seaway into the Great Lakes. She 
visited many ports and took part in the ceremonies 
dedicating the Seaway. The 31st of March 1960 found 
her again arriving in the Mediterranean for a cruise 
which included duty with the key Middle East Force, 
and visits to many Persian Gulf ports. Returning to 
Newport in October, Charles H. Roan operated off the 
east coast for the remainder of the year. 

Charles J. Badger 

Born 6 August 1853 in Rockville, Md., Charles J. 
Badger served in Cincinnati during the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, and climaxed his career as Commander in 
Chief, Atlantic Fleet. He was awarded the Distinguished 
Service Medal for his contribution as chairman of the 
General Board during World War I. Rear Admiral 
Badger died 7 September 1932 and is buried in Arling- 
ton National Cemetery. 

(DD-657: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9“; s. 
35 k.; cpl. 319; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. 

Fletcher) 

Charles J. Badger (DD-657) was launched 3 April 
1943 by Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island, N.Y.; spon- 
sored by Miss I. E. Badger; and commissioned 23 July 

1943, Commander W. G. Cooper in command. 

Charles J. Badger arrived at San Francisco 30 No- 
vember for Pacific duty, and on 17 December reported 
at Adak for almost continuous patrol and escort duty 
in the fog and storm-ridden Aleutians until August 

1944. During this time she helped keep the Japanese 
off balance and unaware of the United States’ strategic 
intentions involving the western Aleutians by joining 
in the heavy bombardments in the Kuriles in February 
and June. On 8 August she got underway for warmer 
waters and warmer action, calling at San Francisco and 
Pearl Harbor en route Manus. Here she joined an as- 
sault convoy and sailed 14 October for the return to the 
Philippines. 

Entering Philippine waters she protected transports 
in the assault landings at Dulag, Leyfe, on 20 October 
1944, firing to drive off Japanese air attacks as the 
unloading proceeded. On the eve of the epic Battle for 
Leyte Gulf, Charles J. Badger guarded the retirement 
of empty transports to New Guinea, but returned to 
Leyte convoying reinforcements in mid-November. In 
December, she reported in Huon Gulf, New Guinea, for 
rehearsals of the Lingayen landings, for which she 
sailed 27 December. On 8 January 1945, as she entered 
Lingayen Gulf, her force was attacked by Japanese 
kamikazes, one of whose desperate number crashed the 
escort carrier Kitkun Bay (CVE-71). Unloading of 
transports began 9 January, while Charles H. Badger’s 
accurate AA fire helped protect the unloading during 
frequent enemy air attacks. Two days later, she escorted 
Kitkun Bay to San Pedro Bay, where she herself took 
up patrol duties. On 29 January, she guarded the land- 
ing of troops on the Zambales coast north of Bataan. 

After a period at Ulithi, Charles J. Badger returned 
to Leyte to rehearse for the landings on the Kerama 
Retto, a key preliminary to the assault on Okinawa. 
Charles J. Badger arrived off the Retto 26 March 1945 
to guard the landings, which took the Japanese com- 
pletely by surprise. This did not prevent them, however, 
from quickly mounting suicide air attacks, during one 
of which Charles J. Badger aided in splashing a kami- 
kaze short of its target. Once the landings on Okinawa 
began, the destroyer took position to guard the south- 
ern flank of the landings. On 7 April she joined a force 
moving north to meet the last Japanese naval force, 
mighty battleship Yamato and her accompanying 
cruiser and eight destroyers. However, the accurate 
attack of carrier aircraft sank Yamato, the cruiser, 
and all but four of the destroyers before American 
surface forces could engage. Charles J. Badger con- 


77 


tinued to offer fire support on call to aid the troops 
ashore. In the halflight of early morning on 9 April, 
as she lay to on her fire support station, an 18-foot 
Japanese suicide boat suddenly sped out of the gloom, 
dropped a depth charge close aboard, and raced away. 
The explosion knocked out Charles J. Badger’s engines 
and caused heavy flooding. Quick work controlled the 
flooding, and a tug brought the stricken destroyer into 
the Kerama Retto roadstead. After temporary repairs, 
she proceeded for overhaul to Bremerton, Wash., where 
she arrived 1 August. On 21 May 1946 she was placed 
out of commission in reserve at Long Beach, Calif. 

Charles J. Badger was recommissioned 10 September 
1951, and in February 1952 arrived at her new home 
port, Newport, R.I. From this base, she operated along 
the east coast and in the Caribbean, maintaining and 
providing services for the training of other types. Her 
first Atlantic crossing came from 9 June to 23 July 1953, 
when she sailed to visit Portsmouth, England, in com- 
pany with two carriers and another destroyer. On 7 
December she cleared Newport on the first leg of a 
round the world cruise, which found her operating for 
2 months on patrol off the Korean coast and in the 
Taiwan Straits. She escorted transports bringing pris- 
oners of war who had elected to join the Chinese Na- 
tionalists from Inchon to Taiwan, and took part in 
training operations off Japan until 22 May 1954, when 
she continued on around the world. Visits at Hong 
Kong, Singapore, Colombo, Aden, Port Said, Naples, 
Villefranche, and Lisbon marked her progress to the 
Suez Canal and through the Mediterranean to Newport, 
where she arrived 17 July. 

Charles J. Badger completed two tours of duty with 
the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean in early 1956 and in 
late 1956-early 1957, during the second of which she 
patrolled watchfully during the Suez Crisis. Charles J. 
Badger was decommissioned and placed in reserve at 
Boston 20 December 1957. 

Charles J. Badger received five battle stars for World 
War II service. 


Charles J. Kimmel 

Charles Jack Kimmel, born in Rushsylvania, Ohio, 2 
July 1918, enlisted in the Marine Corps 29 October 
1941 and was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant 31 
January 1942. He was killed in action near the bloody 
Matanikau River on Guadalcanal 2 November 1942 
while leading his platoon in a bayonet charge. His 
superb courage in this hand-to-hand combat won recog- 
nition in the posthumous award of the Navy Cross. 

(DE-584: dp. 1,450; 1. 306'; b. 37'; dr. 9'8"; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 2 5", 3 21" tt„ 8 dcp., 1 dcp.fhh.), 2 dct.; cl. 

Rudder ow) 

Charles J. Kimmel (DE-584) was launched 15 Janu- 
ary 1944 by Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyard, Hingham, 
Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. C. J. Kimmel; commissioned 
20 April 1944, Lieutenant Commander F. G. Storey, 
Jr., USNR, in command; and reported to the Atlantic 
Fleet. 

Charles J. Kimmel escorted coastwise convoys between 
Norfolk, Va., and New York City until Augst 1944. On 
2 August she sailed to guard the passage of a convoy to 
Oran, _ where she was ordered to sail independently 
escorting a transport to Naples, both of these move- 
ments in support of the recent assault on southern 
France. She rejoined her original escort group at Oran 
on 26 August, and returned to Boston 18 September. 
Here she received repairs, and Pacific-type comouflage. 

The escort vessel arrived at Manus 7 November 1944 
and on 20 November sailed for Hollandia to join the 
group escorting a reinforcement convoy to Leyte, re- 
turning to New Guinea to prepare for the assault on 
Lingayen. On 28 December, she put to sea in the San 
Fabian Attack Force, coming under air attack with her 
force on 6, 7, and 8 January 1945 as the huge am- 


phibious fleet sailed north. Her guns joined the anti- 
aircraft barrage shielding the vulnerable transports 
and landing craft then and during the assault on 9 
January. These well-exchanged landings showed the 
result of careful planning and training. 

Charles J. Kimmel continued to operate in the Philip- 
pines though the remainder of the war, escorting con- 
voys from New Guinea to Leyte and Lingayen as well as 
within the Philippine Archipelago. Twice she screened 
shipping to the Palaus. From 2 June, she served with 
the local naval defense force in Davao Gulf, providing 
communications for naval forces ashore as well as per- 
forming air-sea rescue missions. On the first day of 
her new assignment, she dashed under the guns of 
enemy-held Auqui Island to rescue 22 survivors of a 
downed Air Force transport. Japanese troops in Davao 
Gulf were typically stubborn about surrender, and 
Charles J. Kimmel aided Filipino guerillas in their 
mop-up activities bombarding Piso Point to dislodge 
about 600 enemy soldiers bottled up there. 

In September 1945, Charles J. Kimmel escorted a 
convoy to Okinawa, returning to patrol duties in the 
Philippines until 29 November, when she hoisted the 
homeward-bound pennant at Samar. She arrived in 
San Diego 18 December 1945, and there was placed 
out of commission in reserve 15 January 1947. 

Charles J. Kimmel received one battle star for World 
War II service. 


Charles Lawrence 

Charles Lawrence, who was bom in Portland, Oreg., 29 
December 1916, enlisted in the Navy 12 February 1940. 
Serving as an Aviation Machinist’s Mate Second Class 
at the Naval Air Station at Kaneohe, Oahu, Lawrence 
was killed in action during the Japanese attack on the 
Hawaiian Islands 7 December 1941. 

(DE-53 : dp. 1,400; 1. 306'; b. 36'10"; dr. 9'5"; s. 24 k.; 

cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; 
cl. Buckley) 

Charles Lawrence (DE-53) was launched 16 February 
1943 by Bethlehem-Hingham Shipyards, Inc., Hingham, 
Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. S. Lawrence; commissioned 
31 May 1943, Lieutenant Commander L. S. Kintberger 
in command. 

Assigned first to escort central Atlantic convoys of 
tankers between Norfolk, Va., and Casablanca, Charles 
Lawrence made one such voyage between 16 August and 
24 September 1943. She was then transferred to the 
high-speed tanker convoys formed at New York from 
ships which had sailed independently up the east coast, 
now swept of the submarine menace, from West Indian 
oil ports. Between 13 October 1943 and 23 September 
1944, Charles Lawrence escorted eight such convoys to 
Northern Ireland, returning with the tankers in ballast 
to New York. This flow of the fuel of war was so safely 
guarded by her group that only one tanker was lost in 
any of their passages. Along with the constant alert- 
ness against submarien attack, Charles Lawrence had to 
maintain a high standard of seamanship to keep the 
seas in all kinds of weather. At one time, during what 
was known as the “Christmas Hurricane,” of 1943, the 
ships of her convoy were virtually hoveto for 20 hours. 

Charles Lawrence was reclassified APD-37 on 23 
October 1944, and was converted to a high-speed 
transport in New York City. After brief shakedown, 
she cleared Norfolk, Va., 27 January 1945 for Pearl 
Harbor, where she replenished between 22 February and 
5 March. She was routed on to Ulithi, where she ar- 
rived 23 March to join the Northern Attack Force 
Screen for the assault on Okinawa. 

Charles Lawrence arrived off the Hagushi beaches 1 
April 1945, in the screen for a group of 20 transports. 
She remained close inshore to guard the launching of 
the initial assault waves, then moved out to sea to take 


78 


her place on the semicircular screen established around 
the transport area. For 3 months she continued to patrol 
watchfully off Okinawa, guarding against attack by sui- 
cide boats and aircraft or submarines. The only inter- 
ruptions to this vigil came when she was ordered to 
escort shipping away from the embattled island to ports 
in the Philippines, Marianas and Carolines. Firing often 
against the desperate kamikazes, she escaped injury. 

After the war, Charles Lawrence covered the landing 
of occupation forces in the Japanese Inland Sea, then 
acted as transport between the Philippines and Manus. 
She returned to San Diego 16 December 1945, and to 
Norfolk, Va., 30 December. On 21 June 1946 she decom- 
missioned, in reserve at Green Cove Springs, Fla. 

Charles Lawrence received one battle star for World 
War II service. 

Charles Mann 

Former name retained. 

(Tug: 1. 77'7"; b. 21'6"; dr. 10'; s. 9 k.; cpl 11; a. 2 
1-pdrs.) 

Charles Mann (No. 552), a tug purchased by the 
Navy, was placed in commission on 7 June 1917, Chief 
Boatswain A. Lundgren, in command. Charles Mann 
was assigned to the 1st Naval District where she car- 
ried out patrol duty and conducted towing operations 
in the Boston area. She was decommissioned on 29 
November 1919 and later sold. 


Charles P. Cecil 

Charles Purcell Cecil was born in Louisville, Ky., 4 
September 1893. He graduated from the Naval Academy 
and was commissioned ensign in 1916. His extraordinary 
heroism in World War II, first as commander of Des- 
troyer Division 5 in the Battle of Santa Cruz 26 October 
1942, and later as commanding officer of Helena (CL-50) 
in hazardous mine laying and shore bombardment off 
Kolombaranga 13 May 1943 and in the Battle of Kula 
Gulf 5-6 July 1943 were recognized with the Navy Cross, 
a Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross, and the 
Bronze Star. Rear Admiral Cecil was killed in an air- 
plane crash in the Pacific 31 July 1944. 

(DD-835 : dp. 2,425; 1. 390'6"; b. 41'1"; dr. 18'6"; s. 

35 k. ; cpl. 367; a. 6 5", 5 21"tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

Gearing) 

Charles P. Cecil (DD-835) was launched 22 April 
1945 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; sponsored by 
Mrs. C. P. Cecil; and commissioned 29 June 1945, Com- 
mander W. Outerson in command. 

Charles P. Cecil arrived at San Diego, her home port, 
20 November 1945, and almost at once sailed on a tour 
of Pacific duty which found her operating as part of 
Joint Task Force One in the atomic bomb tests at Bikini, 
as well as supporting occupation forces with operations 
in Japansese waters. She returned to San Diego 9 
August 1946, and took part in exercises off the west 
coast until 26 August 1947, when she cleared for her 
second deployment to the Far East. She touched at 
many Pacific islands as well as calling at ports in China, 
Japan and Okinawa before her return to San Diego 5 
May 1948. 

Reclassified DDR-835 18 March 1949, Charles P. Cecil 
left San Diego astern 4 April 1949, bound for Newport, 
R.I., and assignment to the Atlantic Fleet. First from 
Newport, and from December 1950, from Norfolk, Va., 
Charles P. Cecil operated through 1960 with the Atlantic 
Fleet, taking part in midshipmen training cruises, peri- 
odic deployments to the Mediterranean, and the over- 
hauls and refresher training necessary to maintain her 
readiness. She participated in a long list of North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization operations, in waters 


ranging from those north of the Arctic Circle to the 
Mediterranean. Her tours of duty with 6th Fleet in the 
Mediterranean included one which coincided with the 
Suez Crisis of fall 1956, during which she took up 
watchful partol in the eastern Mediterranean. 

From January 1959, when she was fitted with highly 
complex electronic computational and tracking equip- 
ment, Charles P. Cecil concentrated on air defense ex- 
periments and exercises, contributing to the development 
of advanced techniques. Her training, however, con- 
tinued to include the areas such as antisubmarine war- 
fare and amphibious operations required of the versatile 
destroyer. 

Charles P. Crawford 

Former name retained. 

(AM: 1. 100'; b. 24'; dr. 10'3"; s. 9 k.; a. 2 1-pdr.) 

Charles P. Crawford (No. 366), a tug chartered by the 
Navy, was commissioned on 22 September 1917, Boat- 
swain G. W. Caddell, in command. Assigned to the 3d 
Naval District, Charles P. Crawford engaged in mine- 
sweeping and towing duties and in transporting per- 
sonnel. Following decommissioning, she was returned 
to her owner on 12 August 1919. 

Charles Phelps 

Merchant name retained. 

(Ship: t. 363; 1. 110'; b. 27'4"; dr. 18'; cpl. 23; 
a. 1 32-pdr. sb.) 

Charles Phelps was built in 1848 at New London, 
Conn., as a whaler; purchased at New Bedford, Mass., 
24 June 1861; and commissioned later in the year, Act- 
ing Master W. F. North in command. 

Assigned as a coal supply ship for the North Atlantic 
Blockading Squadron, Charles Phelps served in Hamp- 
ton Roads, Va., throughout the Civil War. Her support 
of the Squadron’s steamers was as critical a contribu- 
tion to their mission of cutting the Confederacy off from 
overseas supply as a modern-day oiler’s logistic support 
is to the operations of the fleet. She was sold at New 
York 25 October 1865. 


Charles P. Kuper 

Former name retained. 

Charles P. Kuper (No. 1235), a tug chartered by the 
Navy, was assigned to the 3d Naval District and utilized 
by the Supply Department during World War I. On 21 
July 1919 she was returned to her owner. 

Charles R. Greer 

Charles Rogers Greer, who was bom in Turtle Creek, 
Pa., 10 July 1920, enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1938, 
and as a private first class was on duty in the Philip- 
pines at the opening of World War II. He was awarded 
the Silver Star for his heroism in the defense of Cor- 
regidor, and was killed in action 14 April 1942. 

(DE-23 : dp. 1,140; 1. 289'5"; b. 35'1"; dr. 8'3"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 156; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; 
cl. Evarts) 

Intended for Britain under lend-lease as BDE-23, 
Charles R. Greer was retained for American use and 
reclassified DE-23; launched 18 January 1943 by Mare 
Island Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. E. Greer; and 
commissioned 25 June 1943, Lieutenant N. C. Sutton, 
USNR, in command. 

Charles R. Greer’s assignment in the Pacific Fleet was 
to the never-ending task of escorting convoys in the in- 


79 


tricate meshing of movements demanded by the buildup 
of Pacific bases. She cleared San Francisco on the first 
such mission 5 September 1943, bound for Pearl Harbor 
which was to be her base until October 1944. Her escort 
duty took her to west coast ports, to Funafuti in the 
Ellice Islands, and to the Gilberts and Marshalls. Early 
in December 1943 she formed part of the screen for the 
transports bringing the garrison force to Abemama in 
the Gilberts, where an important air base was soon de- 
veloped. The next month she guarded the movement of 
the garrison for Majuro. 

From October 1944 through February 1945, Charles 
R. Greer operated guarding convoys from Ulithi to Eni- 
wetok, Guam, and Pearl Harbor. On 20 November 1944, 
her group came under attack by a lone enemy aircraft 
off Ulithi, but the fire of Charles R. Greer and the other 
escort vessels drove the Japanese plane off. She re- 
turned to Pearl Harbor from a west coast overhaul in 
April 1945, and took up a full schedule of training activi- 
ties until late June, when she returned to the Marshall 
Islands for antisubmarine patrols, and convoy escort 
duty. She left Eniwetok astern 31 August to sail to 
Wake Island, where on 4 September she took part in 
the surrender ceremonies, watching as the American 
flag was raised once more over the outpost so stubbornly 
defended in the dark early days of the war. She sailed 
on to Pearl Harbor, where she was decommissioned 2 
November 1945 and sold 1 February 1947. 

Charles R. Greer received two battle stars for World 
War II service. 

Charles R. Ware 

Charles Rollins Ware, born 11 March 1911 in Knox- 
ville, Tenn., enlisted in the Navy 14 June 1929, and the 
following year was appointed to the Naval Academy. 
After graduation in 1934, he served in Texas (BB-35) 
and Dahlgren (DD-187) until February 1940 when he 
entered flight training at Pensacola. Serving with Scout- 
ing Squadron 5, based on Yorktown (CV-5), Lieutenant 
Ware was reported missing in action 4 June 1942 dur- 
ing the Battle of Midway. He was posthumously 
awarded the Navy Cross for his heroism in pressing 
home his attack on the Japanese fleet in the face of 
fierce fighter opposition and formidable antiaircraft fire. 


Charles R. Ware (DE-547) was canceled prior to con- 
struction. 

I 

(DD-865: dp. 2,425; 1. 390'6"; b. 41'1"; dr. 18'6"; s. 

35 k.; cpl. 367; a. 6 5", 5 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

Gearing) 

Charles R. Ware (DD-865) was launched 12 April 
1945 by Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island, N.Y. ; spon- 
sored by Mrs. Z. Ware; and commissioned 21 July 1945, 
Commander H. R. Wier in command. 

From her home ports at Norfolk, Va., and after De- 
cember 1950, Newport, R.I., Charles R. Ware operated 
through 1960 on the demanding schedule of the Atlantic 
Fleet. Along with many deployments to the Mediter- 
ranean and northern Europe, she carried out the inten- 
sive training and overhaul necessary to keep her ready 
for any emergency as well as her usual activities. Her 
first major cruise, between 1 March and 9 April 1946, 
was to northern waters, where she aided in developing 
techniques for cold weather operations, crossing the 
Arctic Circle. 

Shortly thereafter she carried out the first of several 
operations through which she aided in maintaining the 
readiness of other forces, as she served as target ship 
for submarines training off New London, Conn. The 
tenth of November 1947 found her underway for the 


Mediterranean, and her first tour of duty with the 6th 
Fleet. After exercising with this force, and calling at 
ports of northern Europe, she returned to Norfolk 11 
March 1948. Her next tour of duty in the Mediter- 
ranean came in 1949, during which for 2 weeks she 
patrolled off the Levant Coast under the direction of 
the United Nations’ Palestine Truce Commission. 

Through two cruises to the Caribbean in the summer 
of 1949, Charles R. Ware aided in the training of mem- 
bers of the Naval Reserve, then took part in a large- 
scale Arctic operation before preparing for a 1950 tour 
with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. Her 1951 tour 
was highlighted by operations with ships of the Royal 
Hellenic Navy. Following her 1953 tour, she conducted 
antisubmarine warfare exercises with British ships off 
Northern Ireland, calling then at ports in Ireland, Ger- 
many, Norway, Denmark, and Belgium. Later that year 
she took part in exercises with the carrier HMCS Mag- 
nificent off Narragansett Bay. 

Early in 1954 she returned to the Mediterranean once 
more, for a tour of duty which included participation 
in a North Atlantic Treaty Organization operation. Her 
1955 deployment began with antisubmarine warfare 
exercises with the Royal Navy off Northern Ireland, and 
was followed by her 6th Fleet duty. In summer 1956, 
she carried midshipmen on a summer training cruise 
to Northern Europe. 

The year 1957 was marked by assignment to escort 
the ship carrying King Saud of Saudi Arabia into New 
York harbor for his state visit, and a European cruise 
during which she exercised with Spanish destroyers. 
That fall she put to sea for North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization exercises and on 20 January 1958, she 
rescued a downed pilot from Essex (CVA-9) while con- 
ducting air operations off the east coast. Shortly there- 
after she cleared for the Mediterranean once more. 

During the summer of 1959, Charles R. Ware took 
part in the historic Operation “Inland Sea,” the first 
passage of a naval force through the Saint Lawrence 
Seaway into the Great Lakes. She took part in the Naval 
Review in Lake Saint Louis on 26 June, which was taken 
by Queen Elizabeth II of England and President D. D. 
Eisenhower, and sailed on to call at a number of United 
States and Canadian ports. During her 1960 Mediter- 
ranean tour, she carried German naval observers during 
an exercise in the Ionian Sea. 


Charles River, see LSMR-^08 
Charles S. Sperry 

Charles Stillman Sperry, born in Brooklyn, N.Y., 3 
September 1847, graduated from the Naval Academy in 
1886. In November 1898 he became commanding officer 
of Yorktown, and later served as senior officer of the 
Southern Squadron on the Asiatic Station and as Presi- 
dent of the Naval War College. As a rear admiral, he 
served in the United States delegation to the Geneva 
Convention and the Second Hague Conference, and as 
Commander in Chief, Battle Fleet, he led the Great 
White Fleet during the major portion of its historic 
cruise around the world in 1907 and 1908. Admiral 
Sperry retired 3 September 1909, but subsequently was 
recalled to active duty for special service. He died 1 
February 1911 in Washington, D.C. 

(DD-697 : dp. 2,200; 1. 376'6"; b. 40'; dr. 15'8"; s. 34 k.; 

cpl. 336; a. 6 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. Allen M. 

Sumner) 

Charles S. Sperry (DD-697) was launched 13 March 
1944 by Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Kearny, 
N.J.; sponsored by Miss M. Sperry; commissioned 17 
May 1944, Commander H. H. Mcllhenny in command; 
and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 


80 


After training in the Hawaiian Islands, Charles S. 
Sperry arrived at Ulithi 28 December 1944 to join the 
fast carrier force, TF 38. For the remainder of the war, 
she sailed in the screen of the third group of this mighty 
force, variously designated TF 38 and TF 58. She 
sortied with her group for the first time on 30 December, 
bound for the areas from which the carriers launched 
strikes against Japanese bases on Formosa and Luzon 
in preparation for the assault on Lingayen Gulf beaches. 
Continuing to neutralize Japanese airfields the force 
moved on to strike at targets in Indochina, on the South 
China coast, and on Okinawa before returning to Ulithi 
26 January 1945. 

Charles S. Sperry sailed with TF 58 once more on 10 
February 1945, as the force began its familiar work in 
preparation for the invasion of I wo Jima. An audacious 
raid against Tokyo itself was first on the schedule, the 
first carrier strikes on the heart of Japan since the 
Doolittle Raid. On 16 and 17 February, planes from 
the carriers guarded by Charles S. Sperry roared over 
Tokyo, in attacks which inflicted substantial material 
damage, and great moral damage, to the Japanese war 
effort. Now Charles S. Sperry’s force offered direct sup- 
port during the assault landings at Iwo Jima. Twice, on 

19 February and on 20-21 February, the carrier force 
came under air attack from the enemy, but antiaircraft 
fire fom Charles S. Sperry and the other screening ships, 
combined with evasive maneuvering and a protective 
smoke screen, prevented damage to the great concentra- 
tion of ships. A final round of air strikes was hurled at 
Tokyo and Okinawa before TF 58 returned to Ulithi 
5 March. 

Once more designated TF 38, the force cleared Ulithi 
14 March 1945 for the Okinawa operation, which would 
keep Charles S. Sperry and many other ships at sea 
almost continuously until 1 June. First came air strikes 
against Kyushu, for which the Japanese retaliated with 
heavy air attacks against the carrier force on 19 and 

20 March. While carrier Franklin (CV-13) was badly 
damaged in these attacks, Charles S. Sperry and other 
escorts furnished effective antiaircraft fire which pre- 
vented further harm to the force, and she shared in 
splashing several Japanese planes. 

Charles S. Sperry turned south with her force for 
strikes against Okinawa. The destroyer joined in a 
bombardment of the Japanese airstrip on tiny but crit- 
ically located Minami Daito Shima 27 March. Close air 
support was provided by TF 38 as the invasion began 
on 1 April 1945, and Charles S. Sperry served as plane 
guard and radar picket for her force. On 7 April, 
planes from the carriers she screened joined in sending 
the powerful battleship Yarnoto, her accompanying 
cruiser, and four of eight guardian destroyers to the 
bottom. Charles S. Sperry herself fired often, aiding in 
splashing planes of the kamikaze strikes hurled at her 
force on 11, 14, 16, and 29 April, and 11 May. When 
carriers Hancock (CV-19) and Bunker Hill (CV-17) fell 
victim to the suicide planes, Charles S. Sperry stood by 
them, aiding in damage control, and rescuing men from 
the water. 

The destroyer remained in San Pedro Bay, P.I., from 
1 June to 1 July, and then sailed to support the carriers 
as they launched the final air strikes at the Japanese 
home islands. Cover for the first occupation landings 
and the evacuation of Allied prisoners of war from Japa- 
nese prison camps was flown by the carriers, and on 31 
August, the great force arrived off Tokyo Bay for the 
surrender ceremonies held on 2 September. 

Charles S. Sperry remained in the Far East, taking 
part in exercises, on patrol, and carrying mail, until 30 
December 1945, when she departed Sasebo for the east 
coast, arriving at Baltimore 19 February 1946. For the 
next year, she remained at Boston with a reduced crew, 
and in March 1947, reported at New Orleans for duty 
as a training ship for members of the Naval Reserve 
until July 1950. After overhaul at Norfolk, she sailed 


for the Far East, arriving off embattled Korea 14 
October 1950. 

The destroyer operated almost continuously off Korea 
until June 1951. For her first 2 weeks in action, she 
fired on shore installations at Songjin, screened shipping, 
and patrolled areas swept of mines to guard against 
their remining. During November and December 1950 
she continued her fire support and bombardments, cov- 
ered the redeployments from Kojo, Wonsan, and Hung- 
nam, and screened salvage operations. On 23 December, 
while firing at Songjin, she was hit by three shells 
returned by an enemy shore battery, but suffered no 
casualties, and only minor damage, which was repaired 
at Sasebo early in January 1951. She returned to the 
Korean firing line to cover salvage operations north of 
the 38th parallel and conduct bombardments along the 
coast. 

As operations leading to the classic blockade of Won- 
san began, Charles S. Sperry entered the dangerous 
harbor 17 January 1951 to provide interdiction fire, and 
to cover the landings which secured the harbor islands. 
She cleared the Wonsan area 5 March for Songjin, where 
she joined in setting the siege, and until 6 June was 
almost constantly patrolling and firing on shore instal- 
lations at Songjin. She then sailed for home, arriving 
at Norfolk 2 July. 

Taking up the operating schedule of the Destroyer 
Force, Atlantic, Charles S. Sperry sailed from Norfolk 
through 1960. In 1953, 1955, 1956, 1958, and 1959 she 
cruised in the Mediterranean with the 6th Fleet. During 
her 1956 deployment, which coincided with the Suez 
Crisis, she escorted the transports which evacuated 
American nationals from Egypt. Midshipmen cruises 
and North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercises took 
her to northern European ports on several occasions, 
some of them in coordination with her Mediterranean 
deployments. 

Late in 1959 Charles S. Sperry began an extensive 
overhaul for rehabilitation and modernization, which 
continued through 1960. 

Charles S. Sperry received four battle stars for World 
War II service and four for the Korean War. 

Charles Whittemore 

Merchant name retained. 

(Sch: t. 693; 1. 204'; b. 38'2"; dr. 15'6") 

Charles Whittemore (No. 3232), a schooner, was built 
in 1905 at Mystic, Conn.; purchased by the Navy in 
1918; outfitted at New London, Conn., as an antisubma- 
rine decoy; and commissioned 9 August 1918, Lieutenant 
J. Lyons, USNRF, in command. 

The schooner cleared New London 15 August 1918 
towing submarine N-5 (SS-57) bound for the North 
Atlantic shipping lanes where it was hoped German sub- 
marines would be attracted to this tempting target. 
Since no contact was made with the enemy, and N-5 
breaking loose during a gale, Charles Whittemore 
shaped course for her base, returning to New London 
9 September. 

Continuing her service with the Submarine Force, 
Atlantic Fleet, the schooner carried submarine stores, 
spare parts, and other cargo between New York, New- 
port, New London, Bermuda, and Charleston, S.C., until 
14 May 1919 when she returned to New York from 
Hampton Roads to be sold. She was decommissioned 
and transferred to her new owner 20 May 1919. 

Charleston 

Cities in South Carolina and West Virginia. 

I 

(Gy: 1. 52'; b. 15'; dp. 5'2"; cpl. 28; a. 1 24-pdr., 5 how.) 

81 


The first Charleston, a galley identical to Mars, was 
built at Charleston, S.C., in 1798, and commanded by 
“Captain-of-a-Galley” James Payne. During the Quasi- 
War with France, Charleston was used for the defense 
of the coast of South Carolina. She was sold at Charles- 
ton about 1 February 1802. 

II 

(C-2: dp. 3,730; 1. 320'; b. 46'; dr. 18'6"; s. 19 k.; cpl. 

300; a. 2 8", 6 6") 

The second Charleston (C-2), a protected cruiser, was 
launfched 19 July 1888 by Union Iron Works, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif; sponsored by Mrs. A. S. Smith; and com- 
missioned 26 December 1889, Captain G. C. Remey in 
command. 

Charleston cleared Mare Island Navy Yard 10 April 
1890 to join the Pacific Squadron as flagship, cruising 
in the eastern Pacific. She carried the remains of King 
Kalakaua of Hawaii to Honolulu after his death abroad, 
and between 8 May and 4 June 1891, took part in the 
search for the Chilean steamer Itata which had fled San 
Diego in violation of the American neutrality laws, en- 
forced strictly during the Chilean Revolution. Between 
19 August and 31 December 1891, Charleston cruised in 
the Far East as flagship of the Asiatic Squadron, rejoin- 
ing the Pacific Squadron in 1892 until 7 October, when 
she departed for the east coast, calling at a number of 
South American ports en route. 

Charleston arrived in Hampton Roads, Va., 23 Feb- 
ruary 1893. From here she sailed with other American 
and foreign ships to the International Naval Review 
conducted at New York City 26 April 1893 as part of the 
Columbian Exposition. Taking the review was President 
Grover Cleveland in Dolphin. In the summer of 1893, 
Charleston turned south to join the strong force patrol- 
ling the east coast of South America to protect Ameri- 
can interests and shipping from disturbance during the 
Brazilian Revolution. After a leisurely cruise from 
Montevideo, Uruguay, she arrived in San Francisco 
8 July 1894 to prepare for a return to the Asiatic Sta- 
tion. She cruised in the Far East until 6 June 1896, 
when she steamed from Yokohama for San Francisco, 
where she was placed out of commission 27 July 1896. 

Upon the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, 
Charleston was quickly made ready for service, and was 
recommissioned 5 May 1898. Sixteen days later she 
sailed for Honolulu, where she was joined by three 
chartered steamers transporting troops. Charleston 
was sent to raise the American flag over Guam, then a 
Spanish possession. At daybreak on 20 June, the little 
convoy arrived off the north end of Guam. Charleston 
investigated the harbor at Agana, then proceeded to 
Apra Harbor. Leaving the transports safely anchored 
outside, Charleston sailed boldly into the harbor, firing 
a challenge at Fort Santa Cruz. Almost at once, a boat- 
load of Spanish authorities came out to apologize for 
having no gunpowder with which to return the supposed 
salute. They were astounded to learn that a state of war 
existed, and that the American ships had come to take 
the island. The next day the surrender was received 
by a landing party sent ashore from Charleston. With 
the Spanish governor and the island’s garrison of 59 as 
prisoners in one of the transports, Charleston then 
sailed to join Admiral Dewey’s fleet in Manila Bay. 

She arrived Manila 30 June 1898 to reinforce the- 
victors of the previous month’s great naval battle in 
their close blockade of the Bay. Charleston joined in 
the final bombardment of 13 August, which brought 
about the surrender of the city of Manila. She remained 
in the Philippines through 1898 and 1899, bombarding 
insurgent positions to aid Army forces advancing ashore, 
and taking part in the naval expedition which captured 
Subic Bay in September 1899. Charleston grounded on 
an uncharted reef near Camiguin Island north of Luzon 
on 2 November. Wrecked beyond salvage, she was 


abandoned by all her crew, who made camp on a nearby 
island, later moving on to Camiguin while the ship’s 
sailing launch was sent for help. On 12 November, 
Helena arrived to rescue the shipwrecked men. 

Ill 

( C-22 : dp. 9,700; 1. 426'6''; b. 66'; dr. 22'6"; s. 22 k.; 
cpl. 673; a. 14 6", 18 3"; cl. St. Louis) 

The third Charleston (C-22), a protected cruiser, was 
launched 23 January 1904 by Newport News Shipbuild- 
ing and Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va. ; sponsored 
by Miss H. Rhett; and commissioned 17 October 1905, 
Captain H. Winslow in command. She was reclassified 
CA-19 on 17 July 1920. 

Charleston cruised to South American ports in the 
summer of 1906 with Secretary of State Elihu Root on 
board for good-will visits, and after disembarking the 
official party at Panama in September, returned to the 
west coast for overhaul. She cleared San Francisco 6 
December 1906 to begin service with the Pacific Squad- 
ron, sailing along the west coast from Magdalena Bay, 
Mexico, to Esquimalt, British Columbia, on exercises and 
fleet maneuvers until 10 June 1908, when she entered the 
Puget Sound Navy Yard to prepare for the long pas- 
sage to the Asiatic station. 

Leaving Puget Sound 28 October 1908, Charleston 
served in the Far East until 11 September 1910, first as 
flagship of 3d Squadron, Pacific Fleet, and later, as flag- 
ship of the Asiatic Fleet. Based on Cavite, P.I., in the 
winter, the Fleet moved north each summer to Chefoo, 
China, to continue exercises and visits to ports of China, 
Japan, Manchuria, and Russia, presenting a powerful 
reminder of American interest in the Far East. Return- 
ing to Bremerton, Wash., Charleston was decommis- 
sioned 8 October 1910 at Puget Sound Navy Yard. 

Placed in commission in reserve 14 September 1912, 
Charleston joined the Pacific Reserve Fleet, remaining 
at Puget Sound Navy Yard as a receiving ship through 
early 1916, aside from a voyage to San Francisco in 
October 1913 as flagship for the Commander-in-Chief, 
Pacific Reserve Fleet. From 1912 through early 1916, 
she was receiving ship at the yard. With a new assign- 
ment as tender for the submarines based in the Canal 
Zone, Charleston arrived at Cristobal, C.Z., 7 May 1916, 
for a year of operations with submarines, reconnais- 
sance of anchorages, and gunnery exercises. On the day 
of America’s entry into World War I, 6 April 1917, 
Charleston was placed in full commission, and early in 
May reported for duty with the Patrol Force in the 
Caribbean. Based on St. Thomas, V.I., she patrolled for 
commerce raiders through the month of May, then sailed 
north carrying Marines from Haiti to Philadelphia. 

Here she readied to join the escort of the convoy 
carrying the first troops of the American Expeditionary 
Force to France, which cleared New York 14 June 1917, 
made St. Nazaire, France, after a safe passage through 
submarine waters 28 June, and returned to New York 
19 July. After training naval volunteers and reserves 
for 2 weeks at Newport, Charleston cleared 16 August 
for Havana, Cuba, where she supervised the sailing in 
tow of several former German ships to New Orleans. 
She next escorted a convoy from Cristobal to Bermuda, 
where she rendezvoused with a group of British trans- 
ports, guarding their passage to Hampton Roads. 

In September and October 1918 she made two convoy 
escort voyages to Nova Scotia, then joined the cruiser 
and transport force, with which she made five voyages 
to France carrying occupation troops overseas and 
returning with combat veterans. 

Charleston sailed from Philadelphia for the west 
coast 23 July 1919, reaching Bremerton, Wash., 24 
August. Here she was placed in reduced commission 
until late in 1920, when she arrived in San Diego to 
serve as administrative flagship for Commander, De- 
stroyer Squadrons, Pacific Fleet. She served on this 


82 


duty until 4 June 1923, when she sailed for Puget Sound 
Navy Yard and decommissioning on 4 December 1923. 
She was sold 6 March 1930. 

IV 

(PG-51 : dp. 2,000; 1. 328'6"; b. 41'3"; dr. 14'10"; s. 

20 k.; cpl. 236; a. 4 6"; cl. Erie ) 

The fourth Charleston (PG-51) was launched 25 Feb- 
ruary 1936 by Charleston Navy Yard; sponsored by 
Mrs. C. L. B. Rivers; commissioned 8 July 1936, Captain 
R. K. Awtrey in command ; and reported to the Atlantic 
Fleet. 

Charleston sailed from Norfolk, Va., 24 February 
1937 to join Squadron 40T, the special force in the Medi- 
terranean created during the Spanish Civil War to pa- 
trol and guard American interests. With this squadron 
she visited Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia; Trieste and Naples, 
Italy; and Algiers before returning to Charleston, S.C., 
for overhaul 24 April. On 9 July, she left Charleston for 
Balboa, C.Z., where she became flagship of the Special 
Service Squadron, carrying out a varied program of 
exercises and battle practice in the Panama area until 1 
March 1938, when she stood north for Charleston. 

Returning to the Caribbean again between 21 April 
and 3 October 1938, and between 4 January 1939 and 
27 June 1940, Charleston joined in Army-Navy maneu- 
vers, conducted off-shore patrols, and created good will 
by visits to Central American and Mexican ports. Dur- 
ing the second of these cruises, she again served as flag- 
ship. On 8 September 1940 Charleston cleared Norfolk, 
Va., for Seattle, Wash., and duty as flagship for Com- 
mander, Alaskan Sector, 13th Naval District. From 6 
November 1940 to 27 November 1941, she made five 
cruises from Seattle north to Aleutian and Alaskan 
waters, to guard this long section of American coastline. 

Upon the entry of the United States into World War 
II, Charleston intensified the schedule of patrol and con- 
voy escort duties necessary to protect this far-northern 
region, and except for four voyages to west coast ports 
for maintenance, she operated from Dutch Harbor or 
Kodiak throughout the war. Along with her escort and 
patrol duties, she carried out such missions as landing 
reconnaissance parties, aiding stricken ships, and taking 
part in the operations at Attu, which was assaulted 
11 May 1943. Two days later, Charleston arrived to 
bring her fire power to support Army troops ashore, 
bombarding Chichagof Harbor, and screening the trans- 
ports lying off the island. During the attack of Japanese 
bombers on 22 May, she evaded aerial torpedoes by 
radical maneuvering, while splashing one enemy plane 
and helping to drive off the others. She provided call 
fire until the island was secured, and supported its 
occupation through convoy escort runs between Attu 
and Adak. 

At the close of the war, Charleston prepared for Far 
Eastern duty, and on 25 November 1945 arrived at Hong 
Kong. She also visited Shanghai before returning to 
San Francisco 4 March 1946. Here she was decommis- 
sioned 10 May 1946 and transferred to the Massachu- 
setts Maritime Academy 25 March 1948. 

Charleston received one battle star for World War II 
service. 


Charlevoix 

A county in Michigan. 

(AK-168: dp. 2,382; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Alamosa) 

Charlevoix (AK-168) was launched 20 April 1944 by 
Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. E. 
Buchanan ; and commissioned 1 February 1945, Lieuten- 
ant G. F. Vietor, USNR, in command. 


Charlevoix, cargo laden, cleared Gulfport, Miss., 24 
February 1945 for Manus, arriving 5 April. Here she 
was assigned to a convoy bound for the Philippines, and 
after a passage marked by one possible submarine con- 
tact depth charged by the convoy’s escorts, reached 
Subic Bay 24 April to discharge her cargo. Returning 
to Manus 1 June, she quickly reloaded, and took depar- 
ture 7 June for Samar, P.I., where she unloaded on 
28 June, returning to Manus 5 July. 

Next underway 11 July 1945, Charlevoix loaded avi- 
ation gas at Lae for the New Zealand Air Force based on 
New Britain. She delivered her flammable cargo safely 
20 July, supporting our Allies in their twice-daily raids 
on the Japanese at by-passed Rabaul. She made one 
more voyage from Manus, to deliver cargo to Hollandia, 
returning with rolling stock for repair at Manus, in 
August, then sailed north to Samar and Subic Bay, 
where she was briefly overhauled in October. She then 
proceeded to Norfolk, Va., which she reached 23 De- 
cember, decommissioned there 18 January 1946, and was 
returned to the Maritime Commission 25 January 1946. 

Charlotte 

Cities in North Carolina and Michigan; a feminine 
proper name. 

I 

(Sch: t. 70, cpl. 14; a. 2 guns) 

The first Charlotte, a schooner used as a blockade 
runner, was captured off Mobile, Ala., 10 April 1862 by 
Kanawha; condemned by the prize court at Boston; pur- 
chased by the Navy 6 November 1862; placed under com- 
mand of Acting Master E. D. Bruner; and assigned to 
the West Gulf Blockading Squadron. 

Charlotte’s first station was in Choctawhatchee Bay, 
Ala., from which on 27 December 1862 she sailed up 
river to capture the steamer Bloomer. The ship had 
been laid up since the beginning of the War, and 
Charlotte’s men repaired her engines so that she could 
sail to Pensacola. The schooner continued to blockade 
off the East Pass of the Mississippi, performing recon- 
naissance through which she was able to report move- 
ments of Confederate troops and act as a tender. She 
was later joined on station by Bloomer, which had been 
taken into the Navy. 

Charlotte was sold at Pensacola 27 April 1867. 

II 

On 7 June 1920 North Carolina (CA-12) (q.v.) was 
renamed Charlotte. 

III 

(PF-60: dp. 1,430; 1. 303'11"; b. 37'6"; dr. 13’8"; s. 19 
k. ; cpl. 180; cl. Tacoma) 

The third Charlotte (PF-60) was launched 30 October 
1943 by Globe Shipbuilding Co., Superior, Wis., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. R. 
Billings; placed in service 19 July 1944; commissioned 
9 October 1944, Commander R. D. Dean, USCG, in com- 
mand; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Charlotte cleared Boston 8 January 1945 to take up 
what was to be her primary mission through her naval 
service, sailing to Argentia, Newfoundland, where she 
took up weather station duty. Flashing news of weather 
conditions from her post at sea, she helped make it possi- 
ble for specialists to prepare weather predictions. This 
information not only affected flight operations and ship 
movements in the western Atlantic, where she patrolled, 
but, since weather in general moves to the eastward, 
aided in predicting European conditions. 

Between 21 and 26 March 1945, Charlotte aided Sur- 
prise (PG-63) and Tenacity (PG-71), rendezvousing at 


83 


sea with the ice-damaged gunboats and towing them to 
Argentia. Later, she towed Tenacity to Boston, but by 
5 April was back on her weather station. Similar duty 
in the North Atlantic, during which she kept alert for 
the possibility of rescuing downed aviators, continued 
until 17 January 1946, when she sailed from Boston for 
a weather station off Bermuda. 

Charlotte arrived at Norfolk, Va., 15 March 1946, and 
was decommissioned there 16 April 1946. She was sold 
13 May 1947. 

Charlottesville 

A city in Virginia. 

(PF-25 : dp. 1,430; 1. 303'11”; b. 37'6" ; dr. 13'8"; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 190; a. 3 3”; cl. Tacoma) 

Charlottesville (PF-25) was launched 30 July 1943 by 
Walter Butler Shipbuilding Co., Superior, Wis., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. J. E. 
Gleason, wife of the mayor of Charlottesville; and com- 
missioned 10 April 1944, Lieutenant W. F. Cass, USCG, 
in command. 

Departing New York 18 August 1944, Charlottesville 
arrived at Finschhafen, New Guinea, 29 September by 
way of Bora Bora in the Society Islands. She operated 
on convoy escort and antisubmarine patrol duty between 
New Guinea and the Philippines until 6 March 1945 
when she departed Leyte for Seattle, arriving 15 June. 
Following the training of Russian personnel in the oper- 
tion of the ship, Charlottesville was decommissioned 12 
July 1945 and transferred to U.S.S.R. the next day 
under lend-lease. Returned to United States custody 
17 October 1949 at Yokosuka, Japan, Charlottesville was 
lent to Japan 14 January 1953 and renamed Matsu. 

Charlottesville received two battle stars for service in 
World War II. 

Charlton Hall 

Merchant name retained. 

(AK: dp. 11,300; 1. 412'6"; b. 50'; dr. 25'5"; s. 11 k.; 
cpl. 62; a. 1 5", 1 3") 

Charlton Hall (No. 1359) was built in 1907 by William 
Hamilton & Co., Port Glasgow, Scotland; transferred 
from the Shipping Board 10 June 1918; and commis- 
sioned 14 June 1918, Lieutenant Commander J. L. Evans, 
USNRF, in command. 

Serving with the Naval Overseas Transportation 
Service in support first of the American Expeditionary 
Force and later of the Army of Occupation, Charlton 
Hall made three voyages from New York to ports in 
France carrying general cargo between 17 June 1918 
and 23 December 1918. She was decommissioned at 
Newport News, Va., 29 January 1919, and returned to 
the Shipping Board at New York 3 February 1919. 

Charmain II 

Former name retained. 

Charmian II (No. 696), a motorboat free leased to the 
Navy in May 1917, was placed in service in the 2d 
Naval District where she performed patrol duty. She 
was returned to her owner on 25 November 1918. 


Charr 

A trout of the waters of northwestern North America. 

(SS-328: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k.; cpl. 66; a. 1 5", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Balao) 

SS-328, originally designated Bocaccio, was renamed 
Charr on 24 September 1942 and launched 28 May 1944 


by Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
W. F. Orkney; and commissioned 23 September 1944, 
Commander F. D. Boyle in command. 

Pacific-bound, Charr cleared New London 5 November 

1944, and reached Pearl Harbor 9 December. On 30 
December, she was bound for action waters, as she sailed 
on her first war patrol off the northeast coast of Indo- 
China. On 29 January 1945, daring to lie at anchor in 
broad daylight for 4 hours one mile off the coast, Charr 
sent two men ashore in a rubber boat to rescue a downed 
aviator. A second rescue mission came at the close of 
her patrol, when she escorted the badly damaged Dutch 
submarine HMNS Zwaardvisch through the Java Sea 
and Lombok Straits to Fremantle, Australia, where the 
two submarines arrived 3 March. 

After refit, Charr cleared on her second war patrol, 
cruising in the Flores, Java, and South China seas, and 
along the southern coast of Taiwan. She sailed for part 
of the patrol in coordination with Gabilan (SS-252) and 
Besugo (SS-321), and with them conducted an epic 
4-day chase of the Japanese cruiser Isuzu and her three 
escorts. Finally, early in the morning of 7 April 1945, 
Charr maneuvered into firing position to find Isuzu down 
by the stern and listing, evidence of successful attack 
by Gabilan. Charr fired a spread of torpedoes, scoring 
three hits to send the cruiser to the bottom. 

Three days later, 10 April 1945, Charr made contact 
with another target, a coastal freighter, which she sank 
on the surface by gunfire. The submarine then headed 
on for a dangerous assignment, calling for intricate 
maneuvering, when she laid a minefield off Pulo Island 
on 14 and 15 April. She put in to Subic Bay from 20 to 
24 April to reload torpedoes, then sailed on to patrol off 
Formosa on lifeguard duty, during which she rescued 
one downed pilot. 

After refitting at Subic Bay from 21 May to 14 June 

1945, Charr put out on her third war patrol, cruising in 
the Gulf of Siam with three other submarines. At this 
late date in the war, targets were few, for Charr’ s sister 
submarines, as well as air and surface forces, had 
broken the back of Japan’s navy and merchant fleet. 
The wolf pack however, did find a target in the Japanese 
submarine 1-351 on 15 July. After Charr and the other 
wolfpack members had aided in cornering the Japanese 
submarine, Blue fish (SS-222) sent her to the bottom. 

Charr remained at Fremantle from 26 July to 29 
August 1945, then sailed for repairs at Pearl Harbor 
and training at Guam until 30 January 1946 when she 
reached San Diego, her newly assigned home port. From 
this port, she made simulated war patrols to the Far 
East in 1947 and 1948, operating along the west coast 
at other times. On several occasions, she carried mem- 
bers of the Naval Reserve on 2-week cruises, and as- 
sisted with training for briefer periods from 1949 
through July 1951 when she entered Mare Island Naval 
Shipyard for a conversion which streamlined her ap- 
pearance and equipped her with the snorkel thus en- 
hancing her underwater cruising range. With her 
conversion completed 19 November 1951, she prepared 
for overseas deployment, and on 26 March 1952, she 
sailed to support United Nations forces in Korea, con- 
ducting patrols throughout the Far East. She returned 
to San Diego 2 October 1952 for local operations, which 
continued to include occasional training cruises for the 
Naval Reserve. 

Charr again cruised in the Far East from 11 June to 
7 December 1954, training air and surface forces in 
antisubmarine warfare, and conducting patrols. On 9 
November, she played hostess to Chiang Kai Shek on his 
first cruise in a submarine. Upon her return to the west 
coast, she resumed her normal operating schedule, and 
did not return to the western Pacific again until 22 
March 1957 to 14 October 1957. A highlight of her next 
period of service was an exercise with ships of the 
Canadian Navy in the fall of 1958, which was followed 
by preparations for her 1959 Far Eastern cruise, com- 


84 


pleted between 6 May and 28 October. Through 1960, 
she continued operations from San Diego. 

Of Charr’s three war patrols, the second was desig- 
nated a “successful war patrol,” for which she received 
one battle star. 

Charrette 

George Charrette, born in Lowell, Mass., 6 June 1867, 
enlisted in the Navy 24 September 1884. As a gunner’s 
mate third class, on 2 June 1898, he volunteered with 
seven others to sink Merrimac under heavy Spanish fire 
across the entrance to the harbor of Santiago, Cuba, 
thus bottling up the enemy fleet. Taken prisoner by the 
Spanish, Charrette was exchanged 6 July 1898. He was 
awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for extra- 
ordinary heroism, commissioned lieutenant 3 August 
1920, and retired from the Navy in 1925. He died 7 
February 1938. 

(DD-581 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'5"; b. 39'7"; dr. 17'9”; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 329; a. 5 5", 10 21” tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

Fletcher) 

Charrette (DD-581) was launched 3 June 1942 by 
Boston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. G. Charrette; and 
commissioned 18 May 1943, Commander E. S. Karpe in 
command. 

Charrette cleared New York 20 September 1943 to 
escort Monterey (CVL-26) to Pacific service. Arriving 
at Pearl Harbor 9 October, Charrette took part in train- 
ing exercises until 10 November, when she put to sea 
with TF 50, for air raids on Japanese bases in the 
Marshalls. These strikes neutralized enemy air opposi- 
tion to the landings at Makin and Tarawa which fol- 
lowed. On 26 November, Charrette joined the screen of 
the task group assigned to air-cover operations over 
Makin and Tarawa themselves, providing protection to 
the assault shipping and support for the Marines 
ashore. Twelve days later, the destroyer screened battle- 
ships in a pounding bombardment on Nauru Island, then 
rejoined the carriers sailing on to Efate. From this base 
Charrette sailed on 21 December to screen the carriers 
as they launched strikes against Kavieng, New Ireland, 
during the 3 days preceding the assault on Cape Glou- 
cester 26 December. Continuing north, the group arrived 
at Funafuti 21 January 1944 to prepare for the opera- 
tions against the Marshall Islands. 

From 23 January to 5 February 1944, Charrette 
screened the carriers in a series of strikes on Kwajalein 
and Eniwetok. On the night of 4-5 February, Charrette 
left her screening station to investigate a radar contact 
reported by one of the battleships. After tracking the 
contact to 3,200 yards, she opened fire on the target, a 
submarine which dived at once. Charrette pressed home 
a depth charge attack, then used her radar to coach 
Fair (DE-35) in for the sinking of 1-21. Next day, 
Charrette moored in newly won Majuro Lagoon. 

The destroyer sailed 12 February 1944 for the first of 
the series of massive raids through which the great 
Japanese base at Truk was eventually sealed off from 
effective contribution to the Pacific war. After screening 
the carriers into position for their strikes, Charrette 
joined TG 50.9 in a sweep around the island on 17 
February to catch Japanese shipping fleeing the air 
attacks on their base. The cruiser Katori, destroyer 
Maikaze, and a submarine chaser were sent to the bot- 
tom by TG 50.9, which rejoined the carriers next day. 

After screening an oiler group to Majuro, Charrette 
sailed on for a brief overhaul at Pearl Harbor until 15 
March 1944, when she put out to rejoin the carriers for 
attacks on Japanese ships which had retreated from 
Truk to the Palaus, a necessary preliminary to the New 
Guinea operation. A mighty force was assembled at 
Majuro for this bold thrust deep into Japanese-held 
waters, which sailed on 22 March. Charrette joined in 
beating off a Japanese air attack on 28 March, and con- 


tinued her protective screening through the strikes of 
30 March and 1 April. The carriers returned to Majuro 
6 April, and sailed 7 days later to strike at airfields and 
defenses on New Guinea itself and to provide direct 
support to the landings at Humboldt Bay 22 April. 
After replenishing at Manus, Charrette sailed on with 
the carriers to screen strikes against Truk 29 April, and 
to guard the force’s battleships as they pounded a bom- 
bardment at Ponape 1 May. 

Charrette’ s next contribution came in the lengthy 
Marianas operation, for which she sailed 6 June 1944. 
She supported the carriers in their strikes on Guam, 
Saipan, and Rota 11 through 14 June, then turned north 
for strikes against the aircraft massed on Iwo Jima for 
attacks against the American landings on Saipan. As 
the carriers came into position on 15 June, scouting 
aircraft spotted a 1, 900-ton freighter, and Charrette, 
with Boyd (DD-544) sped to sink the Japanese ship, 
recovering 112 survivors. After successful strikes, Char- 
rette’ s group wheeled south to concentrate with TF 58 to 
meet the Japanese naval force known to be coming out. 
The great air Battle of the Philippine Sea broke on the 
morning of 19 June, and Charrette continued her 
screening, antiaircraft firing, and plane guard duties 
throughout the 2 days of action that broke the back of 
Japanese naval aviation. On the night of 20 June, she 
participated in the memorable night recovery of the 
last strikes, flashing beacon lights, and rescuing aviators 
forced to ditch by lack of gasoline. On 21 June the 
carrier force steamed back to cover the invasion forces 
in the Marianas, hurling strike after strike at Guam, 
Rota, and later the bases in the Pagan Islands and on 
Chichi Jima. Charrette fired in the bombardment of 
Chichi Jima 5 August, then returned to Eniwetok for 
training operations. 

Charrette sailed from Eniwetok 29 August 1944 for 
the air strikes of early September against targets in the 
Palaus and the Philippines which paved the way for the 
invasion of Pelelui and marked the beginning of the 
return to the Philippines. In direct preparation for the 
invasion of Leyte, the carrier task force sailed again on 
4 October for strikes designed to neutralize Japanese 
airfields on Okinawa, Northern Luzon, and Formosa 
during the assaults in the Philippines. On 12 October 
began the most important part of these strikes, against 
Formosa, which provoked return attacks by Japanese 
aircraft on the carrier forces. Charrette aided in 
splashing attackers and driving off the raids during 
which cruisers Canberra (CA-70) and Houston (CL-81) 
were hit. Charrette joined the screen which guarded 
the cripples during their slow retreat from enemy air 
range, then rejoined her carrier group for the dash north 
to intercept the approaching Japanese force. Thus she 
began her part in the epic Battle for Leyte Gulf, the 
decisive action which resulted in the end of the Japanese 
Navy as an effective fighting force. The carriers she 
guarded launched strikes at the Japanese northern force 
in the action termed the Battle off Cape Engano, sink- 
ing four Japanese carriers and a destroyer on 25 
October. 

Charrette replenished at Ulithi 29 October to 2 No- 
vember 1944, then joined the screen of the fast carriers 
for strikes on Luzon airfields early in November, which 
sharply reduced enemy air opposition at the Leyte 
beachhead. Charrette returned to Manus 30 November 
to prepare for the Lingayen Gulf operation. 

Sailing 2 January 1945, Charrette joined the screen 
of the group which protected and supported the landings 
at Lingayen from 4 to 18 January, then guarded the 
approach and withdrawal of reinforcement convoys into 
Lingayen Gulf. She left the Philippines 2 February, 
and on 25 February arrived at Puget Sound Navy Yard 
for overhaul. She returned to action waters in June, 
beginning a month of support for the Borneo operations, 
followed by patrol duty in the Netherlands East Indies. 
On 2 August, she and Conner (DD-582) made contact 
with a ship which they tracked through the night, find- 


85 


ing in the morning that it was the hospital ship Tachi- 
bana Maru. A search party from Charrette boarding 
the ship found much ordnance and other contraband and 
able-bodied troops, who were made prisoners of war. 
Charrette and Conner brought their prize into Morotai 

6 August. 

Charrette cleared Morotai 13 August 1945 to call at 
Subic Bay before reporting at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, 

7 September for duty escorting ships loaded with occu- 
pation troops, equipment, and supplies for Chinese 
ports. She sailed from Shanghai 12 December for San 
Francisco which she reached 30 December. Charrette 
was placed in commission in reserve at San Diego 4 
March 1946, and out of commission in reserve 15 Janu- 
ary 1947. On 16 June 1959 she was transferred to 
Greece, in whose Navy she serves as HHMS Velos. 

Charrette received 13 battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Charybdis, see Cohoes. 


Chase 

Reuben Chase joined Ranger as a seaman in 1777 and 
served during John Paul Jones’ daring raid into British 
waters. Chase was appointed a midshipman in Bon- 
homme Richard 18 March 1779, and took part in the 
historic victory over HMS Serapis 23 September 1779. 
Chase (DD-323) was named in his honor. 


Jehu Valentine Chase was born in Pattersonville, La., 
10 January 1869, and graduated from the Naval Acad- 
emy 6 June 1890. As commanding officer of Minnesota 
when she was mined in September 1918, Chase was 
awarded the Distinguished Service Medal in recognition 
of his splendid seamanship and leadership in bringing 
his ship safely to port without loss of life. Admiral 
Chase was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, 
from 17 September 1930 to 15 September 1931, and 
Chairman of the General Board from April 1932 until 
his retirement in February 1933. He died at Coronado, 
Calif., 24 May 1937. Chase (DE-158) was named in his 
honor. 

I 

(DD-323: dp. 1,190; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'10"; s. 35 
k.; cpl. 95; a. 4 4", 1 3", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Clemson) 

The first Chase (DD-323) was launched 2 September 
1919 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., San Francisco, 
Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. J. A. Annear; and commis- 
sioned 10 March 1921, Lieutenant Commander C. E. 
Battle, J.r., in command. 

Cruising primarily along the west coast of the United 
States, Chase took part in training operations and fleet 
maneuvers through which the Navy developed the mod- 
ern techniques of naval warfare practiced in World War 
II. She took part in the Presidential Fleet Review at 
Seattle, Wash., in 1923, and in 1927 cruised in 
Nicaraguan waters to protect American interests while 
civil war raged through that country. In 1928 she 
cruised to Hawaii with members of the Naval Reserve 
on board for training, and in 1929 she operated off San 
Diego with Saratoga (CV-3) and Lexington (CV-2) 
aiding in the development of carrier aviation. 

Designated for scrapping under the provisions of the 
London Naval Treaty, Chase was decommissioned at San 
Diego 15 May 1930, and broken up during 1931. 

II 

(DE-158: dp. 1,400; 1. 306'1" b. 36'10" dr. 9'5"; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp, 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; cl. 

Buckley) 


Chase (DE-158) was launched 24 April 1943 by Nor- 
folk Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. J. V. Chase; and 
commissioned 18 July 1943, Lieutenant Commander V. B. 
Staadecker, USNR, in command. 

Between 14 September 1943 and 23 November 1944, 
Chase escorted six transatlantic convoys between New 
York and Norfolk and North African ’ports. During 
her second such crossing, while approaching Bizerte 20 
April 1944, Chase fired on attacking enemy torpedo 
bombers, driving them off, then rescued swimming sur- 
vivors from three torpedoed merchant ships. During the 
return passage, Chase joined in the search for the sub- 
marine which torpedoed Flechteler (DE-157) 5 May, 
and rescued 52 survivors of the sinking. 

Chase was reclassified APD-54 on 24 November 1944, 
and with conversion completed, sailed from Boston 4 
February 1945 for Pacific action waters. She reached 
Ulithi 18 March, and next day got underway for the 
Okinawa operation, sailing with the group scheduled to 
simulate a landing on the southern coast of the island 
as a diversion from the main assaults. This diversion 
received more attention from enemy aircraft than did 
the main landings as they made their demonstration on 
1 April. Chase joined in the blaze of antiaircraft fire 
which drove the enemy off, then moved north to join the 
antisubmarine screen protecting the landings. Aside 
from two brief voyages to Guam and Ulithi, Chase 
continued on the dangerous duty of patrol off Okinawa 
until 20 May. On 20 May Chase fired successfully on a 
diving kamikaze, but had to maneuver violently to avoid 
the falling craft. It splashed a scant 10 yards from the 
ship, and the explosion of the two bombs it carried 
ripped Chase’s hull open, flooding the engine and fire 
rooms. With her steering gear jammed at hard left 
rudder, Chase drove off another suicide plane. Listing 
so badly as to be in danger of capsizing, Chase was kept 
afloat by the skillful work of her crew and towed into 
Kerama Retto for repairs. She was later towed across 
the Pacific to San Diego, arriving 11 October. Here she 
was decommissioned 15 January 1946, and sold 13 No- 
vember 1946. 

Chase received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Chase County, see LST—532 
Chase, Edgar G., see Edgar G. Chase 

Chase S. Osborne 

Former name retained. 

(AT: dp. 492; 1. 128'5"; b. 25'2"; dr. 12'6"; s. 14 k.; 
cpl. 40; a. 1 3") 

Chase S. Osborne, a tug, was built in 1906 by Johnston 
Bros., Ferrysburg, Mich.; purchased by the Navy 16 
February 1918; commissioned at New York 16 April 
1918; and assigned to the 5th Naval District. 

Chase S. Osborne was assigned to general towing 
duties and repairing of targets with the service force, 
then known as Train, Atlantic Fleet, between May 1918 
and July 1919. The remainder of her service was in the 
5th Naval District and at the Naval Academy. Decom- 
missioned at Norfolk 16 September 1920, Chase S. Os- 
borne was sold 5 August 1921. 

Chase, Samuel, see Samuel Chase 
Chaska 

An Indian personal name. 

Chaska (YT-226) was launched on 28 June 1944 by 
Mathis Yacht Building Co., Camden, N.J., She was 


86 


placed in service as YTB-226 on 23 November 1944 and 
attached to the 6th and 5th Naval Districts before being 
put in reserve on 1 May 1947. Chaska returned to active 
duty on 3 July 1947 for service in the 8th, 6th, and 1st 
Naval Districts. She was sold by the Navy in November 
1956. 


Chateau Thierry 

Former name retained. 

( AP-31 : dp. 9,050; 1. 448'; b. 58'; dr. 28'; s. 15 k.; cpl. 

253; a. 1 5", 4 3") 

Chateau Thierry (AP-31) was built in 1921 by Ameri- 
can International Shipbuilding Corp., Hog Island, Pa., 
and served with the Army until transferred to the Navy 
15 July 1941. She was commissioned 6 August 1941, 
Commander J. K. Davis in command. 

Chateau Thierry played a part in the assumption by 
the United States of responsibilities in the western 
Atlantic in the period before entrance into World War 
II as she carried Army and civilian personnel and cargo 
from Brooklyn, N.Y., to ports in Greenland, Iceland, and 
Nova Scotia between 13 September 1941 and 2 January 
1942. With the entry of the United States into the war, 
she sailed from Brooklyn 15 January carrying some of 
the first American troops to cross to Northern Ireland. 
Chateau Thierry sailed on to Scotland to embark British 
troops and sailors for transportation to Halifax and 
New York City. Two more voyages with soldiers from 
New York to Argentia, Newfoundland followed, and on 
19 May, she got underway for Charleston, S.C., to em- 
bark Army and civilian passengers. She sailed on by 
way of Bermuda for a round of calls at African ports, 
sailing south around Cape of Good Hope for Eritrea, 
where she landed the last of her passengers and took a 
new group on board. On her return passage she picked 
up Navy gun crews and other survivors of two merchant 
ship sinkings, at west African ports. 

Chateau Thierry resumed her transport duty to the 
North Atlantic until 29 April 1943, when she cleared 
New York for a voyage to north Africa, well escorted 
in a safe passage. Returning to New York, she em- 
barked soldiers and sailors, and cleared 10 June for 
Oran, arriving 21 June. Here she prepared for the 
invasion of Sicily, for which she sailed 5 July. Assigned 
to the floating reserve, Chateau Thierry lay off the hotly 
contested Gela beaches 10 July as the assault began, and 
late in the day began landing her reinforcements, con- 
tinuing into the night. She remained off Sicily for 2 
days, firing to aid in turning back the heavy German air 
attacks, and taking on board Italian prisoners of war. 
Returning to Bizerte 13 July, she landed the Italians, 
then returned to Sicily to embark members of naval 
units not needed ashore now that the landings had suc- 
ceeded. Laden with German prisoners of war at Oran, 
Chateau Thierry sailed 9 August for New York which 
she reached 22 August. Sailing on to Boston, she was 
decommissioned there 9 September 1943, and returned 
to the Army who used her as a hospital ship for the 
remainder of the war. 

Chateau Thierry received one battle star for World 
War II service. 


Chatelain 

Hubert Paul Chatelain, born in Mansura, La., 11 
February 1917, enlisted in the Navy 10 July 1935. As 
gunner’s mate first class serving in South Dakota 
(BB-57), Chatelain was killed in action 26 October 
1942 during the Battle of Santa Cruz. For his great 
bravery as captain of a 40mm. mount during the battle, 
he was posthumously awarded the Silver Star Medal. 

(DE-149: dp. 1,200; 1. 306'; b. 36'7"; dr. 12'3"; s. 21 k.; 


cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp, 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; cl. 

Edsall) 

Chatelain (DE-149) was launched 21 April 1943 by 
Consolidated Steel Corp. of Texas, Orange, Tex.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. L. T. Chatelain; commissioned 22 Sep- 
tember 1943, Lieutenant Commander J. L. Foley in 
command ; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Destined to play an important part in sweeping the 
Atlantic of German submarines, Chatelain escorted two 
convoys from east coast ports to Londonderry and 
Gibraltar between 20 November 1943 and 7 March 1944, 
and was then assigned to operate as part of the hunter- 
killer group formed around Guadalcanal (CVE-60). 
During the last year of the European war, while operat- 
ing with the Guadalcanal group, Chatelain joined in the 
sinking of two German submarines, and the capture of a 
third. Her first action took place 9 April 1944, as her 
group sailed from Casablanca to the United States. 
U-515 was detected when her radio transmissions were 
picked up, and planes and ships of the task group 
pressed home a firm attack. Chatelain forced the enemy 
submarine to the surface with two depth charge attacks, 
then joined in the general firing at point-blank range 
which followed, sending U-515 to the bottom in 34°35' 
N., 19°18' W. 

On 4 June 1944, Chatelain had the distinction of 
initiating one of the most dramatic incidents of the war, 
when she made a sound contact, and hurled a barrage of 
hedgehogs at a U-boat. A second attack by Chatelain, 
this time with depth charges, holed U-505’s outer hull 
and forced her to surface, her crew jumping overboard 
as she broke water. Now the task group seized its 
chance to carry out the boarding operation it had been 
planning for months, for the first capture by Americans 
of an intact German submarine. Successful in taking 
control of the submarine and executing the damage 
control that made its towing practicable, the group was 
awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for this action. 

In one of the last antisubmarine actions of the Atlan- 
tic war, Chatelain took part in a 12-hour hunt for the 
submarine which had torpedoed Frederick C. David 24 
April 1945. Eight other ships joined her as the group 
again and again attacked U-5U6, sinking her finally in 
43°53' N., 40°07' W. 

Chatelain had patrol and convoy escort duty, as well 
as serving as plane guard during aviation exercises, 
until 20 November 1945, when she arrived at Charleston, 
S.C. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve at 
Green Cove Springs, Fla., 14 June 1946. 

In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation, 
Chatelain received five battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Chatham 

Counties in Georgia and North Carolina; many cities 
and towns in the United States. 

I 

(SwStr: t. 198; 1. 120'; b. 26'; dr. 7'7") 

The first Chatham, an iron side wheel steamer was 
built in 1836 by John Laird, Birkenhead, Eng., for ex- 
port to Savannah, Ga., knocked-down. Assembled in 
Savannah, she was used as a river steamer until to Civil 
War when she became a blockade runner. Captured by 
Huron while running the blockade on 16 December 1863, 
Chatham was turned over to the South Atlantic Block- 
ading Squadron and commissioned on 22 June 1864, 
Acting Master E. L. Smith in command. 

Assigned as harbor ship at Port Royal, Chatham 
transported men and supplies in the harbor throughout 
the remainder of the war, providing essential support to 
the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron as it carried 
out its decisive mission of cutting the Confederacy off 


87 


from overseas sources of supply. Chatham was decom- 
missioned in April 1865 and sold 2 September 1865. 

II 

(AK: dp. 7,523; 1. 338'; b. 46'2"; dr. 22'; s. 11 k.; cpl. 70; 
a. 1 5", 1 3") 

The second Chatham (No. 2510) was launched in 1916 
by Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md., as Mar- 
garet; acquired 13 March 1918 on charter; commissioned 
25 March 1918 as Margaret, Lieutenant Commander 
T. J. Sammons, USNRF, in command; reported to the 
Naval Overseas Transportation Service; and was re- 
named Chatham 18 April 1918. 

Between 1 April and 23 December 1918, Chatham 
made five voyages from east coast ports to France, 
carrying general cargo and supplies for the American 
Expeditionary Force, and on her last, for the Army of 
Occupation. She was decommissioned at New York 10 
February 1919 and returned to the Shipping Board the 
same day. 


Chatham (CVE-32) was transferred to the United 
Kingdom 11 August 1943 under lend-lease, and renamed 
Stinger. Returned to United States custody, she was 
sold 7 November 1946. 

Ill 

(AK-169: dp. 2,474; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 79; a 1 3"; cl. Alamosa) 

The third Chatham (AK-169) was launched 13 May 
1944 by Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. G. C. Salisbury; acquired by the Navy 20 January 
1945; and commissioned at Galveston 22 February 1945, 
Lieutenant Commander N. C. Harrison, Jr., USNR, in 
command. 

Chatham arrived at Pearl Harbor 6 May 1945 to carry 
cargo to Eniwetok, Saipan, and Guam, before returning 
to San Francisco 18 July for a brief overhaul. She 
cleared San Francisco 13 August, and until 30 January 
1946, when she returned to San Francisco once more, 
carried cargo from Okinawa to Guam, Manus, Saipan, 
Eniwetok, and the Philippines, aiding in the redeploy- 
ment of American strength in the Pacific which followed 
the war. From the west coast, she sailed to Baltimore, 
where she was decommissioned 2 April 1946 and re- 
turned to the Maritime Commission 4 April 1946. 


Chatot 

A tribe of Indians of southeastern United States. 

Chatot (AT-167), formerly Buttercup, was fitted out 
at Mare Island Navy Yard for service as a coastal tug. 
She was placed in service on 3 November 1943 and 
reclassified ATA-167 on 15 May 1944. She operated in 
the 12th Naval District until 9 February 1945 when she 
was placed out of service and delivered to the War 
Shipping Administration. Stricken from the Navy Reg- 
ister on 10 March 1945, she was thereafter transferred 
to the U.S.S.R. 


Chattahoochee 
A river in Georgia. 

Chattahoochee (T-AOG— 82) was launched on 4 De- 
cember 1956 by Bethlehem Steel Corp., Staten Island, 
and delivered to the Navy for assignment to Military 
Sea Transportation Service on 22 October 1957. She is 
performing this duty at the present time. 


Chattanooga 

A city in Tennessee. 

I 

(ScStr : t. 3,233; 1. 315'; b. 46'; dr. 20'6”; s. 14 k.; a. 8 
8'' sb., 3 60-pdr. r., 2 24-pdr. how.) 

The first Chattanooga, a screw steamer, was launched 
13 October 1864 by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; completed by the Philadelphia Navy Yard and com- 
missioned 16 May 1866, Captain J. P. McKinstry in 
command. 

After final trials in August 1866, Chattanooga re- 
turned to the Navy Yard where she was decommissioned 
3 September 1866. She remained inactive there and at 
League Island, where in December 1871 she was holed 
and sunk at her dock by floating ice. The hulk was sold 
in January 1872. 

II 

(C-16: dp. 3,200; 1. 308'10"; b. 44'; dr. 15'9"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 339; a. 10 5", 8 6-pdr. ; cl. Chattanooga) 

The second Chattanooga (C-16) was launched 7 
March 1903 by Crescent Shipyard, Elizabethport, N.J. ; 
sponsored by Miss L. N. Chambliss; completed at the 
New York Navy Yard; commissioned 11 October 1904, 
Commander A. Sharp in command ; and reported to the 
Atlantic Fleet. 

Chattanooga’s first cruise following shakedown was 
to the Caribbean, from which she returned to New York 
City to join the squadron which cleared for Cherbourg, 
France 18 June 1905. At Cherbourg, Olympia received 
on board the body of John Paul Jones, which the squad- 
ron brought home to the Naval Academy, arriving at 
Annapolis 23 July. Through the remainder of the year, 
Chattanooga aided in training men of the Maine and 
Massachusetts Naval Militia, and cruised briefly in the 
Caribbean. On 28 December she cleared San Juan, P.R., 
for the Suez Canal and duty in the Pacific. Between 29 
April 1906, when she arrived at Cavite, P.I., and 10 
August 1910, when she reported at Puget Sound Navy 
Yard for inactivation, Chattanooga joined the Asiatic 
Fleet in its winter operations in the Philippines and 
summer cruises to China, aiding in representing Amer- 
ica’s strength and interest in the Orient. Chattanooga 
was decommissioned at Puget Sound Navy Yard 17 
September 1910. 

Chattanooga was placed in reserve commission 31 
August 1912, remaining at Puget Sound, and in full 
commission 21 April 1914, for duty in Mexican waters. 
Through 1915 and 1916, she cruised to protect American 
interests from the disorder of the Mexican Revolution, 
and this duty continued after America’s entrance into 
World War I until May 1917. Chattanooga then sailed 
through the Panama Canal for several months of patrol 
duties in the Caribbean, searching for German raiders. 
From July 1917, she escorted convoys from the Atlantic 
coast to rendezvous with other escorts in the approaches 
to French ports. This rugged duty across the stormy 
mid-Atlantic was broken only by two escort missions to 
Nova Scotia. 

Chattanooga took part in the Victory Fleet Review 
taken by the Secretary of the Navy in New York 
harbor 26 December 1918. After an overhaul, the cruiser 
carried a party of Liberian officials to Monrovia, then 
turned north for Plymouth, England, which she reached 
7 May. As flagship of U.S. Naval Forces, European 
Waters, Chattanooga sailed among English and French 
ports until June. On 29 June, she served as leading 
honor escort guarding President Woodrow Wilson’s de- 
parture from France in George Washington, then sailed 
on to call at German and Belgian ports before arriving 
in the Mediterranean for service as flagship for U.S. 
Naval Forces, Turkish Waters. Cruising primarily in 
the Black Sea, she also served in the Adriatic in connec- 


88 


tion with the disposal of ships of the former Austrian 
Navy. From January through May 1921, she conducted 
regular patrols with the cruiser squadron assigned to 
European waters, and on 1 June, returned to the United 
States. She was decommissioned at Boston 19 July 1921, 
and laid up at Portsmouth Navy Yard until sold 8 
March 1930. 


Chattanooga (PF-65) was renamed Uniontown (q.v.) 
18 August 1944, prior to commissioning. 


The keel of Chattanooga (CL-118) was laid 9 October 
1944 by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Newport News, Va. ; her construction, however, was 
cancelled 12 August 1945, prior to launching. 

Chatterer 

Any of various passerine birds. 

I 

The first Chatterer (AMC-16), formerly Sea Breeze, 
was acquired by the Navy and placed in service on 20 
November 1940. Following conversion she was assigned 
to the Western Sea Frontier Force and later to the 12th 
Naval District. Placed out of service on 12 September 
1944, she was stricken from the Navy Register on 14 
October of that year. 

II 

YMS-415 (q.v.) was named and reclassified Chatterer 
( AMS-40) on 11 March 1947. 


Chaumont 

A French community, site of the General Headquar- 
ters, American Expeditionary Force, in World War I. 
Le Ray de Chaumont was a French citizen who made a 
major contribution to the American Revolution by 
purchasing, outfitting, and supplying American ships 
in French ports. He was a good friend and confidant of 
Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. 

(AP-5: dp. 8,300; 1. 448'; b. 58'3"; dr. 26'5"; s. 14 k.; 
cpl. 286; a. 4 3") 

Chaumont (AP-5) was built in 1920 by American 
International Shipbuilding Corp., Hog Island, Pa.; 
requisitioned from the War Department 3 Novem- 
ber 1921; and commissioned 22 November 1921, Lieu- 
tenant Commander G. H. Emmerson in temporary com- 
mand. On 1 December 1921 Commander C. L. Arnold 
assumed command. 

Assigned to transport duty, Chaumont sailed the At- 
lantic, Pacific, and Caribbean throughout the twenties 
and thirties. She carried military supplies, Marine 
expeditionary forces, sailors and their dependents, and 
occasionally members of congressional committees on 
inspection tours, calling at ports from Shanghai to 
Bermuda. One of her most important contributions, 
when in the Pacific, was aiding in the collection of 
meteorological information used by the Weather Map 
Service of the Asiatic Fleet. 

On 29 November 1941, Chaumont departed Pearl 
Harbor, carrying sailors, civilian workmen, and cargo 
for Manila, P.I. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 
December 1941, she was diverted to Suva, Fiji, then 
sailed to Brisbane and Darwin, Australia, where she 
landed her passengers and discharged her cargo on 5 
January 1942. Chaumont returned to Brisbane at the 
end of the month, then sailed to Sydney, Australia; 
Wellington, New Zealand, and Balboa, C.Z., before re- 
turning to San Francisco on 29 March 1942. She made 


two voyages from the west coast to Pearl Harbor carry- 
ing men to aid in the buildup of the Pacific war’s nerve 
center, then was assigned to runs between Seattle, 
Wash., and Alaskan bases, bringing men and supplies 
to the forces resisting the Japanese in the Aleutians. 

Chaumont was decommissioned 28 August 1943 for 
conversion to a hospital ship, and on 2 September she 
was renamed and reclassified Samaritan (AH-10). The 
hospital ship was recommissioned 1 March 1944, and 
between 25 March and 11 May made two voyages from 
San Francisco to Hawaii, with passengers outward 
bound and patients homeward bound. Arriving in 
Honolulu a third time 11 May, she continued to 
Kwajalein, where from 17 June to 1 July, she treated 
casualties from the Saipan invasion. On 8 July she 
arrived off Saipan itself to embark patients for evacua- 
tion to Noumea, New Caledonia, from which she re- 
turned to Saipan 1 August for two weeks of duty as a 
receiving hospital. 

Samaritan evacuated patients from Guam to Guadal- 
canal, and from Peleliu to the Russell Islands in August 
and September 1944. After a brief overhaul at Espiritu 
Santo, she served as base hospital at Ulithi until 16 
February 1945, when she sailed for Iwo Jima. She 
arrived off the bitterly engaged island 20 February, and 
sailed 2 days later with 606 patients on board for Saipan. 
On the second day out, eight men were buried at sea. 

The hospital ship returned to Iwo Jima 25 February 
1945 to embark patients for transportation to Guam on 
the first of two such voyages. She arrived at Ulithi 2 
April, and a week later got underway for embattled 
Okinawa. Arriving 13 April, she received casualties at 
the beach during the daytime and withdrew at night to 
the transport areas offshore, alternating her stays at 
Okinawa with evacuation voyages to Saipan until 1 
July, when she sailed from Saipan for Pearl Harbor. 
Here she took patients from several island hospitals on 
board, sailed to San Francisco, and on 10 September 
back to Pearl Harbor thence Sasebo, where she provided 
hospital facilities to occupation forces until 15 March 
1946. She returned to San Francisco 23 April, and was 
decommissioned there 25 June 1946. On 29 August 1946 
she was transferred to the Maritime Commission for 
disposal. 

Samaritan received four battle stars for World War 
II service. 


Chauncey 

Isaac Chauncey, born in Black Rock, Conn., 20 Febru- 
ary 1779, was appointed a Lieutenant in the Navy from 
17 September 1798. He fought with gallantry in the 
West Indies during the Quasi-War with France; in the 
Mediterranean during the War with the Barbary Pow- 
ers; and commanded John Adams (1804-5), Hornet 
(1805-6), Washington and the Mediterranean Squadron 
(1815-1820). Perhaps his most outstanding service was 
during the War of 1812 when he commanded the naval 
forces on Lake Ontario, conducting amphibious opera- 
tions in cooperation with the Army, and containing the 
large British squadron stationed there. His last service 
was as member, and, for 4 years, President, of the 
Board of Navy Commissioners. Commodore Chauncey 
died in Washington 27 January 1840. 

I 

(DD-3 : dp. 420; 1. 250'; b. 23'7"; dr. 6'6"; s. 29 k.; 
cpl. 75; a. 2 3", 2 18" tt. ; cl. Bainbridge) 

The first Chauncey (Destroyer No. 3) was launched 
26 October 1901 by Neafie and Levy Ship and Engine 
Building Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; sponsored by Mrs. M. C. 
S. Todd; placed in reduced commission 20 November 
1902; placed in reserve 2 December 1902; placed in full 
commission 21 February 1903, Lieutenant S. E. Moses in 
command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 


89 


Chauncey served with the Coast Squadron until 20 
September 1903, when she was transferred to the Asiatic 
Fleet, leaving Key West for the Orient 18 December. 
After sailing by way of the Suez Canal, she arrived at 
Cavite to join the force representing American strength 
and interest in the Far East as it cruised in the Philip- 
pines during winters, and off China during summers. 
Aside from the period 3 December 1905 to 12 January 
1907 when she was in reserve at Cavite, Chauncey 
continued this service until the entrance of America into 
World War I. 

The destroyer sailed from Cavite 1 August 1917 for 
convoy escort duty in the eastern Atlantic, based at 
St. Nazaire, France. On 19 November 1917, while about 
110 miles west of Gibraltar on escort duty, Chauncey 
was rammed by the British merchantman SS Rose as 
both ships steamed in war-imposed darkness. At 0317 
Chauncey sank in 1500 fathoms, taking to their death 
21 men including her captain. Seventy survivors were 
picked up by Rose and carried to port. 

II 

(DD-296: dp. 1,215; 1. 314'4"; b. 30'8"; dr. 9'10"; s. 33 
k.; cpl. 130; a. 4 4'', 1 3”, 12 21" tt. ; cl. Clemson) 

The second Chauncey (DD-296) was launched 29 
September 1918 by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, 
Calif.; sponsored by Miss D. M. Todd; commissioned 25 
June 1919, Commander W. A. Glassford, Jr., in com- 
mand ; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

From the time of her commissioning, Chauncey sailed 
from San Diego and Mare Island to Hawaii and along 
the Pacific coast taking part in fleet exercises, gunnery 
practice, and other training activities. From 15 July 
1920 to 14 October 1921, she was in ready reserve at 
San Diego and Mare Island, then returned to active 
duty as flagship of Destroyer Division 31. 

On the evening of 8 September 1923, Chauncey in 
company with a large group of destroyers was sailing 
through a heavy fog from San Francisco to San Diego, 
when a navigational error on board the first ship in her 
column turned that destroyer and the six that followed 
toward the rocky California coast rather than on a reach 
down Santa Barbara Channel. All seven destroyers, 
including Chauncey, went aground on the jagged rocks 
off Point Pedernales. 

Chauncey stranded upright, high on the rocks, near 
Young (DD-312), which had capsized. With none of 
her men lost, Chauncey at once went to the aid of her 
stricken sister, passing a line by which 70 of Young's 
crew clambered hand-over-hand to Chauncey. Swimmers 
from Chauncey then rigged a network of lifelines to the 
coastal cliffs, and both her men and Young’s reached 
safety by this means. The abandoned Chauncey was 
wrecked by the pounding surf, and was decommissioned 
26 October 1923. All the hulks were sold for salvage 
and removal as of 25 September 1925. 

III 

(DD-667 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 319; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct., cl. Fletcher) 

The third Chauncey (DD-667) was launched 28 March 
1943 by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, 
N.J. ; sponsored by Mrs. R. K. Anderson; and commis- 
sioned 31 May 1943, Lieutenant Commander M. Van 
Metre in command. 

Clearing Norfolk, Va., 28 August 1943, Chauncey 
reached Pearl Harbor 19 September. She was assigned 
to the screen of a fast carrier task force for a punishing 
series of air strikes on Wake Island 5 and 6 October 
1943. While screening the carriers, Chauncey rescued 
three downed aviators from the water. After a brief 
return to Pearl Harbor, Chauncey sailed with another 
carrier task force for Espiritu Santo, arriving 5 
November 1943. 


The destroyer sailed 3 days later for the air raids on 
Rabaul of 11 November, in coordination with the 
Bougainville landings. After the first successful strike 
launched by the carriers, enemy planes came swarming 
out to seek vengeance, and a furious 46-minute action, 
during which Chauncey’s guns blazed almost continu- 
ously, resulted in a large number of splashed Japanese 
aircraft. Chauncey, continuing to screen the same car- 
rier force, now sailed north to begin the preassault air 
strikes on Tarawa, 18, 19, and 20 November. As the 
landings began on 20 November, the carriers launched 
combat air patrol, antisubmarine searches, and close 
support strikes, which continued until the island was 
secured after furious fighting ashore. During this oper- 
ation, Chauncey again helped drive a Japanese counter- 
attack from the air above the ships she guarded. 

With the Marshalls operation scheduled for the next 
month, Chauncey’s force was assigned a strike at 
Kwajalein, center of Japanese air power in the Mar- 
shalls, and the shipping in its harbor. Air strikes were 
launched 4 December 1943 at Kwajalein and Wotje, but 
Japanese retaliation came in the evening, and Chauncey 
joined in the fire which splashed many enemy planes and 
drove them away just after midnight. Her task force 
sailed on to replenish and repair at Pearl Harbor. 
Bound for action once more, Chauncey sailed to Funa- 
futi, where she made rendezvous with a seaplane tender 
whom she and another destroyer escorted up to Tarawa. 
After brief patrol duty there, she returned to Funafuti 
to prepare for the next operation, Majuro. 

Chauncey sailed on 22 January 1944 to screen escort 
carriers north to Majuro, assaulted on 30 January. The 
destroyer screened and patrolled at Majuro and Kwaja- 
lein during the assault and occupation of the atolls, and 
in mid-March returned to the South Pacific. After 10 
days early in April on watchful patrol off newly occu- 
pied Emirau Island, Chauncey screened escort carriers 
into position to cover the Aitape landings 22 April, 
and guarded them as they provided close air support, 
sailed north to replenish at Manus 28 April, and re- 
turned to their covering strikes off New Guinea until 12 
May. 

Now Chauncey was assigned to guard the escort car- 
riers assembling and rehearsing for the Marianas 
operation, and on 8 June 1944, arrived at Kwajalein for 
final preparations. She got underway two days later to 
screen carriers supporting the landings on Saipan with 
preassault raids on 13 and 14 June, and air cover during 
the assault on 15 June. Next day Chauncey joined the 
group operating off Guam for bombardments and air 
strikes, and her guns aided in driving off enemy air 
attacks on the 16th and 17th. Returning to Saipan, she 
screened carriers there until the 25th, when she got 
underway to escort transports to Eniwetok. She re- 
turned to operate with the carriers off Saipan and Guam 
from early July, and on 9 July began her part in the 
continuous bombardment of Guam before the landings 
there 21 July. 

Chauncey continued to screen carriers covering opera- 
tions on Guam through July, aside from an escort 
voyage to Eniwetok with unladen transports, and on 10 
August, left Guam astern bound for Eniwetok and 
repairs at Pearl Harbor. She returned to Manus to pre- 
pare for the massive Philippine operation, and on 14 
October sailed for Leyte guarding the Southern Attack 
Force transports. She offered close-in protection during 
the landings on 20 October, and that night patrolled 
watchfully around the transports, which remained dan- 
gerously close to shore in order to speed their unloading. 
On 22 October, 2 days before the opening of the de- 
cisive Battle for Leyte Gulf, Chauncey cleared to escort 
unloaded ships to Manus, from which she made two 
voyages to escort ships to Leyte and Palau during 
November. 

After overhaul and training off the west coast until 
late February 1945, the destroyer returned to Pearl 


90 


Harbor. Here she was joined by a carrier, whom she 
escorted to Ulithi, where Chauncey was assigned to 
mighty Task Force 58 for the preliminaries to the 
Okinawa operation. The force got underway 14 March 
for strikes on airfields on Kyushu and shipping in the 
Inland Sea and at Kure and Kobe, Chauncey and other 
destroyers providing the essential screening services. 
Japanese retaliation came in a bombing raid on 19 
March, when carrier Franklin (CV-13) was badly dam- 
aged but kept afloat by her crew’s heroic work. Chauncey 
moved in to protect the stricken giant, and to guard her 
as she was towed and later steamed under her own 
power toward safety. Japanese air attacks were beaten 
off once more on the 20th and 21st, Chauncey firing 
with the others to splash many enemy planes. 

Her force launched prelanding strikes at Okinawa and 
nearby islands, and after the landings on 1 April 1945, 
supported the ground forces and protected the trans- 
ports. Chauncey continued her screening, and from 6 
April, when the first great kamikaze attacks were hurled 
at American shipping off Okinawa, fired often to drive 
the would-be suicides off. She also served in shore 
bombardment and radar picket duty until 29 May, when 
she sailed for repairs and replenishment in San Pedro 
Bay, P.I. She then joined Task Force 38 for the final 
smashing air raids on Japan. 

Following the war, Chauncey remained in the Far 
East on occupation duty until 11 November, when she 
cleared Tsingtao, China for the west coast. She was 
placed out of commission in reserve at San Diego 19 
December 1945. 

Upon the outbreak of the Korean War, Chauncey was 
recommissioned 18 July 1950, and on 1 November, sailed 
to join the Atlantic Fleet. Chauncey operated from her 
home port at Norfolk, Va., along the east coast, and in 
the Caribbean, until 10 January 1953, when she got 
underway for the west coast on the first leg of a round- 
the-world voyage. Reaching Sasebo, Japan, 11 February, 
Chauncey screened the carriers of TF 77 off Korea dur- 
ing the final months preceding the Korean Armistice, 
and in June sailed on to call at Hong Kong, Singapore, 
Colombo, Aden, Athens, Naples, Cannes, and Gibraltar 
before her return to Norfolk 6 August. 

Chauncey resumed her east coast and Caribbean oper- 
ations until 14 May 1954, when she was again decom- 
missioned and placed in reserve. 

Chauncey received seven battle stars for World War 
II service, and two for Korean service. 


Chauvenet, see YMS-195 


Chawasha 

An Indian tribe of Louisiana. 

(ATF-151 : dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 
k.; cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

Chawasha (ATF-151) was launched 15 September 
1944 by Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Charleston, S.C.; sponsored by Mrs. R. H. Grantham; 
and commissioned 5 February 1945, Lieutenant H. K. 
Smith in command. 

Chawasha sailed from Philadelphia 24 March 1945 on 
a long and arduous towing job, bringing two dump scows 
south along the east coast, through the Panama Canal, 
and across the Pacific to Samar, P.I., which she reached 
16 June. On 27 June she arrived at Ulithi to join the 
logistic support group servicing the Third Fleet in its 
series of pounding raids against the Japanese homeland. 
On 8 July, Sioux (ATF-75) broke down at sea, and 
Chawasha towed her to Saipan, rejoining the logistic 
group 15 July for replenishment and courier service 
until she put in to Tokyo Bay 5 September. Here she 
cleared wrecked Japanese shipping from the dock areas 
at Yokosuka and Yokohama. 


Chawasha continued to aid occupation activities in 
the Far East until 19 February 1946, when she cleared 
Kobe for Samar. Here she took ARD-18 in tow for 
Pearl Harbor, where she assumed another tow for Bal- 
boa. Sailing singly, she arrived in San Pedro 4 June, 
and there was placed out of commission in reserve 30 
September 1946. 

Chawasha received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Chebaulip 

Former name retained. 

(AK: dp. 10,820; 1. 396'; b. 53'9"; dr. 23'9"; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 52; a. 1 4" 1 3") 

Chebaulip (No. 3141) was launched in 1918 by Seattle 
Construction and Dry Dock Co., Tacoma, Wash.; ac- 
quired from the Shipping Board 11 July 1918; commis- 
sioned the same day, Lieutenant Commander G. Winkel, 
USNRF, in command; and reported to the Naval Over- 
seas Transportation Service. 

Chebaulip sailed from Puget Sound Navy Yard 17 
July 1918 for Arica, Chile, where from 12 to 20 August 
she loaded a cargo of nitrates for manufacture of ex- 
plosives. After unloading at New Orleans she carried 
cotton and steel rails to U.S. forces in France. Between 
16 October and 27 April she made two convoy crossings 
with similar cargo. On her last return trip, she carried 
ordnance supplies no longer required in Europe. 

Chebaulip was decommissioned 7 May 1919 and re- 
turned to the Shipping Board. 

Cheboygan County, see LST-533 
Chegodega 

A Mimac Indian word meaning “to listen.” 

Chegodega (YTB-542) was built by Consolidated 
Shipbuilding Corp., Morris Heights, N.Y., in 1945. 
Placed in service on 16 November 1945, she was assigned 
to the Service Force, Pacific Fleet, until placed in reserve 
in March 1946. In January 1951 she was returned to 
active duty in the 1st Naval District where she con- 
tinues to operate. 

Chehalis 

A river in Washington State. 

(AOG-48: dp. 1,850; 1. 310'9"; b. 48’6"; dr. 15'8"; s. 14 
k.; cpl. 131; a. 4 3''; cl. Patapsco) 

Chehalis (AOG-48) was launched 15 April 1944 by 
Cargill, Inc., Savage, Minn.; sponsored by Mrs. J. H. 
MacMillan, Sr.; and commissioned 5 December 1944, 
Lieutenant E. G. Rifenburg, USNR, in command. 

Chehalis cleared Galveston 5 January 1945 to call at 
San Diego en route Pearl Harbor, which she reached 6 
February. Until 14 April, she carried out fueling opera- 
tions in the Hawaiian Islands and at Canton Island of 
the Phoenix group, aiding the many ships which received 
their training in these areas. Sailing west, she put in to 
Kossol Roads before arriving in San Pedro Bay, P.I., 5 
May with a cargo of aviation gasoline and lubricants for 
forces in the Philippines. For the next 3 months, she 
fueled motor torpedo boats and Army crash boats 
operating along the Leyte coast, and from 6 August to 
23 November provided similar service to motor torpedo 
boats at Okinawa. 

After overhaul at Puget Sound, Chehalis returned to 
the Hawaiian Islands 23 March 1946, and for the next 
3V2 years carried fuel among the Hawaiian group, and 
to the Pacific islands to the westward, calling at John- 
ston, Palmyra, Samoa, Canton, Kwajalein, Midway, 


91 


Saipan, Truk, Manus, Iwo Jima, and Eniwetok. On 7 
October 1949, as she lay at Tutuila, American Samoa, 
one of her gasoline tanks exploded, killing 6 of her crew. 
The tanker burst into flames, capsized, and sank. She 
was stricken 27 October 1949, and her salvaged hulk 
was later sold to the government of American Samoa. 


Chekilli 

Chekilli was the principal chief of the Creek Con- 
federacy who in 1735 achieved renown with his recita- 
tion of the national legend of his tribe at the Savannah 
council with the English. 

Chekilli (YT-175) was acquired by the Navy in 1941 
and attached to the 1st and later to the 3d Naval Dis- 
tricts. On 15 May 1944 she was reclassified YTB-175 
and placed out of service in October 1946. She was 
again placed in service in October 1948 and assigned to 
the 1st Naval District where she continues to perform 
duties as tug. 


Chelan County, see LST-542 


Cheleb 

Star in the northern constellation Ophiuchus. 

( AK-138 : dp. 4,023; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4"; s. 12 
k.; cpl. 198; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Crater) 

Cheleb was launched 29 January 1943 as Lyman J. 
Gage by Permanente Metals Corp., Richmond, Calif., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. E. E. Carter; and commissioned 1 January 1944, 
Lieutenant A. E. McKimmey, USNR, in command. 

Cheleb cleared San Francisco 20 January 1944 for 
Pearl Harbor, where she loaded ammunition and ex- 
plosives for transportation to newly won Kwajalein, 
which she reached 19 February. Here her cargo, des- 
tined for use in the assault of Eniwetok which began 
that day, was unloaded, and on 11 March, Cheleb 
cleared for Port Hueneme, Calif., base for the Pacific 
Naval Construction Battalions. After delivering con- 
struction equipment at Pearl Harbor, on 18 April, she 
returned to Oakland, Calif., where she was converted 
to a fleet issue ship. 

Cheleb loaded a varied cargo at San Francisco, and 
with it arrived at Kwajalein 5 June 1944 to supply 
ships readying for the assault on the Marianas 10 days 
later. Cheleb also issued stores at Majuro and Eniwetok 
until 2 August, when she sailed from the Marshalls for 
San Francisco to reload. Returning to Ulithi 15 October, 
she supplied ships of the vast 3d Fleet for the next 
month, as they carried out their operations supporting 
the assault on the Philippines. She returned to the 
west coast to reload in December, and on 22 January 
1945 arrived at Eniwetok to provision ships bound for 
the invasion of Iwo Jima, and later ships destined for 
the assault on Okinawa. Another voyage to the west 
coast for repairs and reloading took place in May and 
June, and on 22 July Cheleb arrived in Leyte Gulf to 
take up the task of issuing supplies once more. During 
this time, she serviced some of the ships conducting the 
final pounding air attacks on the Japanese home islands.. 

Cheleb arrived in Tokyo Bay 17 November 1945, and 
remained to issue provisions and supplies to occupation 
forces at the ports of Tokyo, Yokohama, and Yokosuka. 
She returned to San Francisco 12 May, and later sailed 
to Pearl Harbor, where she was decommissioned 25 
July 1946. After use in a special explosives test, she 
was turned over to the War Shipping Administration 
for disposal, her contribution to the Navy’s great logis- 
tic effort at an end. 


Chemung 

A river in New York. 

I 

(AT-18: dp. 575; 1. 123'6"; b. 26'8"; dr. 11'6"; s. 11 k.; 
a. 2 3-pdr. ; cpl. 46; cl. Chemung) 

The first Chemung (AT— 18) was launched 1 April 
1916 by Norfolk Navy Yard as Pocahontas ; commis- 
sioned 14 March 1917, Chief Boatswain B. David in 
command; and reported to the 5th Naval District. 

After minesweeping operations off the Virginia and 
Maryland coasts, Pocahontas was renamed Chemung 
1 September 1917 and on 19 November 1917 was perma- 
nently assigned to Train, Atlantic Fleet, 5th Naval Dis- 
trict, for operations in the Norfolk area until 27 January 
1919 when she departed for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 
Arriving 3 February, Chemung served in the Caribbean 
until 9 April. 

In March she towed disabled HMS Shearwater into 
Kingston ; for this humanitarian operation she was 
commended by the British Ministry at Jamaica. 

Chemung arrived at New York 19 April 1919 for 
coastwise operations throughout the summer on range 
and torpedo practice, then gave local services at New 
York until 10 January 1920 when she sailed to serve at 
Charleston, S.C., Key West, Fla., and in the Caribbean. 

In April 1920 she heroically rescued the crew of the 
burning Canadian schooner J. T. Ralston and carried 
them to San Domingo, for which she was commended by 
the British legation there. 

Chemung served as yard tug at the Naval Academy 
from 14 May 1921 until 25 August 1926 when she sailed 
to Philadelphia. Chemung was decommissioned 25 Oc- 
tober 1926 and sold 12 February 1937. Her classification 
had been changed to YT-124, 31 January 1936. 

II 

(AO-30: dp. 7,295; 1. 553'; b. 45'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 304; a. 1 5"; cl. Cimarron) 

The second Chemung (AO-30) was launched 9 Sep- 
tember 1939 as Esso Annapolis by Bethlehem-Sparrows 
Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrows Point, Md., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Miss How- 
ard; acquired by the Navy 5 June 1941; and commis- 
sioned 3 July 1941, Commander E. T. Spellman in com- 
mand. 

From 13 July 1941 until the entry of the United States 
into World War II, Chemung operated between east 
coast ports and the oil ports of Texas and Louisiana 
transporting fuel oil. 

From 20 December 1941 to 3 January 1942 she issued 
fuel at Argentia, Newfoundland. Reloading at Norfolk, 
she steamed to Hvalfjordur, Iceland carrying fuel (19 
February-25 March), then operated between Norfolk 
and the Gulf ports from 1 April to 16 May. Following 
another tour as fuel station ship at Hvalfjordur (30 
May-26 June), Chemung departed from New York 20 
August with a convoy bound for the United Kingdom. 
Two days later Ingraham (DD-444) collided with her at 
night. The destroyer sank almost immediately when 
the depth charges on her stern exploded. Chemung, 
although heavily damaged by the explosion and result- 
ing fires, reached Boston 26 August for repairs. 

Steaming 1 October 1942 to Beaumont, Tex., to load 
fuel, Chemung accompanied the North African assault 
force to sea, remained off the coast during the landings, 
then returned to Norfolk 30 November to resume coast- 
wise fuel runs. From 15 February 1943 to 11 June 1945 
Chemung alternated five convoy voyages to United King- 
dom ports and five to North Africa with coast-wise and 
Caribbean cargo duty and station duty at Bermuda and 
in the Azores. 

An assignment to occupation duty in the Far East 
found Chemung circumnavigating the globe as she 
cleared Norfolk 18 July 1945, passed through the Pan- 


92 


ama Canal for service at Okinawa 17 September to 13 
October, and returned by way of the Cape of Good 
Hope to Norfolk 6 December. She operated with the 
Atlantic Fleet, serving the 6th Fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean (12 November 1948-1 April 1949), until 17 
March 1950, when she sailed for San Diego, where she 
was decommissioned and placed in reserve 3 July 1950. 

Recommissioned 1 December 1950, Chemung steamed 
to the Far East 28 January 1951 for a brief tour refuel- 
ing forces engaged in the Korean War. During her 
second tour of duty (7 July 1951-20 April 1952), she 
supported United Nations troops in Korea, served on 
the Formosa Patrol, then transported oil from Ras 
Tanura, Arabia, to Guam. She again sailed from San 
Pedro 24 June 1952 to support the 7th Fleet off Korea 
until returning to Mare Island for overhaul on 24 
February. 

In nine succeeding tours of duty in the western Pacific 
from her home port at San Diego between 1953 and 
1960, Chemung supported many of the 7th Fleet’s most 
notable contributions to the keeping of peace in the Far 
East. During her 1954-55 tour she provided fuel for the 
ships carrying out the evacuation of the Tachen Islands. 
During each of the tours she has served as station 
tanker at Kaohsiung, Taiwan, fueling the ships of the 
Taiwan Patrol. 

Chemung received two battle stars for World War II 
service, and four for service in the Korean War. 


Chenango 

A river, county, and town in New York State. 

I 

(SwStr: t. 974; 1. 205'; b. 35'; dr. 6'6"; s. 11 k.; cpl. 171; 
a. 2 100-pdr., 2 20-pdr., 2 24-pdr. sb., 4 9" sb.) 

The first Chenango, a side-wheel steamer, was 
launched 19 March 1863 by J. Simonson, Greenpoint, 
N.Y. ; outfitted at New York Navy Yard; and commis- 
sioned 29 February 1864, Lieutenant Commander T. S. 
Fillebrown in command. 

Assigned to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 
Chenango left New York for Hampton Roads 15 April 
1864. Before she reached the open sea, one of her boil- 
ers exploded, scalding 33 men fatally. A raging fire was 
brought under control and extinguished by the courage- 
ous work of Chenango’s crew, and the ship was towed 
back to New York for repairs. Placed out of commission 
21 April 1864, Chenango was ready for action and re- 
commissioned 1 February 1865. 

Sailing from New York 17 February 1865, Chenango 
joined her Squadron at Charleston, S.C., on the 20th, 
and until May played an important part in the closing 
phases of the Squadron’s long and successful efforts to 
keep the Confederacy cut off from overseas supply, one 
of the Navy’s great contributions to Union victory. She 
operated in the Charleston area as well as along the 
Georgia coast, and on 25 February captured the block- 
ade runner Elvira, laden with cotton and tobacco. Twice 
she performed reconnaissance, and on 9 March engaged 
a Southern force at Brown’s Ferry on the Big Black 
River. One of her men was wounded in this exchange 
of fire. 

Chenango cleared Charleston 16 May 1865, towing 
Cambridge to Philadelphia, which she reached 20 May. 
Here Chenango was decommissioned 1 July 1865, and 
sold 28 October 1868. 

II 

(CVE-28 : dp. 11,400; 1. 553'; b. 75'; ew. 114'3''; dr. 32'; 
s. 18 k. ; cpl 1,080; a. 2 5"; cl. Cimarron) 

The second Chenango (CVE-28) was launched 1 April 
1939 as Esso New Orleans by Sun Shipbuilding and Dry 
Dock Co., Chester, Pa.; sponsored by Mrs. Rathbone; 


acquired by the Navy 31 May 1941; and commissioned 
20 June 1941 as AO-31, Commander W. H. Mays in 
command. 

Assigned to the Naval Transportation Service, Che- 
nango steamed in the Atlantic, the Caribbean and the 
Pacific as far as Honolulu on tanker duty. Chenango 
was present at Aruba, N.W.I., 16 February 1942 when a 
German submarine shelled one of the island’s refineries. 
She was decommissioned at New York 16 March 1942 
for conversion to an escort carrier. 

Her conversion complete, she was recommissioned as 
ACV-28, 19 September 1942. Carrying Army aircraft, 
Chenango sailed 23 October with the assault force bound 
for North Africa and on 10 November, flew off her air- 
craft to newly won Port Lyautey, French Morocco. She 
put to Casablanca 13 November to refuel 21 destroyers 
before returning to Norfolk 30 November 1942, battling 
through a hurricane en route which caused extensive 
damage. 

Quickly repaired, Chenango was underway for the 
Pacific by mid-December 1942. Arriving at Noumea 18 
January 1943 she joined the escort carrier group provid- 
ing air cover for supply convoys supporting the invasion 
and occupation of the Solomons. One of her air groups 
was sent to Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, to give close 
support to Marines ashore. One of Chenango’s duties 
during this period was to stand sentry off the fiercely 
contested island. As part of her Solomons operations, 
Chenango’s planes formed an air umbrella to escort to 
safety St. Louis (CL-49) and Honolulu (CL-48) after 
the cruisers were damaged in the Battle of Kolomban- 
gara on 13 July 1943. Redesignated CVE-28 on 15 July 
1943, Chenango returned to Mare Island 18 August 
1943 for an overhaul, then acted as training carrier for 
new air groups until 19 October when she steamed from 
San Diego to join the Gilbert Islands invasion force at 
Espiritu Santo 5 November. During the invasion of 
Tarawa (20 November-8 December), her planes covered 
the advance of the attack force, bombed and strafed 
beaches ahead of the invading troops, and protected 
off-shore convoys. She returned to San Diego for an- 
other period of training duty. 

Steaming from San Diego 13 January 1944, Chenango 
supported the invasion landings on Roi, Kwajalein and 
Eniwetok in the Marshalls operation. After protecting 
the service group refueling fleet units engaged in the 
Palau strikes, Chenango arrived at Espiritu Santo 7 
April. She sortied for the landings at Aitape and Hol- 
landia (16 April-12 May), then joined TG 53.7 for the 
invasion of the Marianas. Her planes crippled airfield 
installations, sank enemy shipping, and hammered har- 
bor facilities on Pagan Island, as well as conducting 
valuable photographic reconnaissance on Guam. From 
8 July, she joined in daily poundings of Guam, preparing 
for the island’s invasion. She returned to Manus 13 
August to replenish and conduct training. 

From 10 to 29 September 1944 Chenango joined in the 
neutralization of enemy airfields in the Halmaheras in 
support of the invasion of Morotai, stepping-stone to the 
Philippines. After preparations at Manus, Chenango 
cleared 12 October to conduct softening up strikes on 
Leyte in preparation for the invasion landings 20 Oc- 
tober. Chenango and her sister ship Sangamon (CVE- 
26) were attacked by three Japanese places on the 
afternoon of D-day and splashed them all, capturing 
one of the pilots. Sailing to Morotai to load new air- 
craft, Chenango was not in action w«*cers during the 
Battle for Leyte Gulf, but returned 28 October to pro- 
vide replacement aircraft to her victorious sister escort 
carriers, who had held the Japanese fleet off from Leyte. 
Next day she sailed for overhaul at Seattle until 9 
February 1945. 

Arriving at Tulagi in the Solomons 4 March 1945, 
Chenango conducted training, then sortied from Ulithi 
27 March for the invasion of Okinawa. She gave air 
cover in the feint landings on the southern tip of the 


93 


island, then was assigned to neutralize the kamikaze 
bases in Sakashima Gunto. On 9 April a crash-landing 
fighter started a raging fire among the strike-loaded 
aircraft on Chenango’s deck. Skillful work by her crew 
saved the ship from serious damage and she remained in 
action off Okinawa until 11 June. After escorting a 
tanker convoy to San Pedro Bay, Chenango sailed 26 
July to join the logistics force for the 3d Fleet, then 
engaged in the final offensive against Japan. Following 
the cease-fire, Chenango supported the occupation forces 
and evacuated some 1,900 Allied prisoners of war and 
1,500 civilians from slave labor camps. She cleared 
Tokyo Bay 25 October and after a brief overhaul at 
San Diego, returned to “Magic Carpet” duty, transport- 
ing veterans from Okinawa and Pearl Harbor to the 
west coast. Chenango sailed from San Pedro, Calif., 5 
February for Boston, and was placed out of commission 
in reserve there 14 August 1946. She was reclassified 
CVHE-28, 12 June 1955, stricken from the Navy List 
1 March 1959, sold, and removed from naval custody 12 
February 1960. 

Chenango was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation 
and received 11 battle stars for World War II service. 


Chengho 

Former name retained. 

Chengho (IX-52), a Chinese junk motor yacht, was 
acquired by the Navy and placed in service on 23 July 
1941 for assignment in the 14th Naval District. She 
was stricken on 25 February 1946 and turned over 
to the War Shipping Administration for return to her 
former owner. 


Chepachet 

A river in Rhode Island. 

(AO-78: dp. 5,782; 1. 520'; b. 68'; dr. 30'10"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 232; a. 1 5”, 4 3”; cl. Suamico) 

Chepachet (AO-78) was launched 10 March 1943 by 
Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Chester, Pa., under 
a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. 
I. G. Klemmer; commissioned 27 April 1943, Lieutenant 
Commander H. R. Adams in command; and reported to 
the Atlantic Fleet. 

Between 27 July 1943 and 19 June 1944, Chepachet 
supported military and naval operations in North 
Africa and the Mediterranean by crossing the Atlantic 
in five convoys, carrying oil from West Indian and Gulf 
ports to Casablanca and Oran. On 15 July 1944, 
Chepachet cleared Aruba, N.W.I., laden with oil, and on 
17 August reached Humboldt Bay, New Guinea, for 
duty fueling combatant ships, small craft, and mer- 
chantmen. 

Assigned a key support role in the invasion of the 
Philippines, Chepachet left New Guinea astern 12 Oc- 
tober 1944, steering for Kossol Roads and final prepara- 
tions for the assault. She arrived in Leyte Gulf 23 
October, bringing her vital assistance to the ships which 
fought the Japanese to a decisive victory in the Battle 
for Leyte Gulf (23-26 October). During the fury of the 
days that followed, Chepachet transferred fuel to 34 
different ships, some of them several times, as her men 
manned antiaircraft guns as well as fueling lines. 
Chepachet steamed south to Kossol Roads, reloaded from 
30 October to 4 November, and returned to Leyte Gulf 
with her badly needed cargo to conduct fueling opera- 
tions from 7 to 10 November. 

Between 14 November 1944, when she returned to 
New Guinea, and 27 December, when she sailed for the 
Philippines, Chepachet served at various South Pacific 
ports as station oiler, receiving oil brought in by naval 
and merchant tankers, and transferring it to com- 
batants. Arriving at Mindoro, P.I., 8 January 1945, 


Chepachet sailed on to fueling operations in Lingayen 
Gulf on 11 January, when she aided those ships which 
had just carried out the successful assaults there. On 
15 January she reported at newly won San Fabian for 
station tanker duty, which continued there and at Min- 
danao until 4 June. The oiler then put to sea for the 
Borneo operation, sailing to Tawi Tawi for staging. 
From 21 to 25 June Chepachet was at sea fueling the 
bombardment group which carried out an intensive 
preparatory pounding at Balikpapan, and on 30 June, 
the oiler returned to Balikpapan for the assault the next 
day. She remained off the Borneo coast until 19 July, 
supporting the assault and occupation, then returned to 
Subic Bay for operations in the Luzon area until the 
close of the war. 

Chepachet aided in occupation and redeployment oper- 
ations throughout the Far East with station duty at 
Jinsen, Korea; Hong Kong; Okinawa; and Tokyo until 
9 December 1945, when she sailed for Pearl Harbor. 
She returned to Yokohama 29 January, offloaded her 
cargo, and sailed for home 4 February. Arriving at 
San Francisco 21 February, Chepachet was decommis- 
sioned 15 May 1946, and in July 1950 was transferred 
to the Military Sea Transportation Service for service 
in a noncommissioned status. 

Chepachet received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Chepanoc 

An Indian village in North Carolina. 

Chepanoc was laid down as YT-381, built by Gulfport 
Boiler and Welding Works, Port Arthur, Texas, in 1944, 
was reclassified YTB-381 on 15 May 1944. She was 
placed in service and attached to Service Force, Pacific 
Fleet. In March 1946 she was placed in reserve until 
October 1957 when she was assigned to the 1st Naval 
District. 

Cherokee 

An Indian tribe, found today chiefly in Oklahoma and 
North Carolina. 

I 

(ScStr : t. 606; 1. 194'6"; b. 25'2"; dr. 11'6"; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 92; a. 2 20-pdr. r., 4 24-pdr. sb.) 

The first Cherokee was captured off Charleston, S.C., 
by Canandaigua 8 May 1863 as she attempted to run the 
blockade. The steamer was sent into Boston for con- 
demnation, but before she was turned over to the Prize 
Commissioners on 7 July, made a cruise in search of the 
Confederate privateer Tacony. After condemnation, 
Cherokee was purchased by the Government, outfitted at 
Boston Navy Yard, and commissioned 21 April 1864, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant J. F. Nickels in command. 

Cherokee sailed from Boston 11 May 1864, bound for 
duty off the coast of North Carolina with the North 
Atlantic Blockading Squadron. In addition to contribut- 
ing to Union victory by cutting the Confederacy off from 
overseas sources of supply, this squadron repeatedly 
bombarded coastal defenses, and cooperated with the 
Army in amphibious expeditions up the many bays, in- 
lets, and rivers of the serrated coast. Cherokee’s opera- 
tions included the capture of blockade runner Emma 
Henry 8 December 1864, and bombardments at Fort 
Fisher, N.C., in December and January 1865. On 30 
January she was ordered close inshore at New Inlet to 
reconnoiter the Half Moon Battery, where she discov- 
ered a large party of Confederates approaching the 
fortifications recently secured by Union troops. Chero- 
kee threw heavy fire ashore, which drove the Confeder- 
ates away after three determined rushes at the Union 
lines. 

In February 1865, Cherokee joined the East Gulf 


94 


Blockading Squadron, and patrolled against blockade 
runners between Key West and Havana until the close 
of the war. She was decommissioned at Boston 23 June 
1865, and sold there 1 August 1865. 

II 

(PY: dp. 82; 1. 115'; b. 15'6"; dr. 6'; s. 10 k.; cpl. 22; 
a. 1 3-pdr.) 

The second Cherokee (No. 1104), a converted yacht, 
was launched in 1903 by Charles L. Seabury Co., Morris 
Heights, N.Y.; loaned to the Navy without cost by her 
owner 26 April 1917; commissioned 1 May 1917; and 
reported to the 1st Naval District. 

Cherokee conducted patrols off the New England coast 
throughout World War I. She was decommissioned 25 
November 1918, and returned to her owner 17 February 
1919. 

III 

(Tug: t. 272; 1. 120'; b. 24'6"; dr. 15'; s. 12 k.; cpl. 42; 
a. 1 3") 

The third Cherokee (No. 458) was built in 1891 by 
John H. Dialogue & Sons, Camden, N.J., as Edgar F. 
Luckenbach (later renamed Luckenbach No. 2) ; pur- 
chased by the Navy; delivered at New York 12 October 
1917 ; and commissioned 5 December 1917. 

Outfitted for distant service at New York and at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard, Cherokee cleared Newport, 
R.I., 24 February 1918 for Washington, D.C. On 26 
February, in a heavy gale, she foundered about 12 miles 
off Fenwick Island Light Vessel, with the loss of 30 of 
her crew. The tanker British Admiral rescued 12 sur- 
vivors, two of whom died before the tanker reached port. 

IV 

(AT-66: dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

The fourth Cherokee (AT-66) was launched 10 No- 
vember 1939 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Staten 
Island, N.Y. ; sponsored by Miss E. Mark; and commis- 
sioned 26 April 1940, Lieutenant Commander P. L. F. 
Weaver in command. 

Prewar days found Cherokee sailing on towing duties 
along the east coast and in the Caribbean. As United 
States naval ships took up convoy escort duties in the 
western Atlantic to support beleaguered Britain, and as 
Iceland was occupied by American forces, Cherokee's 
operating area expanded to Newfoundland and Iceland. 
Similar operations continued until 23 October 1942, 
when Cherokee sailed from Norfolk, Va., for the invasion 
of North Africa. The only tug to accompany the vast 
invasion fleet across the Atlantic to French Morocco, 
Cherokee served well off the beaches during their assault 
8 through 11 November, and on 11 and 12 November, 
aided two of the destroyers torpedoed by enemy aircraft. 

The tug remained in North African waters to care for 
the many ships concentrating there with men and sup- 
plies until 31 March 1943. Fitted with tanks, she served 
as yard oiler at Casablanca until 3 May, when she de- 
parted for Norfolk. After overhaul, she reported at 
Bermuda 20 June to provide tug, towing, and salvage 
services to the escort vessels and submarines conducting 
training there. Cherokee was reclassified ATF-66 15 
May 1944, and twice in 1944 crossed the Atlantic to 
Casablanca to take stricken destroyers in tow for the 
United States, carrying out these difficult assignments 
with distinguished seamanship. Upon her return from 
the second of these crossings in July, Cherokee took up 
duty towing targets for ships in training in Casco Bay, 
Maine, until 28 May 1945, and at Guantanamo Bay, 
Cuba, until 23 July. Following the war she continued 
towing operations in the Caribbean, along the east coast, 
and to Brazilian ports until she was decommissioned 29 


June 1946 and transferred to the Coast Guard the same 
day. 

Cherokee received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Chesapeake 

The extensive bay lying between Maryland and 
Virginia. 

I 

(Fr: t. 1,244; 1. 152'8"; b. 41'3"; dph. 20'1"; cpl. 340; 
a. 30 18-pdr., 12 32-pdr.) 

The first Chesapeake, a 36-gun frigate, was launched 
2 December 1799 by Gosport Navy Yard and commis- 
sioned early in the following year, Captain S. Barron in 
command. 

Chesapeake sailed from Norfolk 6 June 1800 to join 
the squadron patrolling off the southern coast of the 
United States and in the West Indies during the Quasi- 
War with France. During this cruise she took as prize 
the French privateer La Jeune Creole on 1 January 
1801. One of the handful of ships retained in the Navy 
at the close of the war, Chesapeake was in ordinary at 
Norfolk during most of 1801, then was readied for her 
departure from Hampton Roads on 27 April 1802, bound 
for the Mediterranean as flagship for Commodore Rich- 
ard V. Morris. Here she led in the blockade of Tripoli 
and convoyed American merchantmen until 6 April 
1803, when she departed Gibraltar for America. Arriv- 
ing at Washington Navy Yard 1 June, Chesapeake was 
placed in ordinary. 

As tension mounted over violations of American 
neutrality and the practice of impressment of American 
seamen by the British, Chesapeake was prepared for 
patrol and convoy duty, and late in June 1807 stood out 
of Hampton Roads, passing a British squadron operating 
in the area to intercept French ships then at Annapolis. 
One of the squadron, HMS Leopard, followed Chesa- 
peake to sea, and on 22 June, when Chesapeake’s captain 
properly refused to allow search for British deserters, 
Leopard fired on the unready Chesapeake, killing three 
men, wounding 18, including the captain, damaging the 
ship severely, and carried off four men. The frigate 
returned to Norfolk for repairs, and then with Captain 
Stephen Decatur in command, cruised off the New Eng- 
land coast enforcing the embarero laws. 

With the outbreak of the War of 1812, for which 
Chesapeake’s encounter with Leopard was one of a num- 
ber of emotional preparations, Chesapeake was outfitted 
at Boston for a lengthy Atlantic cruise. Between 13 
December 1812 and 9 April 1813, she ranged from the 
West Indies to Africa, taking as prizes five British 
merchantmen, and through skillful seamanship evading 
the pursuit of a British 74. 

At Boston, Captain J. Lawrence took command of 
Chesapeake 20 May 1813, and on 1 June, put to sea to 
meet HMS Shannon (38), the crack frigate whose writ- 
ten challenge had just missed Chesapeake’s sailing. With 
a new untrained crew, Lawrence courageously but un- 
wisely engaged Shannon, and suffered the misfortune of 
having Chesapeake’s rigging cut away in the early ex- 
change of broadsides in such a manner that she lost 
maneuverability. Lawrence, himself, was mortally 
wounded, and was carried below. The valiant crew 
struggled to carry out their captain’s last order, “Don’t 
give up the ship!”, but were overwhelmed. Chesapeake 
was taken to Halifax for repairs, and later was taken 
into the Royal Navy. She was sold at Plymouth, Eng- 
land, in 1820, and broken up. 


The sloop Chesapeake was renamed Patapsco (q.v.) in 
1799 while under construction. 


95 


II 

The second Chesapeake, a training ship, was renamed 
Severn (q.v.) 15 June 1905. 

III 

(AM: dp. 2,000; 1. 220'; b. 32'; dr. 12'; s. 12 k.; cpl. 117; 
a. 1 3") 

The third Chesapeake (No. 3395), a freighter, was 
launched in 1900 by Harlan & Hollingsworth, Wilming- 
ton, Del.; purchased by the Navy 31 August 1918; fitted 
out at New York as a salvage ship; and commissioned 
22 March 1919, Lieutenant M. C 4 Kent in command. 

Chesapeake sailed from New York 12 May 1919 for 
Brest, France, where she joined the First Salvage 
Division supporting U.S. Naval Forces Operating in 
European Waters, caring for the many ships engaged in 
supporting the Army of Occupation and other American 
military activities in Europe. In August she joined the 
force clearing the North Sea of the vast minefields laid 
during the war in an operation almost as intricate and 
dangerous as the original laying had been. Chesapeake 
ferried various sweeping equipment and supplies from 
Brest and Liverpool to Kirkwall, Orkney Island, where 
the mine sweeping operations were based. 

Chesapeake was decommissioned at Brest, France, 25 
October 1919 and later sold there. 


Chestatee 

A river in Georgia. 

(AOG-49: dp. 1,850; 1. 310'9"; b. 48'6''; dr. 15'8"; s. 14 
k. ; cpl. 131; a 4 3"; cl. Patapsco) 

Chestatee (AOG-49) was launched 29 April 1944 by 
Cargill Inc., Savage, Minn.; sponsored by Mrs. J. D. 
Boren; and commissioned 14 December 1944, Lieutenant 
W. N. Ohly, USNR, in command. 

Laden with oil products, Chestatee cleared Baytown, 
Tex., 14 January 1945 for San Pedro Bay, Leyte, where 
she arrived 1 March for duty transporting high-octane 
gasoline among the Philippine Islands. On 27 July, while 
underway for Brunei Bay, Borneo, Chestatee struck a 
mine in the straits south of Balabac Island; five of her 
men were killed, eight injured, including the command- 
ing officer, and the ship was damaged by the explosion 
and resulting fire. 

Repaired at Puerto Princesa, Palawan, and Samar, 
Chestatee returned to her Philippine operations until 
20 November 1945, when she sailed from Leyte for San 
Francisco, which she reached 13 January. There she 
was decommissioned 8 April 1946, and, on 30 June 1946, 
transferred to the Maritime Commission. 

Chestatee was returned to the Navy and placed in 
reserve, out of commission, in August 1948. Reactivated, 
she was assigned to MSTS in March 1952 and operated 
by a civilian crew until May 1954 when she was again 
placed in reserve. A second tour of service with MSTS 
began in April 1956 and continued until September 1957 
when Chestatee was lent to the Air Force. She re- 
mained on loan through 1960. 

Chester 

A city in Pennsylvania. 

I 

(CL— 1 : dp. 3,750; 1. 423'1"; b. 47'1"; dr. 16'9"; s. 24k.; 
cpl. 359; a. 2 5", 6 3", 2 21" tt. ; cl. Chester) 

The first Chester (CL-1) was launched 26 June 1907 
by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine, sponsored by Miss 
D. W. Sproul; and commissioned 25 April 1908, Com- 
mander H. B. Wilson in command. 

In the period prior to World War I, Chester’s opera- 


tions included training activities off the east coast and 
in the Caribbean, participation in the Fleet Reviews of 
February 1909, October 1912, and May 1915, and many 
duties of a diplomatic nature. She carried a Congres- 
sional committee on a tour of North Africa in 1909, 
and the next year joined in a special South American 
cruise commemorating the 300th anniversary of the 
founding of Buenos Aires, Argentina. As American 
interests in the Caribbean were threatened by internal 
political troubles in several nations, Chester patrolled 
off Mexico, Santa Domingo, and Haiti, and transported 
Marine occupation forces in 1911. Later that year she 
carried men and stores to Scorpion, station ship at the 
then-Austrian port of Trieste, returning to Boston with 
the American consul at Tripoli. 

After a period in reserve from 15 December 1911 to 
5 November 1913, Chester returned to duty in the Gulf 
of Mexico guarding American citizens and property dur- 
ing the revolution in Mexico. She joined in the occupa- 
tion of the customs house at Vera Cruz 21 April, and 
transported refugees to Cuba, performed various diplo- 
matic missions, and carried mail and stores to the 
squadron off Vera Cruz until 19 June 1914. She re- 
turned to Boston for overhaul and another period in 
reserve, from 12 December 1914 to 4 April 1915. 

Late 1915 and early 1916 found Chester in the Medit- 
erranean to aid in relief work in the Middle East, and 
off the Liberian coast to protect American interests and 
show American support for the government there, 
threatened by insurrection. Chester returned for duty as 
receiving ship at Boston, where she was out of commis- 
sion in reserve from 10 May 1916 to 24 March 1917. 

When recommissioned, Chester operated on protective 
patrol off the east coast until 23 August 1917, when she 
sailed for Gibraltar, and duty escorting convoys on their 
passage between Gibraltar and Plymouth, England. On 
5 September 1918, the cruiser sighted an enemy sub- 
marine on her starboard bow. In attempting to ram the 
enemy, Chester passed directly over the U-boat as it 
dove, damaging her own port paravane. Depth charges 
were hurled at the submarine’s presumed position, but 
no further contact was made. 

At war’s end, Chester carried several Allied armis- 
tice commissions on inspection tours of German ports, 
then carried troops to the Army units operating in 
northern Russia. On her homeward bound voyage, on 
which she cleared Brest, France 26 April 1919, she car- 
ried Army veterans to New York, which she reached 7 
May. Eleven days later she arrived at Boston Navy 
Yard for overhaul, and was decommissioned there 10 
June 1921. In 1927 she was towed to Philadelphia Navy 
Yard, and on 10 July 1928, her name was changed to 
York. She was sold for scrap 13 May 1930. 

II 

(CA-27 : dp. 9,200; 1. 600'3"; b. 66'1"; dr. 16'6"; s. 32 k.; 
cpl. 621 ; a. 9 8", 4 5", 6 21" tt. ; cl. Northampton) 

The second Chester (CA-27) was launched 3 July 
1929 by New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden, N.J.; 
sponsored by Miss J. T. Blain; commissioned 24 June 
1930, Captain A. P. Fairfield in command; and .reported 
to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Chester cleared Newport, R.I., 13 August 1930 for an 
extensive European cruise. She visited Barcelona, 
Naples, Constantinople, Phaleron Bay, and Gibraltar 
before returning to Chester, Pa., for voyage repairs 13 
October. She joined the Scouting Fleet as flagship for 
Commander, Light Cruiser Divisions and on 6 March 
1931 embarked the Secretary of the Navy for the Canal 
Zone where he observed the annual Fleet problem from 
Texas (BB-35). Chester carried the Secretary back to 
Miami, Fla., arriving 22 March, then sailed to Narra- 
gansett Bay for exercises and duty escorting two visit- 
ing French cruisers. 

Following an overhaul at New York Navy Yard dur- 


96 


ing which she was equipped with two catapults amid- 
ships, Chester stood out of Hampton Roads 31 July 1932 
with planes and ammunition for the west coast. She 
arrived at San Pedro, Calif., 14 August and joined in 
the regular activities of the Fleet. Departing San Pedro 
9 April 1934 as flagship of Commander, Special Service 
Squadron, she arrived in New York 31 May for that 
day’s Presidential Naval Review, returning to San 
Pedro 9 November. On 25 September 1935 Chester em- 
barked the Secretary of War and his party for a voyage 
to the Philippines in connection with the inauguration of 
the President of the Philippines Commonwealth on 15 
November. Returning to San Francisco 14 December 
1935, she resumed operations with Cruiser Division 4. 

Sailing from San Francisco 28 October 1936 Chester 
arrived at Charleston, S.C., 13 November and departed 
5 days later to escort Indianapolis (CA-35) with Presi- 
dent F. D. Roosevelt embarked for a good-will visit to 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Montevideo, Uruguay. 
Chester returned to San Pedro 24 December. 

Chester remained on the west coast for fleet exercises 
and training cruises to Hawaiian and Alaskan waters 
from 1937 except for a cruise to the east coast for 
exercises and overhaul (23 September 1940-21 January 
1941). Homeported at Pearl Harbor from 3 February, 
the cruiser exercised in Hawaiian waters, and made one 
voyage to the west coast with Commander, Scouting 
Force embarked (14 May-18 June 1941). From 10 Oc- 
tober to 13 November she escorted two Army transports 
carrying reinforcements to Manila, P.I. Upon her re- 
turn she joined Northampton (CA-26) and Enterprise 
(CV-6) and was at sea returning from Wake Island 
when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. 

Chester remained on patrol with TF 8 in Hawaiian 
waters. On 12 December her planes bombed a sub- 
marine, then guided Balch (DD-363) to a depth charge 
attack which continued until contact was lost. Chester 
supported the reinforcement landing on Samoa (18-24 
January 1942), then joined TG 8.3 for the successful 
raid on Taroa (1 February). Retiring under heavy air 
attack she received a bomb hit in the well deck which 
killed eight and injured 38. She returned to Pearl 
Harbor 3 February for repairs. 

Following an escort voyage to San Francisco, Chester 
joined TF 17 for the Guadalcanal-Tulagi raid (4 May); 
the attack on Misima Island, Louisiade Archipelago (7 
May); and the Battle of the Coral Sea (8 May) during 
which her steady antiaircraft fire protected the carriers 
providing the air strikes which stopped the invasion 
force heading for Port Moresby, New Guinea. Five of 
Chester's crew were wounded in this encounter. On 10 
May she received 478 survivors of Lexington (CV-2) 
from Hammavn (DD-412), whom she transferred to 
Tonga Island 15 May. 

After a west coast overhaul Chester arrived at 
Noumea 21 September 1942, to join TF 62 for the land- 
ings on Funafuti, Ellice Islands (2-4 October). She 
then proceeded south and while cruising in support of 
the operations in the Solomons, Chester was hit by a 
torpedo on the starboard side, amidships, on 20 October 
which killed 11 and wounded 12. She returned to 
Espiritu Santo under her own power for emergency re- 
pairs 23 October. Three days later SS President Cool- 
idge struck a minefield and Chester sent fire and rescue 
parties to her aid as well as taking on the 440 survivors 
for transfer to Espiritu Santo. She steamed to Sydney, 
Australia, 29 October for further repairs and on Christ- 
mas Day departed for Norfolk and a complete overhaul. 

Returning to San Francisco 13 September 1943, 
Chester operated on escort duty between that port and 
Pearl Harbor until 20 October. On 8 November she 
cleared Pearl Harbor for the invasion of the Marshalls. 
She covered the landings on Abenama Island and bom- 
barded Taroa, Wotje, and Maloelap, then assumed anti- 
submarine and antiaircraft patrol off Majuro until 25 
April 1944 when she sailed for San Francisco and brief 


overhaul (6-22 May). She joined TF 94 at Adak, 
Alaska, 27 May for the bombardments of Matsuwa and 
Paramushiru in the Kuriles on 13 and 26 June, then 
sailed to Pearl Harbor, arriving 13 August. 

Chester sortied 29 August with TG 12.5 for the bom- 
bardment of Wake Island (3 September), then arrived 
at Eniwetok 6 September. She cruised off Saipan and 
participated in the bombardment of Marcus Island, 9 
October, before joining TG 38.1 for the carrier strikes 
on Luzon and Samar in support of the Leyte operations, 
as well as searching for enemy forces after the Battle 
for Leyte Gulf (25-26 October). From 8 November 
1944 to 21 February 1945 Chester operated from Ulithi 
and Saipan in bombardment of Iwo Jima and the Bonins, 
supporting the invasion landings of 19 February. 

After another west coast overhaul, Chester returned 
to Ulithi 21 June 1945 and conducted patrols off Oki- 
nawa from 27 June, as well as covering minesweeping 
operations west of the island. In late July, Chester was 
assigned to the force supplying air cover for the Coast 
Striking Group (TG 95.2) off the Yangtze delta and 
protecting minesweeping. In August she made a voyage 
to the Aleutians, and on the last day of the month sailed 
to participate in the occupation landings at Ominato, 
Aomori, Hakodate, and Otaru, in September and Oc- 
tober. She embarked homeward bound troops at Iwo 
Jima and sailed on 2 November for San Francisco, ar- 
riving 18 November. She made another voyage to Guam 
to bring home servicemen (24 November-17 December), 
then steamed on 14 January 1946 for Philadelphia, ar- 
riving 30 January. Chester was placed out of commis- 
sion in reserve there 10 June 1946. She was sold on 11 
August 1959. 

Chester received 11 battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Chester T. O'Brien 

Born at Lyons, New York 1 August 1897, Chester 
Thomas O’Brien enlisted in the United States Marine 
Corps 24 July 1917. He served at Parris Island, aboard 
Connecticut (BB-18), at Quantico, San Domingo, Guam, 
China, and on Guadalcanal until his death 24 January 
1943. Platoon Sergeant O’Brien was awarded the Silver 
Star medal for heroic service at Guadalcanal. 

(DE-421 : dp. 1,350; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 9'5"; s. 24 k.; 

cpl. 186; a. 2 5", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct. ; 
cl. John C. Butler) 

Chester T. O'Brien (DE-421) was launched 29 Febru- 
ary 1944 by Brown Shipbuilding Co., Houston, Tex.; 
sponsored by Mrs. J. Edington, sister of Platoon Ser- 
geant O’Brien ; commissioned 3 July 1944, Lieutenant 
Commander R. D. White, USNR, in command; and 
reported to the Atlantic fleet. 

Chester T. O'Brien interrupted her shakedown train- 
ing to escort the captured Italian submarine Mameli to 
Portsmouth 24 August 1944. After escorting a convoy 
to Naples, she sailed from New York 10 November for 
convoy escort duty between Leyte and Manus, to Palau, 
and throughout the Philippines until 20 April 1945. The 
escort sailed from Hollandia 14 May to protect the land- 
ing of reinforcements of Davao Gulf, and to bombard 
St. Augustine Point. At Polloc Harbor off Moro Gulf in 
southern Mindanao, she became administrative control 
ship for amphibious forces, 20 May, and sailed to 
Zamboanga, 12 June, to coordinate amphibious shipping 
in training exercises. On 20 July she landed troops on 
Balut, the island controlling the Saragani Straits. 

From 11 August 1945 Chester T. O'Brien had convoy 
escort duty in the Philippines and participated in rede- 
ployment of forces in the Far East until 25 November, 
when she sailed with homeward bound troops for San 
Pedro, Calif., arriving 17 December 1945. Chester T. 
O’Brien was decommissioned 2 July 1946 at San Diego 
and placed in reserve. 


97 


Chester T. O’Brien was recommissioned 28 March 
1951, departed San Diego 22 June for Newport, and ar- 
rived at her new homeport 11 July. After a period of 
training, overhaul, and exercises, she served as school 
ship for the Fleet Sonar School at Key West (30 June- 
18 October 1952). Participation in Operation “Spring- 
board” (5-30 January 1953) preceded another assign- 
ment with the Fleet Sonar School (30 March-23 June), 
and on 8 July Chester T. O’Brien departed Newport for 
a midshipman cruise to ports of northern Europe and 
Cuba, returning to Narragansett Bay 5 September. 
Overhaul, training, and antisubmarine exercises were 
her employment until 19 July 1954, when she sailed 
again on a midshipmen cruise to Quebec and Cuba, 
returning 21 August. 

Between 20 September 1954 and 25 April 1958, Chester 
T. O’Brien served as school ship with the Fleet Sonar 
School and with the Escort Vessel Gunnery School of 
Destroyer Force, Atlantic, and conducted local opera- 
tions at Newport and Key West. Operations out of New 
York, Norfolk, and Narragansett Bay continued until 5 
September 1958 when she reported for duty as a Re- 
serve training ship at New York. Decommissioned 21 
February 1959, she continued her training duty until 
25 May 1960, when she was placed in reserve at 
Bayonne, N.J. 

Chesterfield County, see LST—551 

Chestnut 

A tree of the beech family. 

(YN-6: dp. 560; 1. 163'2''; b. 30'6”; dr. 11'8"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 48; a. 1 3”; cl. Aloe) 

Chestnut (YN-6) was launched 15 March 1941 by 
Commercial Iron Works, Portland, Oreg. ; sponsored by 
Mrs. W. E. Meagher, and placed in service 25 July 
1941, Lieutenant (junior grade) R. D. Abernathy, 
USNR, officer-in-charge. 

Attached to the 11th Naval District, Chestnut tended 
nets and gave other harbor services at San Diego until 
24 June 1942. On 25 May 1942 she was placed in full 
commission and Lieutenant A. Schlott, USNR, her 
officer-in-charge, became commanding officer. 

Steaming by way of Hawaii and Samoa, Chestnut 
arrived at Efate, New Hebrides, 26 February 1943. She 
tended nets there and at Noumea until 5 December 
1943, except for an overhaul at Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Chestnut arrived in the Solomons 13 December and until 
29 August 1944 had cargo, salvage and net repair duty 
in those islands. She was redesignated AN-11, 20 Janu- 
ary 1944. 

From 3 September to 10 October 1944 Chestnut dis- 
mantled and removed the net line in Havannah Harbor, 
Efate, and after repairs in Australia, returned to 
Noumea until 3 January 1945. Chestnut then moved to 
Ulithi for net and mooring operations. Except for brief 
duty at the seaplane base at Kossol Roads, Palau in 
April, she remained at Ulithi until 19 June when she 
departed for Guam, arriving two days later. She had 
duty there until 14 September when she cleared for the 
west coast, arriving at San Pedro, Calif., 13 October. 
Chestnut was placed out of commission in reserve 7 
September 1946 at Bremerton, Wash. 

Chestnut Hill 

A residential section in Philadelphia, Pa. 

(AO: dp. 10,150; 1. 380'; b. 50'9"; dr. 24'5”; s. 11 k.; 
cpl. 71; a. 1 5", 1 6-pdr. ; cl. Chestnut Hill) 

Chestnut Hill (No. 2526), a tanker, was launched 23 
August 1917 by Pennsylvania Shipbuilding Co., 
Gloucester City, N.J. ; acquired by the Navy 14 March 


1918; commissioned the same day, Lieutenant Com- 
mander J. D. Murray, USNRF, in command; and re- 
ported to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. 

Between 22 March and 15 June 1918 Chestnut Hill 
served as an escort and fuel ship for two convoys of 
submarine chasers as they sailed to the Azores. After 
repairs, the tanker made coastwise runs until 26 Sep- 
tember, when she cleared to escort another group of 
submarine chasers to Bermuda and the Azores. 

On 1 November 1918 she departed Bermuda and after 
loading oil at Texas ports, called at Guantanamo Bay, 
Cuba, before delivering her cargo to east coast ports. 
On 17 December, she sailed to escort submarine chasers 
from the Azores to San Domingo, Guantanamo, and 
Haiti. After repairing and loading oil at Gulf ports 
Chestnut Hill sailed 28 February 1919 for Gibraltar, 
where she had an overhaul until June. 

Chestnut Hill assembled a group of submarine chasers 
for the homeward passage from European ports, and on 
28 July cleared Lisbon to escort the ships to New York. 
She was decommissioned at Philadelphia 3 September 
1919, and returned to the Shipping Board the following 
day. 

Chetco 

An Indian tribe of Oregon and extreme northern 
California. 


Chetco (ATF-99) was renamed and reclassified Pen- 
guin (ASR-12) (q.v.) on 23 September 1943 prior to her 
commissioning. 

I 

( AT-166 : dp. l,500(f.) ; 1. 150'; b. 27'7''; dr. 15'; s. 13 k.; 
cpl. 47) 

Chetco (AT-166) was built in 1919 as Barryton by 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Elizabeth, N.J. ; purchased 
by the Navy 13 September 1943; converted at Boland 
Machine Co., New Orleans, La.; and commissioned 24 
September 1943, Lieutenant (junior grade) R. E. Gill in 
command. 

Chetco departed New Orleans 29 September 1943 
towing three oil barges for the lengthy passage to 
Cairns, Australia, where she arrived 8 February. She 
cleared Cairns 16 March for Milne Bay, New Guinea, 
towing LCT-922, and arrived 19 March to assume opera- 
tions in the New Guinea area. After a voyage to Manus, 
Chetco took part in the invasion of Aitape 22-23 April 
by retracting grounded LST’s. On 10 May she assumed 
duty as a harbor tug at Milne Bay, and on 15 May was 
reclassified ATA-166. After another lengthy towing 
assignment, to Cairns, Chetco assumed duties as harbor 
tug at Mios Woendi from 16 August to 1 January 1945, 
when she sailed to Manus on tow duty, returning to 
Hollandia 9 January. Towing duty between Manus and 
Munda, in the Treasuries, and in the New Guinea area 
continued until 15 November, when Chetco sailed for 
San Francisco, arriving 24 December. 

Chetco operated along the Pacific Coast between San 
Francisco and San Pedro until 25 April 1946, when she 
reported to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Chetco 
was decommissioned 14 June 1946, and transferred to 
the Maritime Commission 18 June 1947. 

Chetco received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Chevalier 

Born in Providence, R.I., 7 March 1889, Godfrey 
DeCourcelles Chevalier graduated from the Naval Acad- 
emy in June 1910. He was appointed a Naval Air Pilot 7 
November 1915 and a Naval Aviator 7 November 1918. 


98 


In 1916 he participated in the installation of the first 
real catapult used in the Navy and piloted the first plane 
to be launched by catapult, from North Carolina. In 
November 1917 he commanded the first naval air station 
in France, at Dunkerque and for World War I service 
was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. In 1922 
he was attached to Langley, in connection with fitting 
her out. On 26 October 1922 Lieutenant Commander 
Chevalier flew plane No. 606 which made the first land- 
ing on Langley’s deck. This distinguished pioneer of 
naval aviation died at the Norfolk Naval Hospital 14 
November 1922 as a result of injuries sustained in an 
airplane crash. 

I 

(DD-451: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'5" ; b. 39'7"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 
k.; cpl. 329; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. Fletcher) 

The first Chevalier (DD-451) was launched 11 April 
1942 by Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine; sponsored 
by Mrs. G. DeC. Chevalier; commissioned 20 July 1942, 
Lieutenant Commander E. R. McLean, Jr., in command; 
and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Between 3 October and 11 December 1942 Chevalier 
made three convoy escort voyages; one coastwise, with 
tankers; a second, from Bermuda to Norfolk and with 
one of the first reinforcement convoys for North Africa. 
Sailing from Norfolk 17 December, Chevalier reached 
Efate, New Hebrides 22 January 1943. On 27 January 
she sortied with TF 18 to cover the movement of troop 
transports to Guadalcanal. On 29 and 30 January 
Chevalier joined in protective antiaircraft fire as her 
force came under intensive Japanese air attack in the 
Battle of Rennell Island. Chevalier operated on patrol 
from Efate, and after 14 February from Espiritu Santo. 
On 7 May she escorted three minelayers as they mined 
Blackett Strait, and Kula Gulf, Solomon Islands. The 
next night three Japanese destroyers, Kuroshio, Oyashio, 
andKagero, ran into the minefield and were severely 
damaged by the mines and then sunk by aircraft. Be- 
tween 11 May and 14 May, Chevalier joined in the bom- 
bardment of Vila, and covered another minelaying 
operation in Kula Gulf. 

On 28 June 1943 the destroyer again sailed from 
Espiritu Santo as a part of the covering force for troops 
bound for landings at Rice anchorage to block Japanese 
movements from Vila to Munda. Solomon Islands. The 
group entered Kula Gulf shortly before midnight, 4 July, 
and began to bombard Vila and Bairoko Harbor, while 
the transports headed for the anchorage. During the 
operation the American force was attacked by three 
Japanese destroyers which launched torpedoes, and re- 
tired at high-speed. One of the Japanese torpedoes hit 
Strong (DD-467). tearing open her hull amidships on 
both sides. Chevalier deliberately rammed her bow into 
Strong’s port side and lay alongside for several minutes 
while Strong’s survivors crawled on board. Japanese 
shore batteries opened fire on the stricken ship, but 
Chevalier remained alongside until 241 survivors had 
come on board, while O’Bannon (DD-450) delivered 
counterfire against the Japanese. Chevalier pulled clear 
of Strong at 0122, and the stricken destroyer sank a 
minute later. Chevalier had torn a hole 10 by 2 feet in 
her bow, but it did not seriously impair her operating 
ability as it was well above her waterline. The destroyer 
returned to Espiritu Santo 8 July for repairs. 

Repairs completed 22 July 1943, Chevalier operated 
throughout the Solomons on patrol and escort duty until 
14 August. On 15 August the destroyer covered the 
landings at Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands. On the 17th 
Chevalier and three other destroyers were dispatched to 
intercept four Japanese destroyers and several enemy 
barges who were attempting to reinforce Kolombangara. 
After a brief encounter between the destroyers, in which 
neither side suffered to any great extent, the Japanese 
destroyers departed the area, abandoning the barges. 
The American forces turned their attention to this ob- 


jective and sank or severely damaged all of them. The 
destroyer returned to Espiritu Santo 29 August and 
during September made an escort voyage to Sydney, 
Australia. 

On 6 October 1943 Chevalier, O’Bannon, and Selfridge 
(DD-357) intercepted nine Japanese destroyers and 
destroyer transports attempting to evacuate troops from 
Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands. Although greatly out- 
numbered, the American destroyers attacked. After 
firing half of their torpedies and scoring several hits 
with gunfire, the group continued to steam into the line 
of fire of enemy torpedoes in order to keep their own 
guns bearing. At approximately 2205 Chevalier was 
struck on the port bow by an enemy torpedo which tore 
her bow off to the bridge, throwing the ship entirely out 
of control. The destroyer O’Bannon which was follow- 
ing Chevalier could not avoid the damaged destroyer and 
rammed her in the after engine room, flooding that 
space and stopping Chevalier’s port shaft. While making 
preparations to abandon ship, Chevalier’s skipper or- 
dered the torpedoes in her tubes to be fired at the Japa- 
nese destroyer Yugumo. The burning Japanese ship 
blew up soon after. By 2326 it was apparent that 
Chevalier could not be saved and “Abandon Ship!” was 
ordered. Her crew was picked up by O’Bannon’s boats, 
and Chevalier was sunk the following day by a torpedo 
from a friendly destroyer. Her severed bow was located 
about a mile to the west and was sunk with depth 
charges. Chevalier lost 54 killed, and suffered 36 
wounded. 

Chevalier received three battle stars for World War 
II service. 

II 

f DD-805 : dp. 2,425^ i.-390'6"; b. 41'1": dr. 18'6"; s. 35 
k.; cpl. 367; a. 6 5", 10 21" tt., fidcp.’- 2 dct.; cl. Gearing) 

The second Chevalier (DD-805) was launched 29 Oc- 
tober 1944 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; sponsored 
by Mrs. G. DeC. Chevalier; and commissioned 9 January 
1945, Commander F. Wolsieffer in command. 

Chevalier cleared Guantanamo Bay 18 June 1945, and 
reached Pearl Harbor 9 July. On the 24th, she sailed to 
join in the bombardment of Wake on 1 August, arriving 
at Eniwetok next day. She joined TF 38 off Honshu 18 
August, and with her force entered Tokyo Bay 26 
August. After patrol and escort assignments supporting 
occupation activities in the Marianas and Philippines, 
Chevalier sailed from Saipan 25 March 1946 for San 
Diego, arriving 11 April. 

Before the Korean War. Chevalier completed tours of 
duty in the western Pacific in 1946-7, and 1948-9, and 
maintained her readiness through local operations from 
San Diego. On 18 March 1949, she was reclassified DDR, 
radar picket destroyer, and during the summer and fall 
of 1949 operated in the Hawaiian Islands. During the 
Korean War, she served actively in the Far East be- 
tween 6 July 1950 and 25 March 1951 ; 15 October 1951 
and 31 May 1952: and 2 January 1953 and 22 August 
1953. Her duty during the major portion of each tour 
was to ioin the protective screen of TF 77, the carrier 
force which launched almost continuous raids on North- 
ern Korea. She also sailed on protective patrol in the 
Taiwan Straits. 

Chevalier’s post-war operating schedule has alter- 
nated tours of duty with the guardian 7th Fleet with 
necessary overhaul and training activities along the 
west coast. In 1954, 1955, 1956-57, 1957-58, 1958-59, 
and 1960, she sailed for the visits to Far Eastern and 
Australian ports, patrol duty in the Taiwan Straits, 
and exercises off Japan, Okinawa, and in the Philippines 
which are a part of Far Eastern deployment. 

Chevalier received one battle star for World War II 
service, and nine for Korean War service. 


99 


Che tv 

Born in Virginia about 1750 Samuel Chew, a resident 
of Connecticut, was appointed by the Marine Committee 
17 June 1777 to command the Continental Brigantine 
Resistance with which he had much success against 
British commerce. The brigantine, carrying ten four- 
pounders, fell in with a British Letter-of-Marque (20 
guns) on 4 March 1778. In the hand-to-hand struggle 
which ensued, Captain Chew, fighting gallantly, was 
killed but his ship managed to break off the battle with 
its superior opponent and return safely to Boston. 

(DD-106: dp. 1,060; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'9"; dr. 8'6"; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 113; a. 4 4", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Wickes) 

Chew (DD-106) was launched 26 May 1918 by Union 
Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif; sponsored by Mrs. 
F. X. Gygax; and commissioned 12 December 1918, 
Commander J. H. Klein, Jr., in command. 

Chew sailed for the east coast on 21 December 1918, 
arriving at Newport 10 January 1919. After repairs at 
New York and refresher training at Guantanamo Bay, 
she cleared New York 28 April to patrol during the first 
historic transatlantic seaplane flight, made by Navy 
craft, then made visits to the Azores, Gibraltar, Malta, 
and Constantinople before returning to New York 5 
June. After repairs, she cleared 17 September for San 
Diego, which she reached 12 October. From 19 Novem- 
ber 1919 she was in reduced commission, operating only 
infrequently with Reserve Division 10 until placed out of 
commission 1 June 1922. 

Recommissioned 14 October 1940, Chew was assigned 
to Defense Force, 14th Naval District, and arrived at 
Pearl Harbor 17 December 1940. Chew conducted patrols 
and had training duty from her home port until the 
outbreak of hostilities. When the Japanese attacked 
Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, she was moored in port 
and opened fire at the enemy planes, aiding in splashing 
one and hitting two more. She got underway for patrol 
immediately, making depth charge attacks on eight 
different contacts. Two of her crew were killed while on 
board Pennsylvania (BB-38) assisting in rescue work. 

Chew remained at Pearl Harbor throughout the war 
on patrol, inter-island escort, and submarine training 
duty. She also made occasional voyages as a convoy 
escort and screening vessel to San Francisco and Seattle. 
She departed Pearl Harbor 21 August 1945 for the east 
coast, arriving at Philadelphia 13 September. She was 
decommissioned there 15 October 1945, and sold 4 
October 1946. 

Chew received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Chewaucan 

A river in Oregon. 

(AOG-50: dp. 1,850; 1. 310'9"; b. 48'6"; dr. 15'8"; s. 14 
k.; cpl. 131; a. 4 3"; cl. Patapsco) 

Chewaucan (AOG-50) was launched 22 July 1944 by 
Cargill, Inc., Savage, Minn.; sponsored by Mrs. O. K. 
Greathouse: and commissioned 19 February 1945, Lieu- 
tenant J. M. Price, USNR, in command. 

Laden with oil, vital fluid of war, Chewaucan cleared 
Baytown, Tex., 22 March 1945, and reached Pearl Har- 
bor 6 May. Attached to the Hawaiian Sea Frontier she 
carried oil among the Hawaiian Islands, Midway, 
Johnston, Canton, and Christmas Islands until 16 June 
1946 when she sailed for San Pedro, arriving 25 June. 

Between 23 September 1946 and 4 July 1947, Che- 
waucan operated out of Seattle on cargo duty to various 
Alaskan ports, then sailed in the Pacific, calling at Pearl 
Harbor and Kwajalein and ferrying oil until 6 January 
1948. She sailed from San Pedro 8 January 1948 and 
entered Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 4 February for 
conversion to a combination oiler-tanker. 


Chewaucan put out from Norfolk 7 July 1948 to be- 
come one of the original 12 ships of the 6th Fleet in the 
Mediterranean. Home ported at Naples, Italy, in sup- 
port of the 6th Fleet, she remained in the Mediterranean 
except for periodic overhauls in the United States 
through 1960. Her duty changed from direct replenish- 
ment of the 6th Fleet to supplying various shore storage 
facilities when, on 2 August 1957, she was transferred 
from the 6th Fleet to Commander, Naval Activities, 
Italy, for operational control. 

Chewink 

The common towhee finch of eastern North America. 

I 

(AM-39: dp. 950; 1. 187'10"; b. 35'6"; dr. 9'9"; s. 14 k.; 
cpl. 78; a. 2 3"; cl. Lapwing) 

The first Chewink (AM-39) was launched 21 Decem- 
ber 1918 by Todd Shipyard Corp., New York City; 
sponsored by Miss M. Sperrin; and commissioned 9 April 
1919, Lieutenant (junior grade) J. Williams in com- 
mand. She was reclassified ASR-3 on 12 Sept. 1929. 

Chewink sailed from Boston 23 May 1919 for Kirk- 
wall, Orkney Islands, arriving 5 July to aid in the vast 
task of clearing the North Sea minefields. She returned 
via Lisbon, the Azores, and Bermuda to New York, ar- 
riving 19 November, and for the next 11 years operated 
along the east coast and to Cuba and Puerto Rico in a 
variety of duties, which included salvage, target towing, 
recovering mines, experimental underwater radio tests, 
net laying and tending, and tending submarines. In 
October 1930 she sailed from New London with Sub- 
marine Division 4 for Pearl Harbor, to be stationed 
there as submarine tender, until 5 January 1931, and 
then at Coco Solo, Canal Zone until August 1933. 
Chewink was decommissioned at Pearl Harbor 21 Au- 
gust 1933, remaining there until April 1937, when her 
berth was changed to Mare Island Navy Yard. 

Chewink recommissioned 12 November 1940, sailed 
from San Diego 3 February 1941, and on 10 May 
reached New London, her base through the remainder of 
her active service. During World War II, she aided 
America’s growing ability to make war beneath the sea 
as she operated training divers, in submarine search 
and rescue exercises, as a station ship, and as a target 
ship for submarine torpedoes. Her operations took her 
to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Argentia, Newfoundland, 
and several times to Key West. Chewink was decom- 
missioned at Brooklyn 4 February 1947. She was used 
as a target and sunk off New London 31 July 1947. 

II 

LS1L-701 (q.v.) was reclassified AMCU-19 and named 
Chewink on 7 March 1952. 

Cheyenne 

A warlike Algonquian tribe of Indians formerly rov- 
ing between the Arkansas and Missouri rivers. Several 
cities and counties in the United States are named 
Cheyenne. 

I 

(Tug: t. 76; 1. 96'10"; b. 23'3"; dr. 9'6"; s. 11 k.) 

The first Cheyenne, a converted tug, was launched in 
1885 by Sam Paegnall, Charleston, S.C.; acquired 8 July 
1898 as S.S. Bristol and renamed Cheyenne ; outfitted at 
Charleston Navy Yard; commissioned 30 July 1898, 
Lieutenant G. H. Swan in command; and reported to 
the Auxiliary Naval Force. 

Cheyene sailed from Charleston 30 July 1898 and pro- 
ceeded to Key West, for duty off the Florida coast on 


100 





USS Chicago (Protected Cruiser). Fleet Admiral Nimitz served in Chicago as Aide, and later, Chief of Staff, to 
Commander Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet, during World War I. He later commanded Chicago, with additional 

duty as Commander, Division 14, Submarine Force. 


blockade until 18 August, when she cleared for Port 
Royal, S.C., arriving 21 August. The tug was decom- 
missioned there 29 August 1898 and sold 14 November 
1900. 

II 

(BM-10: dp. 3,214; 1. 255'1"; b. 50'; dr. 12'6"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 171; a. 2 12", 4 4", 3 6-pdr.) 

The second Cheyenne (BM-10) was launched as Wy- 
oming 8 September 1900 by Union Iron Works, San 
Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. H. W. Pershing, 
daughter of the Senator from Wyoming; and commis- 
sioned 8 December 1902, Commander V. L. Cottman in 
command. 

Between December 1902 and August 1905 Wyoming 
cruised along the Pacific coast of the United States, 
Panama, and Mexico, participating in fleet maneuvers, 
ceremonies, and exercises. She was out of commission 
at Mare Island between 29 August 1905 and 8 October 
1908. 

During her next commissioned service from 8 October 
1908 to 13 November 1909, she was renamed Cheyenne 
(1 January 1909) and engaged in testing the new oil- 
burning equipment which was making its appearance in 
the Navy. After another period of inactivity, the mon- 
itor was recommissioned 11 July 1910 at Mare Island 
and steamed to Bremerton, Wash., arriving 26 July, for 
operations with the Washington State Naval Militia. 
Between February and August 1913 she was out of 
commission at Bremeton, undergoing conversion to a 
submarine tender. 

She was recommissioned 20 August 1913 and reported 


as tender to the 2d Division, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, 
with which she remained until 1917. During this time 
she assisted in the evacuation of refugees from En- 
senada and San Quentin, Mexico (24 April-17 May 
1914), and tended submarines along the west coast. 

On 7 June 1917 she arrived at San Pedro, Calif., and 
assisted in establishing a submarine base and training 
camp for submarine personnel. In the fall of 1917 she 
transited the Panama Canal and reported as flagship 
and tender to the 3d Division, Submarine Force, Atlan- 
tic Fleet. On 17 December 1917 she was detached from 
the 3d Division and reported to the 1st Division, Ameri- 
can Patrol Force. Between 15 January and 9 October 
1919 she was stationed off Tampico, Mexico, for the 
protection of American interests. 

Between 23 October 1919 and 22 September 1920 
Cheyenne was out of commission at Philadelphia and 
then reported to Baltimore where she served as station 
ship for training Naval Reservists. On 21 January 
1926 the monitor was towed from Baltimore to Phila- 
delphia where she was decommissioned 1 June 1926 and 
sold 20 April 1939. 


Cheyenne (CL-86) was renamed Vicksburg (q.v.) 26 
November 1942 prior to launching. 


The name Cheyenne was assigned to CL-117, but the 
contract with Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry 
Dock Co., Newport News, Va., was canceled 12 August 
1945. 


101 


Chicago 


A city in Illinois. 

I 

(C: dp. 4.500; 1. 342'2"; b. 48'3"; dr. 19'; s. 14 k.; cpl. 

409; a. 4 8", 8 6", 2 5''; cl. Chicago) 

The first Chicago, a protected cruiser, was launched 
5 December 1885 by John Roach and Sons, Chester, Pa.; 
sponsored by Miss E. Cleborne; and commissioned 17 
April 1889, Captain H. B. Robeson in command; classi- 
fied CA-14 on 17 July 1920. 

On 7 December 1889 Chicago departed Boston for 
Lisbon, Portugal, arriving 21 December. The cruiser 
served in European and Mediterranean waters as the 
flagship of the Squadron of Evolution until 31 May 1890 
when she sailed from Funchal, Madeira, to call at 
Brazilian and West Indian ports before returning to 
New York 29 July. 

Chicago operated along the east coasts of North and 
South America and in the Caribbean as flagship of the 
Squadron of Evolution and, later as flagship of the 
North Atlantic Squadron, until 1893. After taking part 
in the International Naval Review in Hampton Roads in 
April, she left New York 18 June 1893 to cruise in 
European and Mediterranean waters as flagship of the 
European station. She returned to New York 20 March 
1895 and was placed out of commission there 1 May. 
Recommissioned 1 December 1898, Chicago made a short 
cruise in the Caribbean before sailing for the European 
Station 18 April. She returned to New York 27 Sep- 
tember and participated in the naval parade and Dewey 
celebration of 2 October 1899. Chicago sailed from New 
York 25 November for an extended cruise, as flagship of 
the South Atlantic Station until early July 1901, then as 
flagship of the European Station. With the squadron 
she cruised in northern European, Mediterranean, and 
Caribbean waters until 1 August 1903 when she pro- 
ceeded to Oyster Bay, N.Y., and the Presidential Review. 

Between 3 December 1903 and 15 August 1904 Chicago 
was out of commission at Boston undergoing repairs. 
After operating along the northeast coast, the cruiser 
departed Newport News 17 November 1904 for Val- 
paraiso, Chile, arriving 28 December. There, on 1 Janu- 
ary 1905 she relieved New York as flagship of the Pacific 
Station and for 3 years operated off the west coasts of 
North and South America, in the Caribbean, and to 
Hawaii. 

On 8 January 1908 Chicago departed San Diego for 
the east coast and in May joined the Naval Academy 
Practice Squadron for the summer cruise along the 
northeast coast until 27 August when she went into 
reserve. Chicago was recommissioned the next summer 
(14 May-28 August 1909) to operate with the Practice 
Squadron along the east coast, then returned to Annapo- 
lis. On 4 January 1910 she left the Academy for Boston, 
arriving 23 January. She then served in commission in 
reserve with the Massachusetts Naval Militia until 12 
April 1916 and with the Pennsylvania Naval Militia 
between 26 April 1916 and April 1917. 

On 6 April 1917 Chicago was placed in full commission 
at Philadelphia and reported to Submarine Force, At- 
lantic, as flagship. On 10 July 1919 she departed New 
York to join Cruiser Div. 2, as flagship in Pacific. She 
was reclassified CL-14 in 1921. From Dec. 1919 until 
Sept. 1923, she served with Submarine Division 14 and 
as tender at the Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor. 

Chicago was decommissioned at Pearl Harbor 30 
Sept. 1923; served as a barracks ship until 1935; re- 
named Alton 16 July 1928 and reclassified IX-5 ; and sold 
15 May 1936. Alton foundered in mid-Pacific in July 1936 
while being towed from Honolulu to San Francisco. 


II 

(CA-29: dp. 9,300; 1. 600'3"; b. 66'1"; dr. 16'8"; s. 32 k.; 

cpl. 621; a. 9 8", 4 5", 6 21" tt. ; cl. Northampton) 

The second Chicago (CA-29) was launched 10 April 

1930 by Mare Island Navy Yard; sponsored by Miss. E. 
Britten; and commissioned 9 March 1931, Captain M. H. 
Simons in command. 

After a shakedown cruise to Honolulu, Tahiti, and 
American Samoa, Chicago departed Mare Island 27 July 

1931 and sailed to the east coast, arriving at Fort Pond 
Bay, N.Y., 15 August. There, she became flagship of 
Commander Cruisers, Scouting Force, and operated with 
that force until 1940. 

In February 1932 Chicago, in company with other 
ships of the Scouting Force, conducted gunnery exercises 
preliminary to the annual fleet problem off the Cali- 
fornia coast. The Fleet was based on the west coast 
thereafter and, until 1934, operated in the Pacific, from 
Alaska to the Canal Zone and the Hawaiian Islands. In 
1934 the annual fleet exercises were held in the Carib- 
bean, followed in May 1934 by the Presidential Fleet 
Review in New York Harbor. The Scouting Force 
operated along the east coast and in the Caribbean until 
October 1934 and then returned to base at San Pedro, 
Calif. Chicago continued to operate out of San Pedro 
until 29 September 1940 when she sailed to Pearl 
Harbor. 

During the next 14 months, the heavy cruiser oper- 
ated out of Pearl Harbor, exercising with various task 
forces to develop tactics and cruising formations, and 
cruising to Australia and to the west coast. When the 
Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, Chi- 
cago was at sea with TF 12 and the Force immediately 
began a 5-day sweep in the Oahu-Johnston-Palmyra 
triangle in an effort to intercept the enemy. The Force 
returned to Pearl Harbor 12 December; between 14 and 
27 December Chicago operated with TF 11 on patrol and 
search missions. 

On 2 February 1942 Chicago departed Pearl Harbor 
for Suva Bay where she joined the newly formed Allied 
naval force. During March and April the heavy cruiser 
operated off the Louisiade Archipelago, covering the 
attacks on Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea. In a posi- 
tion to intercept enemy surface units which attempted 
to attack Port Moresby, Chicago also provided cover for 
the arrival of American troops on New Caledonia. 

On 1 May 1942 Chicago was ordered from Noumea to 
join Commander, Southwest Pacific, and on the 4th she 
suported Yorktou-n (CV-5) in her strike against the 
Japanese on Tulagi, Solomon Islands. On 7 May she 
proceeded, with the Support Group, to intercept and 
attack the Japanese Port Moresby invasion group. The 
following day the group underwent several Japanese air 
attacks, during which Chicago suffered several casual- 
ties from strafing, but drove off the planes and pro- 
ceeded ahead until it was clear that the Japanese force 
had been turned back. 

During June and July 1942 Chicago continued to 
operate in the Southwest Pacific. Between 7 and 9 
August, she supported the initial landings on Guadal- 
canal and others of the Solomon Islands, beginning 
America’s powerful counteroffensive from the sea that 
was to crush Japan. On 9 August she engaged in the 
Battle of Savo Island. Hit by a Japanese destroyer 
torpedo, Chicago fought damage while continuing to 
engage until contact with the enemy was lost. Chicago 
was repaired at Noumea, Sydney, and San Francisco, 
where she arrived 13 October. 

Early in January 1943, Chicago departed San Fran- 
cisco, action-bound once more. On 27 January she sailed 
from Noumea to escort a Guadalcanal convoy. On the 
night of the 29th, as the ships approached to that bit- 
terly contested island, Japanese aircraft attacked the 
force and the Battle of Rennell Island was underway. 
During the attacks two burning Japanese planes sil- 
houetted Chicago, providing light for torpedo attacks; 


102 


two hits caused severe flooding and loss of power. By 
the time the attack ended fine work on board had checked 
Chicago’s list. Louisville (CA-28) took the disabled 
ship in tow and was relieved by a tug the following 
morning. During the afternoon the Japanese attacked 
again and, despite heavy losses, managed to hit the dis- 
abled cruiser with four more torpedoes which sank her 
in 11°25' S., 160°56' E. 

Chicago (CA-29) received three battle stars for 
World War II service. 

Ill 

(CA-136: dp. 13,600; 1. 674'11"; b. 70'10"; dr. 20'6"; 
s. 33 k. ; cpl. 1,142; a. 9 8", 12 5"; cl. Baltimore) 

The third Chicago (CA-136) was launched 20 August 

1944 by Philadelphia Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. 
E. J. Kelly; and commissioned 10 January 1945, Captain 
R. R. Hartung in command. 

The heavy cruiser sailed from Philadelphia 7 May 

1945 for Pearl Harbor, arriving 30 May. On 28 June, 
after further training in the Hawaiian Islands, Chicago 
and North Carolina (BB-55) departed Pearl Harbor 
and steamed to the Far East where they joined the 3d 
Fleet, 8 July. Chicago supported carrier air strikes and 
furnished shore bombardment in the final attacks 
against the Japanese home islands until the cease-fire 
of 15 August. 

Chicago remained in Japan until November 1945 en- 
gaged in the demilitarization of Japanese bases. On 7 
November she sailed from Tokyo for San Pedro, Calif., 
arriving 23 November. After overhaul and training, 
Chicago arrived at Shanghai 18 February 1946 for occu- 
pation duty. She remained there until 28 March as 
flagship of the Yangtze Patrol Force and then sailed 
to Sasebo, Japan, where she became flagship of Naval 
Support Force, Japanese Empire Waters. She visited 
several cities in north and south Japan before clearing 
for the west coast 14 January 1947. She was placed out 
of commission in reserve at Puget Sound Naval Ship- 
yard, 6 June 1947. On 1 November 1958 Chicago was 
reclassified CG-11 and early in 1959, began conversion 
to a guided missile cruiser with completion scheduled for 
1962. 

Chicago (CA-136) received one battle star for World 
War II service. 


Chichota 

Former name retained. 

Chichota (No. 65), a yacht free-leased to the Navy, 
was placed in commission on 5 June 1917 and assigned 
to the 3d Naval District where she performed net patrol 
duty. She was transferred for a brief time to the Chesa- 
peake Bay area, returning to New York early in 1918. 
Chichota was decommissioned on 21 December 1918 and 
returned to her owner. 


Chickadee 

One of the tamest and most familiar of North Amer- 
ican birds. 

(AM-59: dp. 890; 1. 221'2"; b. 32'2"; dr. 10'9''; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 105; a 1 3"; cl. Auk) 

Chickadee (AM-59) was launched 20 July 1942 by De- 
foe Boat and Marine Works, Bay City, Mich.; sponsored 
by Mrs. G. B. Coale; commissioned 9 November 1942, 
Lieutenant Commander G. B. Coale, USNR, in com- 
mand; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Between 15 February and 4 May 1943 Chickadee 
voyaged from Norfolk to Casablanca on convoy escort 
duty, then participated in an antisubmarine search and 
escorted coastwise convoys until 19 June. Chickadee 


sailed out of Norfolk and New York as an escort for 
vessels sailing to Iceland or the Caribbean between 7 
July 1943 and 2 March 1944. 

Chickadee cleared Charleston, S.C., 7 April for Mil- 
ford Haven, Wales, arriving 12 May. For the remainder 
of the month the minesweeper engaged in training 
exercises for the coming invasion of Europe. Arriving 
off Normandy 5 June 1944 Chickadee swept fire support 
channels into Baie de la Seine and throughout the vari- 
ous assault areas along the French coast. She per- 
formed her hazardous duties under enemy shore fire on 
several occasions, but escaped with only minor damage 
from shrapnel and no casualties. The ship assisted in 
the rescue of survivors from Osprey (AM-56) and 
LST-133, and towed damaged LST-133 to safety. 

Chickadee continued to operate off the coast of France, 
with frequent visits to British ports, until 1 August 
1944 when she departed Plymouth for Naples. After 
arriving in Italian waters 12 August, she swept in 
Bonifacio Straits until 23 August when she sailed to 
Baie de la Cavalaire, France, for sweeping operations 
during the invasion of southern France. Between 29 
August and 2 October she swept the harbor of Marseilles 
and conducted antisubmarine patrol off that port. 

During October and November 1944 Chickadee carried 
out a visual search for mines south of San Remo, Italy, 
and, after a brief overhaul at Palermo, Sicily, returned 
to sweeping duty throughout the Mediterranean, operat- 
ing out of Cannes, Nice, Leghorn, Palermo, Malta, and 
Corsica. On 31 May 1945 she cleared Oran, Algeria, for 
Norfolk, arriving 15 June. 

After lengthy overhaul, Chickadee sailed from Nor- 
folk 18 September 1945 for the Pacific, reaching San 
Pedro, Calif., 10 October. On 26 November she sailed 
for Astoria, Oreg., where she was placed out of commis- 
sion in reserve 15 May 1946. Her classification was 
changed to MSF-59, 7 February 1955. 

Chickadee received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Chickasaw 

An Indian tribe now resident in Oklahoma. 

I 

(Monitor: t. 970; 1. 230'; b. 56'; cpl. 138; a. 4 11" sb.) 

The first Chickasaw was launched 10 February 1864 
by Thomas G. Gaylord, St. Louis, Mo.; brought to Mound 
City, 111., 8 May; and commissioned 14 May 1864, Acting 
Master J. Fitzpatrick in command. 

Between 14 May and 30 June 1864 Chickasaw pa- 
trolled on the Mississippi River. Sailing to New Orleans, 
she joined the West Gulf Blockading Squadron 9 July. 
While operating with the Squadron she participated in 
Admiral Farragut’s victory the Battle of Mobile Bay 
(5 August 1864), during which she was struck by enemy 
shells 11 times, and the attacks on Forts Gaines (6 
August) and Morgan (13 August). The monitor re- 
mained in the vicinity of Mobile Bay until 3 July 1865 
when she sailed down river for New Orleans. 

Upon her arrival at New Orleans 6 July 1865, Chicka- 
saw was decommissioned and laid up. Between 15 June 
and 10 August 1869 she bore the name Samson and then 
reverted to Chickasaw. She was sold at New Orleans 
12 September 1874. 

II 

(Tug: dp. 100; 1. 77'2"; b. 18'; dr. 8'; s. 10 k.) 

The second Chickasaw, a tug, was built in 1882 by 
John H. Dialogue, Camden, N.J., as Hercules; purchased 
by the Navy 25 June 1898; and placed in commission 
briefly for service during the Spanish-American War, 
operating from Port Royal and Charleston, S.C. 

Decommissioned 26 August 1898, Chickasaw was 

103 


Chicomico 


placed in ordinary for repairs, then in April 1900 was 
ordered to New York Navy Yard for use as a harbor tug 
and tender for the receiving ship Vermont. From 1908 
she served as a harbor tug at Newport and remained 
there until 1913 when she returned to New York and 
was sold. 

Ill 

( AT-83 : dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

The third Chickasaw (AT-83) was launched 23 July 
1942 by United Engineering Co., Ltd., Alameda, Calif.; 
sponsored by Mrs. R. Fairbanks; commissioned 4 Feb- 
ruary 1943, Lieutenant (junior grade) J. F. King in 
command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Chickasaw departed Seattle 11 March 1943 for Pearl 
Harbor towing YFD-21, and arrived 30 March. Sailing 
on to Espiritu Santo, Chickasaw served as station tug 
until 27 June, when she stood out for Pearl Harbor. 
Arriving 6 July, she had salvage duty, towed targets, 
laid buoys, and made tows to Midway until 21 January 
1944, when she sailed for the Marshalls. Chickasaw 
supported the occupation of Kwajalein, Majuro, and 
Eniwetok until 19 March, when she cleared Kwajalein 
for Pearl Harbor, arriving 27 March. She sailed from 
Pearl Harbor 11 May, was reclassified ATF-83 15 May, 
and arrived at Majuro 24 May for training duty. Clear- 
ing the Marshalls 11 June, Chickasaw arrived off Saipan 
16 June for tug duties, patrol, and salvage in support of 
the occupation of that island until 24 July. 

Similar duty found Chickasaw off Tinian from 24 
July 1944. After continued salvage duty in the Marianas 
Chickasaw cleared Saipan 18 September for Guam, 
Eniwetok, and Manus, arriving 4 October. Six days 
later she sailed for the assault on Leyte, arriving in 
Leyte Gulf 20 October. Here she conducted salvage and 
rescue operations through the landings, the fury of the 
Battle for Leyte Gulf, and the occupation, until 22 No- 
vember when she sailed for replenishment and salvage 
duty at Manus. On 27 December she got underway for 
Lingayen Gulf, arriving 9 January 1945 for salvage 
operations during the assault. She remained at Lin- 
gayen, Subic Bay, and San Pedro Bay on similar duty 
until 4 March, when she cleared for overhaul and tug 
duties at Ulithi. From 9 to 22 June she next operated 
off Okinawa, then sailed for Pearl Harbor, where she 
arrived 24 July for yard overhaul. 

Variously based at San Diego, Pearl Harbor, and in 
the Marianas between World War II and the Korean 
war, Chickasaw served the Fleet with towing, salvage, 
and other tug duty which took her throughout the Pa- 
cific. During the first year of the Korean war, she 
operated on the west coast, to Pearl Harbor, and to 
Eniwetok and Kwajalein, and during the summer of 
1951, sailed in Alaskan waters. After west coast opera- 
tions, she cleared Pearl Harbor 3 March 1953 for Sasebo, 
her base for direct support to forces engaged in the 
Korean war. Returning to San Diego 17 October, she 
resumed an operating schedule which through I960 has 
included Alaskan operations in 1954-55 and 1957, and 
deployments to the Far East in 1957-58, 1959, and 1960. 

Chickasaw received six battle stars for World War II 
service, and two for Korean war service. 


Chickwick, see Entemedor 


Chicolar 

A fish of the snake mackerel family found in the 
Mediterranean, the Atlantic and Caribbean waters. 

Chicolar was the name assigned to SS-464, however, 
the contract for construction was canceled on 29 July 
1944. 


An Indian wmrd. 

Chicomico was laid down as YT-378 and launched by 
General Motors Corp., on 10 June 1944 as YTB-378. 
She was assigned to Service Force, Pacific Fleet, prior to 
being placed in reserve in March 1946. She returned to 
active service in October 1957 performing her tug duties 
in the 6th Naval District where she remains. 

Chicopee 

A river in Massachusetts. 

I 

( SwStr : t. 974; 1. 205'; b. 35'; dr. 6'6''; dph. 11'6") 

The first Chicopee, a double-ended side wheel steamer, 
was built by Paul Curtis, Boston, Mass.; launched 4 
March 1863; and commissioned 7 May 1864, Commander 
A. D. Harell in command. 

From 10 June 1864 Chicopee sailed off the coast and in 
the inland waters of North Carolina. She joined in the 
operations which led to the capture of Plymouth, N.C., 
between 29 October and 1 November 1864. Later she 
cooperated with the Army in the expeditions to Pitch 
Landing and against Rainbow Bluff, N.C., of December 
1864. 

After overhaul at Norfolk Navy Yard in early 1865, 
Chicopee returned to North Carolina waters, and re- 
sumed her cruising with the North Atlantic Squadron 
until 24 December 1865 when she arrived at Norfolk 
Navy Yard. She returned to Wilmington, N.C., 23 Jan- 
uary 1866, and continued to cruise off the North Caro- 
lina coast until 3 December, sailing then for Washing- 
ton, D.C. She was placed out of commission there 19 
December 1866 and sold 8 October 1867. 

II 

(AO-34: dp. 22,430 (f.); 1. 520'; b. 68'; dr. 30'10"; s. 18 
k. ; cpl. 279; a. 1 4”, 4 3"; cl. Chicopee) 

The second Chicopee (AO-34) was built in 1941 by 
Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Chester, Pa., as 
Esso Trenton ; sponsored by Mrs. N. L. Lank; acquired 
by the Navy 3 January 1942; and commissioned 9 Febru- 
ary 1942, Commander G. Bannerman in command. 

After a short period as station tanker at Casco Bay, 
Maine, Chicopee made several oil runs between ports on 
the Gulf of Mexico and the east coast. She departed 
Norfolk 8 June 1942 for Argentia, Newfoundland, and 
served as station tanker there from 12 June until 8 July 
when she sailed to Reykjavik, Iceland, returning to 
Norfolk 25 July. 

From August to November 1942 Chicopee resumed 
coastwise fueling operations. She then made three 
voyages to a midocean point with the Ranger task group 
to launch U.S. Army planes to North Africa, and in 
March resumed her oil runs between Norfolk and the 
Gulf ports with one voyage to Argentia. 

Chicopee sailed from Norfolk 10 May as an escort 
oiler and arrived at Oran 23 May to serve as station 
tanker until 28 July when she got underway for New 
York. After a convoy voyage to Gibraltar, she was 
overhauled and on 8 October departed on escort oiler 
duty to Londonderry, Ireland, and Clyde, Scotland, re- 
turning to Norfolk 3 December for overhaul. From 3 
February until 26 September 1944, Chicopee operated as 
an escort oiler between Norfolk and the North African 
ports of Casablanca, Oran, and Bizerte. 

She departed Norfolk 28 October 1944 for Pacific 
service and arrived at Ulithi 8 December. She sailed 
out of Ulithi supplying fuel for the fast carrier task 
forces engaged in the Luzon, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa 
operations, and air strikes against Japan until the close 
of the war. 


104 


After serving as station tanker in Tokyo Bay from 
26 September until 28 October, Chicopee cleared for 
San Francisco, arriving 9 November. On 14 February 
1946 she was decommissioned at Mare Island and sold 
through the Maritime Commission 1 July 1946. 

Chicopee received four battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Chicot 

A county in Arkansas. 

(AK-170: dp. 2,382; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Alamosa) 

Chicot (AK-170) was launched 16 July 1944 by 
Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. F. 
Marasco; acquired by the Navy 13 March 1945; and 
commissioned 4 April 1945, Lieutenant Commander L. F. 
Marshall, USNR, in command. 

Chicot sailed from Gulfport, Miss., 10 May 1945 for 
Honolulu, where she discharged cargo then voyaged to 
San Francisco, returning to Pearl Harbor with another 
load of cargo 24 July. She put out of Pearl Harbor 30 
July with cargo for Eniwetok, and until 10 March 1946, 
remained in the western Pacific, carrying cargo between 
Eniwetok, Ulithi, Tacloban, Saipan, Okinawa, Guam, 
Manus, Samar, and Subic Bay. She departed Guam 10 
March for the west coast, and on 18 July 1946 was de- 
commissioned at Seattle, and returned to the Maritime 
Commission the next day. 

Chicot was reacquired 14 May 1947, and after repair, 
recommissioned 23 June 1947. She departed Seattle 18 
July for Pearl Harbor. From 19 November, when she 
sailed from Guam and Pearl Harbor, Chicot carried 
cargo between the islands of the western Pacific, calling 
at Saipan, Truk, Ponape, Manus, and Kusaie. After 
local operations at Hawaii, she made a voyage to Guam 
and Saipan early in 1949, and returned to San Francisco 
15 March. 

Chicot cleared San Pedro 27 April 1949 for cargo 
duty in the islands of the western Pacific, to Pearl 
Harbor and to Japan. Guam was her base until 24 July 
1951, when she was decommissioned there and trans- 
ferred to the Department of the Interior. 


Chief 

The head or leader of a group. 


On 23 May 1941 Chief (AMC-67) was renamed Bold 
(q.v.). 

I 

(AM-315: dp. 890; 1. 221'2"; b. 32'2"; d. 10'9"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 105; a. 1 3"; cl. Auk) 

Originally intended for Great Britain, HMS Alice 
(BAM-2) was launched 5 January 1943 by General 
Engineering and Dry Dock Co., Alameda, Calif.; re- 
named and reclassified Chief (AM-315), 23 January 
1943; and commissioned 9 October 1943, Lieutenant 
Commander J. M. Wyckoff, USNR, in command. 

Departing San Diego 7 December 1943, Chief joined 
in exercises in Hawaiian waters until 22 January 1944 
when she sailed for Kwajalein. She swept the harbor 
and joined the antisubmarine patrol until 14 February, 
when she returned to Pearl Harbor for repairs. Except 
for a convoy escort voyage to Eniwetok (21 March-15 
April), she remained at Pearl Harbor until 29 May. 

Joining TF 52 at Eniwetok, Chief sortied 12 June 1944 
for the Marianas operation. Between 15 June and 7 
August, she cleared mines for the invasions of Saipan 
and Tinian, and gave fire support to troops ashore, then 


had local duty at Saipan. Departing 9 September she 
escorted DeGrasse (AP— 164) to Pearl Harbor, then 
continued to San Francisco for overhaul. 

Returning to Pearl Harbor 2 January 1945, Chief 
voyaged to Eniwetok on convoy escort duty, then con- 
ducted exercises in Hawaiian waters until clearing for 
Ulithi, where she arrived 4 March. After receiving new 
equipment, she sailed for Okinawa on 15 May. From 26 
May to 21 August she acted as flagship for ,the group 
conducting hydrographic survey of Unten Ko, and de- 
veloping it as a minecraft typhoon anchorage. On 8 
September Chief put out for Wakayama, Japan, where 
until 6 October she swept minefields in preparation for 
the arrival of occupation forces. She also assisted in the 
salvage of YMS-J)18 on 28 September. Chief remained 
on occupation duty at Nagoya and Sasebo until 10 
March 1946 when she steamed for San Francisco, arriv- 
ing 19 April. She was placed out of commission in 
reserve 17 March 1947, berthed at San Pedro, Calif. 

Recommissioned 28 February 1952 at Long Beach, 
Chief conducted training exercises off San Diego, until 
7 July when she sailed for Sasebo, Japan, arriving 3 
August. She operated with TF 95 around mine-infested 
Wonsan Harbor and was twice fired on by enemy shore 
batteries. She returned to Long Beach 5 February 1953 
for local operations and training. Her second Korean 
tour from 5 October 1953 to 2 June 1954 found her 
patrolling with TF 95 off both coasts of Korea to pre- 
serve the truce. She returned to west coast operations, 
and on 1 November 1954 was placed in commission in 
reserve. Reclassified MSF-315 on 7 February 1955, she 
was placed out of commission in reserve 15 March 1955. 

Chief received five battle stars for World War II 
service and two for Korean war service. 

Chih Kiang, see Tulip 


Chikaskia 

A river in Kansas. 

(AO-54: dp. 7,470; 1. 553'; b. 75'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 298; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

Chikaskia (AO-54) was launched 2 October 1942 by 
Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., Sparrows 
Point, Md., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. J. L. Bates; acquired by the Navy 
10 January 1943; and commissioned 10 November 1943, 
Commander L. J. Hasse, USNR, in command. 

On 15 December 1943 Chikaskia sailed from Norfolk, 
loaded oil at Aruba and arrived at Pearl Harbor 7 
January 1944. She joined Task Force 58 at Majuro 4 
February and provided logistic support for the fast 
carrier force’s strikes during the occupation of Kwaja- 
lein, and on Truk. 

Between 7 March and 15 September 1944 Chikaskia 
operated out of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides; Purvis 
Bay, Florida Island; and Manus, Admiralties, bringing 
vital at-sea replenishment of fuel to the fast carrier task 
forces and other ships. Departing Manus 18 September 
1944 to aid the fast carrier task force engaged in the 
invasion of the southern Palaus, Chikaskia gave a strik- 
ing illustration of her capabilities by simultaneously 
refueling Iowa (BB-61) and New Jersey (BB-62) 23 
September. 

Changing her base to Ulithi on 25 October 1944, 
Chikaskia continued to support the fast carrier units. 
She was part of the fueling unit that endured the 
typhoon which struck the 3d Fleet during a fueling 
rendezvous 18 December, weathering the heavy seas to 
return safely to Ulithi 24 December. She continued to 
provide logistic support during the operations in the 
Philippines, and the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa 
until she returned to San Pedro, Calif., for overhaul 
22 May 1945. 


105 


Chikaskia returned to Ulithi to support the 3d Fleet 
from 17 August 1945 until she entered Tokyo Bay 20 
September. After a period of shuttle service in support 
of the operations in China and Korea (8-22 November), 
she served as station tanker at Sasebo from 29 Novem- 
ber 1945 to 31 March 1946. 

Chikaskia sailed from Sasebo 8 April 1946 bound for 
Bahrein, in the Persian Gulf, which she reached 30 
April, and after loading oil, sailed for Kwajalein to 
participate in Operation “Crossroads,” the atomic 
weapons tests at Bikini. 

Assigned to the Naval Transportation Service 1 July 
1947, Chikaskia continued to operate in the Far East. 
On 1 October 1949 she was assigned to the Military Sea 
Transportation Service, established that date. Returned 
to the Service Force, Pacific Fleet, 28 February 1953, 
Chikaskia fueled ships operating in the Korean war 
between 30 May and 27 July. She continued to operate 
in the Pacific until June 1955, when she returned to the 
United States. Chikaskia was placed out of commission 
in reserve 7 November 1955. Recommissioned 12 De- 
cember 1956 she was placed in the ready reserve in late 
1957 and again joined the permanent Reserve Fleet in 
December 1958. Chikaskia was recommissioned on 17 
December 1960. 

Chikaskia received six battle stars for World War II 
service and one star for Korean war service. 


Childs 

Earle W. F. Childs, born 1 August 1893 in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., was a member of the Naval Academy class 
of 1915. As a lieutenant, he served in World War I in 
the submarine L-2. On board HMS H-5 as an observer, 
Lieutenant Childs was lost when H-5 sank with all 
hands after a collision with a merchantman off the 
English coast. 

(DD-241 : dp. 1,215; 1. 314'4"; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'10"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 137; a. 4 4", 1 3'', 12 21" tt. ; cl. Clemson) 


Childs (DD-241) was launched 15 September 1920 by 
New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, N.J.; sponsored 
by Mrs. E. W. F. Childs; and commissioned 22 October 
1920, Commander I. H. Mayfield in command. 

Arriving at Gibraltar 14 February 1921, Childs joined 
U.S. Naval Forces, Europe, to cruise in the Mediter- 
ranean, Adriatic, North, and Baltic Seas until 25 No- 
vember, when she arrived at Constantinople. Here she 
joined the relief mission sent to Russia early in 1922, 
remaining in the Black Sea on diplomatic duties until 1 
April. On 8 July, she departed from Cherbourg for 
Philadelphia, returning to the United States 29 July. 

Childs conducted training operations, and joined other 
ships in fleet exercises along the Atlantic coast and in 
the Caribbean until 14 February 1925, when with the 
Scouting Fleet she stood out of Guantanamo Bay for 
massive fleet exercises in the Hawaiian Islands and 
then returned to the east coast. In 1932, 1933, and 1934, 
the annual concentration of the Fleet for battle practice 
was again held on the West Coast, and Childs took part. 
With her home port changed to San Diego 9 November 

1934, Childs served as flagship of Destroyer Division 8 
Rotating Reserve, Scouting Force, 5 January-15 June 

1935, when she was in full commission again. She spent 
the summer of 1935 cruising off the Pacific Northwest 
and Alaska. 

The next year Childs returned to the east coast for 
overhaul, then returned to duty at San Diego, cruising 
several times to the Hawaiian Islands before 14 May 
1938, when she cleared for Philadelphia and conversion 
to a seaplane tender. Reclassified AVP-14, she saw her 
first service in her new role during the annual fleet 
problem of 1939, operating between the Florida coast 
and San Juan, P.R., and after final preparations at 
Philadelphia, sailed for her new base at Pearl Harbor, 
arriving 29 June. She tended seaplanes there and on 
the plane guard stations off Midway, Wake, and Guam 
until 1 October 1940, when she was reclassified AVD-1, 
and ordered to the Asiatic Station. The next day she 



USS Childs (AVD-1) 


106 


left Hawaii astern for Cavite, P.I., arriving 1 November 
to begin her service to air patrol squadrons. 

When war with Japan broke out, Childs lay in Cavite 
Navy Yard for repair, and during the devastation of the 
yard by Japanese aircraft on 10 December 1941, escaped 
damage by skillful evasive maneuvering in the confined 
harbor area. She continued to tend her patrol aircraft 
from Manila for 4 more days, then began a lengthy 
base-to-base withdrawal until she reached Exmouth 
Gulf, Australia, 28 February 1942. From Fremantle 
and other west Australian ports, Childs continued her 
tender duties until 12 August 1944. During this time, 
her planes scouted and bombed enemy positions and 
shipping, mined the waters off Balikpapan, Borneo, and 
performed air-sea rescue missions. 

Childs returned to the west coast 19 September 1944, 
and after overhaul, conducted training operations off 
the west coast until the close of the war. She was de- 
commissioned 10 December 1945, and sold 3 January 
1946. 

Childs received one battle star for World War II 
service. 


Chilhowee 

A private name retained. 

(PY: 1. 125'; b. 16'6"; dr. 7') 

Chilhowee (No. 525) was built as a private yacht by 
Neilson Yacht Building Co., Baltimore, Md. ; purchased 
by the Navy 12 July 1917; commissioned 10 June 1917; 
and assigned to the 5th Naval District. 

Based at Norfolk, Va., she was assigned duty with the 
captain of the port and inspected anchorages in Hamp- 
ton Roads. Chilhowee was placed out of commission 10 
September 1919 and turned over to the Coast Guard the 
same day. 

Chilkat 

A Tlingit Indian word meaning “storehouses for 
salmon.” 

Chilkat (YTB-510), a tug built at the Commercial 
Iron Works, Portland, Oregon, during 1944—45, was 
assigned to the 11th Naval District. She was placed in 
reserve in August 1947, and put “in service” in the 11th 
Naval District in April 1961. 


Chillicothe 

A city in Ohio; the State’s capital from 1803 to 1810. 

(IrcStr: t. 395; 1. 162'; dph. 5'; dr. 4'; s. 7 k. ; a. 2 
11" sb.) 

Chillicothe, an iron-clad steamer, was built at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and commissioned 5 September 1862 at 
Jeffersonville, Ind., Acting Lieutenant J. P. Sanford, in 
command. Necessary alterations and repairs and lack 
of sufficient water to pass over the falls detained her in 
the Ohio River until early January 1863. 

From 8 January 1863, when she sailed from Cairo, 111., 
until the end of the war, Chillicothe was constantly em- 
ployed in the Mississippi River and its tributaries. She 
joined in the expeditions to the White River in Arkansas 
in January 1863 and to Yazoo Pass, Miss., from 20 
February to 10 April. Coming under enemy’s fire with 
Baron DeKalb in the Yazoo expedition, Chillicothe was 
heavily damaged and lost several men. She was sent to 
Mound City, 111., for repairs and returned to duty on 
the Mississippi River 6 September 1863. 

On 24 February 1864 she entered the Red River for 
the expedition of 7 March to 15 May in which her com- 
manding officer, Lieutenant J. P. Couthouy, was mor- 
tally wounded by rifle fire 3 April. From 22 May 1864 


until 26 May 1865 she lay off Fort Adams, Miss., on 8 
June 1864 assisting in the capture of a Confederate 
battery at Simmesport, La. 

Chillicothe arrived at Cairo, 111., 13 July 1865 and on 
29 November 1865 was sold at auction at Mound City, 111. 


Chilton 

A county in Alabama. 

( APA-38: dp. 8,100; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 26'6"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 575; a. 2 5"; cl. Bayfield) 

Chilton (APA-38) was launched 29 December 1942 by 
Western Pipe and Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif., under 
a Maritime Commission contract, as Sea Needle ; spon- 
sored by Mrs. W. A. Riley, Jr.; acquired by the Navy 29 
May 1943; converted at New York Navy Yard; and 
commissioned 7 December 1943, Commander A. C. 
Geisenhoff, USNR, in command. 

Chilton served at Newport as a training ship for pre- 
commissioning crews of attack transports from 31 
January 1943 to 15 October 1944. She sailed from 
Boston 20 November for San Diego before arriving at 
Pearl Harbor 23 January 1945. Here she embarked 
troops, and sailed by way of Eniwetok and Ulithi, to 
Leyte, arriving 21 February. After rehearsal landings, 
Chilton put out of Leyte 16 March to land troops at 
Kerama Retto 26 March in a key preliminary to the 
assault on Okinawa. She remained off Okinawa as flag- 
ship for Transport Squadron 17 supporting the estab- 
lishment and reinforcement of beachheads until 30 April, 
departing then for San Francisco and overhaul. 

Chilton returned to Ulithi 17 July 1945 to load troops 
and cargo for Okinawa, where she lay until 31 August. 
From then until 8 December, when she arrived at 
Seattle, Chilton had duty in the redeployment of United 
States and Chinese troops, calling at Jinsen, Tientsin, 
Hong Kong, Chinwangtao, Tsingtao, and Nagoya. She 
cleared Seattle 21 December for the first of two “Magic 
Carpet” voyages to the Philippines and Okinawa to 
carry home servicemen, returning from the second of 
these to San Francisco 10 May 1946. She cleared San 
Francisco 2 June to participate in the atomic bomb 
tests at Bikini, returned to San Francisco 1 August, and 
sailed for transport duty in China and Japan from 7 
September to 22 January 1947. She visited the Bikini 
area as a floating laboratory that summer, then returned 
to San Diego for local operations. 

Chilton cleared San Diego 15 November 1948 to with- 
draw Marines from China, returning to San Diego 31 
May. Local operations and exercises in the Hawaiian 
Islands occupied her until 25 November 1949 when she 
sailed from San Diego for her new home port, Norfolk, 
arriving 10 December. Local operations, overhaul, and 
service as a training ship in Cuban waters preceded her 
first tour of duty in the Mediterranean, 11 June-20 De- 
cember 1951. On 21 August 1952, she sailed from Nor- 
folk to participate in NATO Operation “Mainbrace,” 



USS Chillicothe 


107 


proceeding to the Mediterranean for duty until 6 Feb- 
ruary 1953. Chilton has continued to alternate local 
and Caribbean operations with tours of duty in the 
Mediterranean from 1954 through 1963. 

Chilton received one battle star for World War II 
service. 


Chilula 

An Indian tribe of California. 

( ATF-153 : dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

Chilula (ATF-153) was launched 1 December 1944 by 
Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Charleston, 
S.C.; sponsored by Mrs. C. G. Thigpen; and commis- 
sioned 5 April 1945, Lieutenant 0. L. Guinn in command. 

Chilula stood out from Norfolk 14 May 1945 for 
Algiers, La., arriving 19 May. She took section 58 of 
ABSD-7 in tow, and sailed 27 May for the Canal Zone, 
arriving Cristobal 5 June. Between 7 and 12 June she 
towed ABSD sections through the Panama Canal. Clear- 
ing Balboa 16 June she reached Eniwetok 31 July for 
towing duties. She left Eniwetok 8 September, entered 
Tokyo Bay 20 September, and until 11 January 1946 
operated from Yokosuka. Between 11 January and 28 
January, she voyaged from Yokosuka to Tsingtao towing 
YO-17. Chilula sailed from Yokosuka 3 April for 
Orange, Tex., and was placed out of commission in 
reserve 8 February 1947. She was lent to the Coast 
Guard 9 July 1956. 


Chimaera 

A mythological character, symbolic of the destructive 
forces of nature. 

( ARL-33 : dp. 2,125; 1. 328'; b. 50'; dr. 14'; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 253; a. 1 3"; cl. Achelous) 

Chimaera was launched 30 March 1945 by Chicago 
Bridge and Iron Co., Seneca, 111.; sponsored by Mrs. 
D. L. Mahoney; placed in partial commission 11 April 
1945; decommissioned 7 May 1945 for conversion at 
Baltimore, Md.; and commissioned in full 7 August 1945, 
Lieutenant F. E. Clerk, Jr., USNR, in command. 

Sailing from Norfolk 18 September 1945 Chimaera 
arrived at Green Cove Springs, Fla., 21 September to 
serve as flagship for Commander, St. John’s River Re- 
serve Group, Atlantic Fleet until 1 March 1946. On 29 
April, she cleared for San Pedro, Calif., arriving 21 
May. Local operations were conducted until 17 Septem- 
ber when she got underway for the western Pacific. She 
called at Pearl Harbor and arrived at Tsingtao, China, 
23 October to provide services to the 7th Fleet. On 14 



October 1947 she departed Tsingtao for San Pedro. 
Chimaera was placed out of commission in reserve 8 
March 1948. 


Chimango 

A bird of southern South America. 

I 

( AMC-42 : dp. 200; 1. 97'1"; b. 21'8"; dr. 11'; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 17) 

The first Chimango (AMC-42) was launched 8 March 
1941 by Gibbs Gas Engine Co., Jacksonville, Fla., and 
commissioned 3 June 1941, Ensign J. T. G. Nichols, 
USNR, in command. 

Chimango had training at Mine Warfare Base, York- 
town, Va., until 26 July 1941 when she rendezvoused 
with Goldfinch and Jacamar to sail to Argentia, New- 
foundland. From 2 August she operated off this new 
base laying buoys, taking part in minesweeping exer- 
cises, and recovering gear in Placentia Bay, until 5 
October when she sailed for Casco Bay, Maine, and 
sweeping operations and patrols along the Maine coast. 
She also received aboard daily armed guard parties 
from merchant ships for instruction. On 15 June 1942 
she was decommissioned but placed in service, and con- 
tinued to operate on minesweeping and patrol duty at 
New York and Charleston until 20 December 1945. She 
was transferred to the Maritime Commission for dis- 
posal 21 August 1947. 


II 

On 7 March 1952 LSIL-703 (q.v.) was reclassified 
AMCU-20 and renamed Chimango. 


Chimariko 

An Indian tribe of California. 

( ATF-154: dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Navajo) 

Chimariko (ATF-154) was launched 30 December 
1944 by Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Charleston, S.C. ; sponsored by Mrs. G. Davis; and 
commissioned 28 April 1945, Lieutenant W. R. Wurzler, 
USNR, in command. 

Departing Norfolk, Va., 5 June 1945 Chimariko 
reached Galveston, Tex., 11 June, and towed the disabled 
tanker SS C. A. Canfield from Sabine Pass (12—16 June). 
From 16 June until 1 July she towed YFD-3 to Cristo- 
bal, C.Z. Passing through the Panama Canal 9 July she 
towed YFs 727 and 1069 via San Diego to Kwajalein, 
arriving 25 August. She exchanged tows and departed 



USS Chickasaw (ATF-83) 


USS Chowanoc (ATF-100) 


108 


1 September for San Pedro Bay, Leyte, P.I., arriving 19 
September. On 17 October 1945 she reported at Okinawa 
for salvage duty, serving there until 14 January 1946 
when she towed the concrete barge Lignite (IX-162) to 
Hong Kong, weathering a severe storm in the straits 
south of Formosa to arrive safely 19 January. 

Chimariko departed Hong Kong 18 February 1946 
and, after brief periods of salvage and towing duty at 
Subic Bay, P.I. and Guam, she steamed via Pearl Harbor 
to San Pedro, Calif., arriving 9 June to be placed out of 
commission in reserve 31 October 1946. 

Chimo 

I 

(Monitor: t. 614; 1. 225'; b. 37'; dr. 6'6"; dph. 9'1"; cpl. 

65; a. 1 11'' sb.) 

The first Chimo, a light-draft ironclad monitor, was 
built by Aquila Adams at South Boston, Mass., from 
plans by John Ericsson; launched 5 May 1864; and 
commissioned 20 January 1865, Acting Master John C. 
Dutch in command. 

Chimo sailed to New York, arriving 26 January 
1865, to be fitted with torpedo gear and one 11-inch 
Dahlgren smoothbore gun. On 1 April 1865 she departed 
for Hampton Roads where she arrived on the 9th. On 28 
April she sailed for Point Lookout, N.C., where she 
served as a station ship until 28 May 1865. Arriving at 
Washington Navy Yard 7 June 1865, she was decommis- 
sioned 24 June 1865. Her name was changed to Orion 
15 June 1869; to Piscataqua 10 August 1869, and she 
was sold in 1874. 


On 24 February 1919 the unfinished Chimo (AT-22) 
was renamed Tadousac (q.v.). 

II 

(ACM-1: dp. 880; 1. 188'2"; b. 37'; dr. 12'6"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 69; a. 1 40mm.; cl. Chimo) 

The second Chimo (ACM-1) was built as Colonel 
Charles W. Bundy for the Army by Marietta Manufac- 
turing Co., Point Pleasant, W. Va. ; converted at Norfolk 
Navy Yard; acquired by the Navy 7 April 1944; commis- 
sioned the same day, Lieutenant J. W. Gross, USNR, in 
command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Chimo sailed from Norfolk 13 May 1944 for Plymouth, 
England and the Normandy beaches. She lay at anchor 
off Utah Beach from 7 to 19 June as flagship of Com- 
mander Minesweepers West, providing tender services 
to British and United States minesweeping forces as 
they kept lanes open for the movement of supplies vital 
to the invasion buildup. Between 20 June 1944 and 5 
March 1945, Chimo operated from Plymouth along the 
coast of France at Cherbourg, Baie de St. Brieuc, and 
Brest. She cleared Plymouth 5 March for overhaul in 
the States and on 11 June, departed Norfolk arriving 
at San Diego 3 July for voyage repairs and training. 
In mid-September 1945, Chimo began duty off Eniwetok, 
Saipan, and Okinawa until 1 February 1946, when she 
put into Sasebo. Chimo cleared Sasebo 10 March for 
Saipan, Eniwetok, Pearl Harbor, and San Francisco, 
arriving 16 April. Chimo was decommissioned 21 May 
1946, transferred to the War Shipping Administration 
and sold 28 September 1948. 

Chimo received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Chimon 

An island off the coast of Connecticut. 

(LST-1102: dp. 3,960; 1. 328'; b. 50'; dr. 14'1"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 119; a. 8 40mm; cl. LST-1) 

Chimon was launched as LST-1102 10 January 1945 
by Missouri Valley Bridge and Iron Works, Evansville, 


Ind.; sponsored by Mrs. O. Snyder; and commissioned 29 
January 1945, Lieutenant L. J. Patterson, USNR, in 
command. „ 

Sailing from Gulfport, Miss., 7 March 1945, LST-1102 
arrived at Pearl Harbor 4 April to load cargo for de- 
livery to bases at Kwajalein, Eniwetok, and Ulithi. This 
duty completed, she joined a convoy at Leyte 21 June 
and arrived at Okinawa 5 days later to complete off- 
loading her cargo. After transporting Marines from 
Naha to Hagushi, she sailed from Okinawa 10 July and 
returned to Pearl Harbor 5 August. At the close of the 
war, she loaded men and equipment for the occupation 
of Japan, and on 27 September arrived at Wakayama, 
Japan. 

LST-1102 continued to support the occupation of 
Japan until 4 November 1945. She called at Guam to 
embark homeward bound servicemen and arrived back 
at Pearl Harbor 1 December to undergo conversion to a 
mobile spare parts ship. Her conversion completed, 
LST-1102 got underway from Pearl Harbor 4 April 
1946 to return to Far Eastern duty at Shanghai, and 
Tsingtao, China until 8 October 1947. Arriving at San 
Pedro, Calif., 7 November, she shifted to San Diego a 
week later and was placed out of commission in reserve 
there 21 November 1947. She was reclassified AG-150, 
27 January 1949 and assigned the name Chimon on 1 
February 1949. 

Recommissioned 27 December 1950 under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant G. W. Hessemer, USNR, Chimon 
was assigned to Service Squadron 3 and sailed for the 
Far East on 2 May 1951. Arriving at Sasebo, Japan, 
13 June, she alternated operations from that port and 
Yokosuka in support of the Korean war. Reclassified 
AKS-31 on 18 August 1951, she remained in the Far 
East serving the 7th Fleet in its watchful operations to 
keep peace until 20 November 1957, occasionally visiting 
Hong Kong and the Philippines. Arriving at San Fran- 
cisco 22 December, Chimon was placed in commission in 
reserve 22 January 1958 and out of commission in 
reserve 22 April 1958. Chimon was sold, and removed 
from naval custody on 2 November 1959. 

Chimon received one battle star (as LST-1102) for 
World War II service. 

Chinaberry 

A tree of southern United States and Mexico. 

(AN-61: dp. 1,100; 1. 194'7"; b. 37' dr. 13'6"; s. 12. k.; 
cpl. 56; a. 1 3"; cl. Ailanthus) 

Chinaberry (AN-61) was launched 19 July 1943 by 
Snow Shipyards, Inc., Rockland, Me. as YN-82; reclassi- 
fied AN-61 and named Chinaberry 20 January 1944; and 
commissioned 12 March 1944, Lieutenant Commander 
K. G. Cady, USNR, in command. 

Chinaberry sailed from New York 24 June 1944 in a 
convoy bound for Belfast, Ireland, arriving 10 July. 
She operated as net tender in European waters, prin- 
cipally off the coast of France until 12 December, when 
she cleared Plymouth, England in convoy for Charles- 
ton, S.C., arriving 6 February 1945. After overhaul she 
sailed 26 March for Narragansett Bay to conduct ex- 
perimental net operations and to train pre-commission- 
ing crews for net tenders. From New York, Chinaberry 
sailed 11 May in convoy for the Canal Zone, continuing 
independently for San Diego, San Francisco, and Pearl 
Harbor, arriving 28 June. 

Between 19 July 1945 and 5 November, Chinaberry 
tended nets at Eniwetok, and on 5 December, she arrived 
at San Pedro, Calif. Chinaberry was decommissioned 
26 March 1946 at Mare Island, and sold 27 February 
1950. 

Chinam pa 

Merchant name retained. 

(AO: dp. 13,675(n.) ; 1.442'; b. 54'8"; dr. 26'2"; s. 10 K.; 
cpl. 96; a. 1 5", 1 3") 


109 


Chinampa (No. 1952) was built in 1903 by Palmer 
Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, as 
Cushing. She was acquired from the Shipping Board 23 
September 1918, and commissioned 3 October 1918, 
Lieutenant Commander E. W. Miller, USNRF, in com- 
mand. 

Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation 
Service, she made two transatlantic voyages for the 
Navy between 16 October 1918 and 11 February 1919, 
and an additional voyage for the Army from 23 Febru- 
ary to 28 March 1919, carrying gasoline and fuel oil to 
various ports in France, England, and Belgium. 

Chinampa was decommissioned 27 May 1919 and de- 
livered to the Shipping Board for return to her owner. 

Chincoteague 

A bay on the coast of Maryland and Virginia. 

(A VP-24 : dp. 2,592; 1. 310’9"; b. 41'2"; dr. 13'6"; s. 18 
k. ; cpl. 215; a. 1 5"; cl. Barnegat) 

Chincoteague (AVP-24) was launched 15 April 1942 
by Lake Washington Shipyard, Houghton, Wash.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. G. Rowe; commissioned 12 April 1943, 
Commander I. E. Hobbs in command; and reported to 
the Pacific Fleet. 

Chincoteague sailed from San Diego 13 June 1943 for 
Saboe Bay in the Santa Cruz Islands, where she arrived 
6 July to support the New Guinea operations as tender 
for Fleet Air Wing 1. On 16 July the Japanese launched 
eight air attacks at Saboe Bay, killing nine of Chinco- 
teague’s crew and damaging the ship badly through one 
direct hit and two near hits. Taken in tow by Thornton 
(AVD-11), and then by Sonoma (AT-12), Chincoteague 
reached Espiritu Santo 21 July for emergency repairs, 
and later was towed to San Francisco for thorough 
overhaul. 

Chincoteague put out from San Diego 27 January 
1944 for Pearl Harbor and operations in support of the 
consolidation of the northern Solomons, the occupation 
of the Marshalls, and air action in the Treasuries. She 
tended seaplanes at Kwajalein, Eniwetok, in the Treas- 
uries, and at Green Island. In addition, she carried 
freight, mail and passengers among the Solomons, 
Marshalls, Gilberts, Marianas, New Hebrides, and Phoe- 
nix Islands, and voyaged from Guadalcanal to Auckland, 
New Zealand, returning with aircraft engines. Escort- 
ing a convoy, Chincoteague sailed from Eniwetok 24 
September for Pearl Harbor, and overhaul. 

She returned to active operations 6 December 1944 at 
Kossol Roads in the Palaus, where she conducted salvage 
and rescue operations for the next two months. She 
arrived at Guam 13 February to join the assault force 
bound for Iwo Jima, and on 20 February, arrived off 
the bitterly contested island to tend seaplanes until 8 
March. Similar operations at Ulithi followed until 8 
June, when she sailed for a west coast overhaul. 

On occupation duty, Chincoteague sailed to the Far 
East to care for seaplanes at Okinawa and Tsingtao, 
China, between 18 October 1945 and 16 March 1946. 
She then sailed for San Diego, New Orleans, and Beau- 
mont, Tex. On 21 December 1946, Chincoteague was 
decommissioned and placed in reserve, and on 7 March 
1949, was lent to the Coast Guard. 

Chincoteague received six battle stars for World War 
II service. 

Chingachgook 

Former name retained. 

Chingachgook (No. 35), a motorboat, was purchased 
by the Navy, and placed in service on 6 June 1917, and 
assigned to the 3d Naval District for patrol duty. On 
31 July 1917 her gasoline tank exploded, injuring mem- 
bers of the crew and igniting the ship. A survey of 13 


October found her hull worthless and beyond repair, and 
she was subsequently disposed of by burning. 

Chinook 

Former name retained. 

Chinook (No. 644), a motorboat, was acquired by the 
Navy under agreement with the owner which enrolled 
her on 19 October 1917 in the Naval Coast Defense 
Reserve. She performed patrol duty in the Detroit 
River for a 4-month period and was subsequently re- 
turned to her owner. 


Chinquapin 

A dwarf chestnut tree. 

(YN-12: dp. 560; 1. 163'2"; b. 30'6"; dr. 11'8"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 48; a. 1 3"; cl. Aloe) 

Chinquapin, ex-Fir, renamed on 16 October 1940, 
was launched 15 July 1941 by General Engineering 
and Dry Dock Co., Alameda, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. J. 
Lane; and placed in service 29 October 1941. She was 
commissioned 6 January 1943, Lieutenant R. D. Aber- 
nathy, USNR, in command. 

Assigned to the 12th Naval District, Chinquapin con- 
ducted net, salvage, and towing operations out of 
Tiburon Net Depot until 31 December 1943 when she 
sailed for Pearl Harbor, arriving 10 January 1944. On 
20 January she was redesignated AN-17. 

Chinquapin tended nets and laid moorings at Majuro, 
Kwajalein, and Eniwetok from 15 February 1944 to 27 
July, then supported the Marianas occupation by similar 
operations at Saipan and Guam until 28 October. Re- 
turning via Pearl Harbor to San Francisco as a convoy 
escort, Chinquapin was overhauled, and on 3 February 
1945 sailed via Pearl Harbor and Ulithi for Okinawa, 
arriving 1 May for net, mooring and transport opera- 
tions there until 30 October. She returned to Astoria, 
Oreg., 11 December and was placed out of commission 
in reserve 6 March 1946. 

Chinquapin received three battle stars for World War 
II service. 


Chipola 

A Florida river. 

(AO-63: dp. 7,470; 1. 553'; b. 45'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 304; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

Chipola (AO-63) was launched 21 October 1944 by 
Bethlehem Steel Corp., Sparrows Point, Md.; sponsored 
by Mrs. P. C. Chubb; and commissioned 30 November 
1944, Commander E. G. Genthner, USNR, in command. 

Chipola arrived at Eniwetok from the east coast and 
the Netherlands West Indies 31 February 1945. She 
fueled ships in the harbor, and sailed 9 February to 
operate at sea, serving the ships of the fast carrier task 
forces raiding Tokyo in preparation for the invasion of 
Iwo Jima, and then the assault ships which carried out 
the landings on 19 February. Four days later, Chipola 
arrived at Ulithi, out of which she sailed between 23 
March and 26 August, supporting the carrier task forces 
in the raids which preceded the Okinawa assault, and in 
their continuing operations during the conquest of the 
island. From July, she provided the oil which enabled 
the carriers and their screening ships to carry out a 
constant series of air attacks and bombardments on the 
Japanese home islands. 

The oiler sailed from Ulithi 8 September 1945 to serve 
as station tanker at Tokyo Bay and other Far Eastern 
ports. Between 20 February 1946 and 18 March, she 
sailed to Bahrein in the Persian Gulf to load oil, return- 
ing to station tanker duty at Sasebo. After spending 


110 


the summer on the west coast for repairs, she returned 
to duty in the western Pacific from September 1946 to 
May 1947, making three voyages to Bahrein during that 
time. 

Returning to the west coast for repairs, Chipola put 
to sea again 13 June 1947, and sailed west to Bahrein 
and the Suez Canal, making passage to Norfolk where 
she arrived 21 August. Almost constantly at sea on the 
important never-ending duty of keeping the fleet sup- 
plied with petroleum products, she voyaged from Nor- 
folk to Bahrein, then sailed to make two voyages between 
Aruba and the Canal Zone. She sailed from Cristobal 
for Bahrein, continuing through the Far East to San 
Diego, where she was overhauled. 

In the second half of 1948, Chipola served ships oper- 
ating in the Far East once more, making two voyages 
from Japan to the Persian Gulf oil ports. She returned 
to west coast operations until 2 September 1949, when 
she sailed for the Panama Canal and brief duty in the 
Mediterranean. Chipola sailed from Naples for Norfolk, 
and between November and July 1950, made three 
voyages transporting oil from the east to the west coast. 

The oiler operated on the east coast and in the Carib- 
bean until October 1950, when she sailed by way of 
Bahrein for Sasebo. She proceeded from Sasebo to 
Bahrein in December, and on the last day of the year 
sailed for San Francisco and west coast duty until May 
1951. Then she returned to the east coast, and carried 
oil from the Caribbean to Norfolk, as well as twice 
serving in the Mediterranean, until 3 May 1955 when 
she was placed in commission in reserve at Philadelphia. 
She was decommissioned 1 August 1955. 

Chipola was recommissioned 29 December 1956 for 
service with the Military Sea Transportation Service 
until once more placed out of commission in reserve 7 
November 1957. She was recommissioned 17 December 
1960 and serves with the Pacific Fleet. 

Chipola received three battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Chipper 

Former name retained. 

Chipper (No. 1049), a motorboat free leased to the 
Navy, was placed in service on 24 July 1917 and assigned 
to the 4th Naval District where she performed patrol 
duty at Philadelphia and ferry duty at the Naval Acad- 
emy. In March 1918 Chipper was transferred to the 5th 
Naval District where she remained until being returned 
to her owners on 24 March 1919. 


Chippewa 

A tribe of Indians living principally around Lake 
Superior. ■ Chippewa, Ontario, was the scene of a hard- 
fought battle won by the Americans 5 July 1814. 

I 

(Sch: t. 70; 1. 59'; b. 16'; dph. 7'; cpl. 15; a. 1 18-pdr., 
2 swivels.) 

The first Chippewa, a schooner, was captured from 
the British 10 September 1813 and fitted out for service 
in the U.S. Navy, Acting Midshipman Robert S. Tatem 
in command. She cruised on Lake Erie as a part of 
Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry’s Squadron. After 
sailing from Put-in-Bay in October with several Army 
officers and baggage on board, she was driven ashore by 
a violent squall at Black Rock, N.Y. She was burned by 
a British landing party 29 December 1813. 


Construction of a 74-gun ship-of-the-line named Chip- 
peiva began at the Navy Yard, Sacketts Harbor, N.Y., 
after the signing of a contract 15 December 1814, but 


the ship was never launched. Uncompleted, the ship 
was sold 1 November 1833. 

II 

(Brig: t. 410; dr. 16'6''; cpl. 90; a. 14 32-pdr. car., 
2 12-pdr.) 

The second Chippewa was built in 1815 at Warren, 
R.I., under the direction of Commodore Oliver H. Perry, 
and sent to New York to be outfitted and manned. 

Chippewa sailed from Boston, Mass., 3 July 1815, 
Lieutenant George C. Read in command, as a part of a 
squadron under the command of Commodore William 
Bainbridge. Before their arrival in the Mediterranean 
another squadron under the command of Commodore 
Stephen Decatur had succeeded in making peace with 
the Bey of Algiers. Bainbridge, after showing the flag 
in several ports in the Mediterranean, departed for 
home 6 October 1815. Upon her arrival at Boston, 
Chippewa was placed in ordinary. 

Sailing from Boston 27 November 1816 for the Gulf 
of Mexico to join the frigate Congress, Chippewa ran 
aground on an uncharted reef in the Bahama Islands 
and sank 12 December 1816 without loss of life. 

III 

(ScGbt: t. 507; 1. 158'; b. 28'; dph. 12'; s. 4 k.; a. 1 11" 
sb., 1 20-pdr. r., 2 24-pdr. sb.) 

The third Chippewa, a wooden screw steamer gunboat, 
was launched 14 September 1861 by Webb and Bell, 
New York; outfitted at New York Navy Yard; and 
commissioned 13 December 1861, Lieutenant Andrew 
Bryson in command. 

Sailing from New York 25 December 1861 Chippewa 
took station on the blockade between Fort Monroe, Va., 
and Hatteras Inlet, N.C., remaining there until 9 Au- 
gust 1862 except for a brief repair period at Baltimore, 
Md. 8-13 March. During this time she exchanged fire 
with the enemy at Forts Macon and Caswell and Federal 
Point Batteries, and assisted in the capture of a block- 
ade runner, the English brig Napier 29 July 1862. 
Chippewa arrived at the Washington Navy Yard, 10 
August 1862. 

Returning to Fort Monroe she departed from there 18 
October 1862 on a cruise in search of CSS Florida which 
took her to the Azores; Algeciras and Cadiz, Spain; 
Gibraltar; Funchal, Madeira; Porto Grande, Africa; 
Cape Verde Islands; and various ports in the West 
Indies. Returning to Port Royal, S.C., 30 May 1863, 
she resumed patrols with the South Atlantic Blockading 
Squadron off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia. 
She participated in the attacks on Fort Wagner, S.C., 
from 13 to 21 July 1863, and opened fire on enemy pick- 
ets up Broad River, S.C., on 12 November. After repairs 
at Philadelphia Navy Yard, she returned to North Caro- 
lina to take part in the bombardments and capture of 
Fort Fisher in December 1864 and January 1865 and 
Fort Anderson, Cape Fear River, N.C., in February 
1865. 

Chippewa departed Wilmington, N.C., 1 March 1865 
and steamed up the James River for patrol duty until 
15 May, engaging enemy batteries at Dutch Gap Canal 
on 1 and 2 April. 

After cruising to Havana, Cuba, between 17 May and 
12 June 1865, Chippeiva arrived at Boston 17 June 
where she was decommssioned 24 June 1865, taken to 
New York 29 June and sold there 30 November 1865. 

IV 

( AT-69 : dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

The fourth Chippewa (AT-69) was launched 25 July 
1942 by Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Charleston, S.C.; sponsored by Mrs. T. Horton; and 
commissioned 14 February 1943, Lieutenant (junior 
grade) A. V. Swarthout in command. 


Ill 


Chippewa crossed the Atlantic from Norfolk to Casa- 
blanca to lay buoys there between 4 May 1943 and 9 
June, returning to Boston 26 June. Two days later, she 
cleared for Norfolk and overhaul, and on 19 July began 
towing duty with a passage to Bermuda and Jackson- 
ville. Assigned to duty in the Caribbean Sea Frontier, 
she made Trinidad, British West Indies, her principal 
base until 6 May 1944, when she returned to Norfolk for 
repairs. On 15 May she was reclassified ATF-69. 

With repairs complete 11 June 1944, Chippewa re- 
turned to towing and salvage duty in the Caribbean out 
of Trinidad until 29 March 1945. After repairs at 
Norfolk, she was reassigned for duty based on Argentia, 
Newfoundland, between 19 May and 1 November. Dur- 
ing this time, she made a long towing voyage to Houston, 
Tex. Chippewa made her last towing passage from 
Boston to Bermuda to Norfolk, where she arrived 28 
December with SS War Bonnet in tow. In March 1946 
Chippewa sailed to Orange, Tex., where on 26 February 
19.47 she was decommissioned and placed in reserve. 

Chiquito 

An Indian word meaning “many hats.” 

Chiquito (YTB-499) was launched on 18 April 1945 
by the Luders Marine Construction Co., Stamford, 
Conn., and completed in August of that year. She was 
assigned to Service Force, Pacific Fleet, until August 
1947 when she was placed in reserve. She returned to 
active status in April 1951 and was attached to the 5th 
Naval District where she remains. 


Chiron 

A centaur of Greek mythology, known for his skill in 
medicine. 

( AGP-18 : dp. 2,179; 1. 328'; b. 50'; dr. 13'6''; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 119; a. 8 40 mm.; cl. Portunus) 

LST-1133 was reclassified AGP-18 and named Chiron 
on 14 August 1944; launched 10 March 1945 by Chicago 
Bridge and Iron Co., Seneca, 111.; sponsored by Mrs. 
T. S. Tillman; placed in partial commission 23 March 
1945; decommissioned 17 April 1945 for conversion at 
Maryland Drydock Co., Baltimore, Md.; and commis- 
sioned in full 18 September 1945, Lieutenant Commander 
P. L. Mangold, USNR, in command. 

Chiron sailed from Norfolk 1 November 1945 for 
Miami, arriving 4 November to service Motor Torpedo 
Squadron 42 until 8 December. On 14 December she 
sailed for New York where she was decommissioned 20 
February 1946, and sold 19 May 1947. 

Chittenden County, see LST-561 


Chittenden, John W ., see John W . Chittenden 


Chivo 

A fish inhabiting the Pacific Ocean between Panama 
and Mexico. 

( SS-341 : dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 k.; 
cpl. 66; a. 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Chivo (SS-341) was launched 14 January 1945 by 
Electric Boat Company, Groton, Conn.; sponsored by 
Mrs. R. E. Baldwin, wife of the governor of Connecti- 
cut; and commissioned 28 April 1945, Lieutenant Com- 
mander W. B. Crutcher, USNR, in command. 

Chivo departed New London 7 June 1945 for Key West 
where she trained and exercised briefly, before sailing 
on to Pearl Harbor. While the submarine was preparing 
for her first war patrol, hostilities ended; Chivo then 


remained at Pearl Harbor, operating locally with other 
ships of the Pacific Fleet. She returned to the States in 
October, basing on San Diego for local operations which 
continued until January 1946, when Chivo sailed for a 
tour of duty in the western Pacific. Returning to San 
Diego in May, the submarine exercised along the west 
coast for the next 15 months. In August 1947 Chivo 
began a simulated war partol which took her to Suva, 
Fiji Islands; Guam, and Japan, before she arrived back 
at San Diego in November. West coast duty continued 
for her until mid-1949 when she was transferred to the 
Atlantic Fleet, arriving at her new home port of Key 
West on 4 July 1949. The submarine continued to train 
and provide services for other ships in intertype exer- 
cises until 30 October 1950 when she arrived at New 
London to begin an extensive overhaul and modern- 
ization. 

With increased power and a new streamlined shape, 
Chivo returned to duty with the Atlantic Fleet in July 
1951. Since that time, based on Key West and Charles- 
ton (1959), she has participated in exercises and tests 
off the east coast, through 1963. Interspersed among her 
regular operations have been a tour of duty with the 6th 
Fleet in the Mediterranean (1952), and visits to the 
Pacific Coast of Colombia (1953), Quebec City, Canada 
(1959), and South Africa (1960). 

Chiwaukum 

A river in Washington State. 

( AOG-26: dp. 845; 1. 220'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13'1"; s. 10 k.; 
cpl. 62; a. 1 3"; cl. Mettawee) 

Chiwaukum (AOG-26) was launched 4 May 1944 by 
East Coast Shipyards, Inc., Bayonne, N.J., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. A. H. 
Moore; acquired by the Navy and commissioned 25 July 
1944, Lieutenant C. S. Hoag, USCGR, in command. 

Clearing Norfolk 23 September 1944, Chiwaukum 
sailed to load oil at Aruba, Netherlands West Indies, 
and reached Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 25 Novem- 
ber. She stood out of Espiritu Santo 2 December for the 
New Guinea area where she operated as a gasoline 
tanker until 18 January 1945 when she reported for 
similar duty in the Philippines. Departing Samar, P.I., 
12 December 1945, Chiwaukum arrived at San Fran- 
cisco 9 February. She remained there until 17 April 
when she put out for Norfolk, arriving 16 May. Chi- 
waukum was decommissioned 31 May 1946 and trans- 
ferred to Turkey 10 May 1948. 

Chiwawa 

A river in Washington State. 

(AO-68: dp. 5.782; 1. 501'8"; b. 68'; dr. 30'8"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 214; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Chiwawa) 

Chiwawa (AO-68) was launched 25 June 1942 by 
Bethlehem Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md., under a 
Maritime Commission contract as Samoset; sponsored 
by Mrs. H. G. Smith; acquired by the Navy 24 December 
1942; commissioned the same day, Commander H. Fultz 
in command ; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Chiwawa cleared Norfolk 13 February 1943 to load 
oil at Aruba, and returned to New York 25 February to 
join a convoy for Casablanca, Morocco, which sailed 4 
March. Attacked by a wolf-pack east of the Azores, the 
convoy lost four ships, but aircraft from Port Lyautey, 
Morocco, drove the U-boats away, and the remainder of 
the convoy arrived safely 21 March. Chiwawa put out of 
Casablanca in convoy 11 April for Norfolk, arriving 28 
April after a quiet passage. Between 4 May and 17 
July she ferried oil on the east coast, loading at Aruba, 
Netherlands West Indies, and Port Arthur, Tex., and 
discharging her cargo at Bermuda, Argentia, Newfound- 
land and Norfolk. She made three convoy crossings, to 


112 


Scotland, Wales, and Casablanca, between 17 July and 
4 December, then resumed operations to Port Arthur 
and Aruba, except for the period 25 January-8 March 
1944, when she again crossed to North Africa. 

After two convoy crossings to the British Isles in 
May and July 1944, Chiwawa sailed 14 July from Nor- 
folk for Mers el Kebir, Algeria, and Naples, Italy, ar- 
riving 5 August. From Naples, Chiwawa fueled the 
ships carrying out the invasion of southern France 
until she retired to Oran, Algeria, on 2 September. She 
returned to New York 14 September to resume coastal 
oil runs until her next convoy to Casablanca in 
November. 

A series of runs between Aruba and New York, then 
to Guantanamo Bay and Bermuda, and later to Argentia 
occupied Chiwawa until 31 May 1945, when she entered 
Norfolk Navy Yard for overhaul until 1 July. She 
cleared Norfolk to load oil at Baytown, Tex., and on 1 
August reached Pearl Harbor. Five days later she 
sailed for Ulithi and Okinawa, where from 30 August 
to 29 November she served as station tanker, making 
one voyage in September to fuel the 7th Fleet at sea. 
Homeward bound, Chiwawa put in to San Francisco 
and Balboa, arriving at New York 7 January 1946. 

She sailed 19 January 1946 from Melville, R.I., for 
ports in England, Germany, and France, called at Casco 
Bay and Argentia, and put back to Iceland before her 
arrival in New York 18 March. Chiwawa was decom- 
missioned 6 May 1946 and transferred to the Maritime 
Commission 23 August 1946. 

Chhvawa received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Chloris 

In Greek mythology, the personification of green 
vegetation. 

(ARVE-4: dp. 2,110; 1. 328'; b. 50'; dr. 14'4"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 245; a. 8 40mm.; cl. Aventinus) 

LST-1094. was reclassified ARVE-4, 8 December 1944; 
named 17 January 1945; launched 21 April 1945 by 
American Bridge Co., Ambridge, Pa.; sponsored by 
Mrs. E. W. Clexton; and commissioned 19 June 1945, 
Lieutenant W. B. Coley, USNR, in command. 

Chloris put out from Galveston 31 July 1945, made a 
lengthy call at San Diego and reached Pearl Harbor 16 
September. She sailed from Pearl Harbor 26 September 
to visit Norfolk, before sailing on to arrive at Green 
Cove Springs, Fla., 3 November. Chloris was placed out 
of commission in reserve 18 June 1946. 

Recommissioned 5 January 1951, Chloris began to 
alternate 6th Fleet cruises in the Mediterranean with 
local operations and training off Norfolk and in Florida 
waters. Providing specialized aircraft engine repair 
service, she cruised in the Mediterranean 3 October 
1951 to Iff March 1952; 4 August 1952 to 7 March 1953; 
and 17 August 1953 to 23 March 1955. During this last 
extended tour, she was homeported at Naples, Italy. On 
21 June 1955 she reported to Green Cove Springs for 
inactivation. Chloris was again placed out of commis- 
sion in reserve 9 December 1955. 

Choctaw 

An Indian tribe, formerly of Alabama and Mississippi, 
now resident in Oklahoma. 

I 

(IrcRam: t. 1,004; dr. 8'; s. 2 k.) 

The first Choctaw, a side wheel steamer, was built for 
the merchant service at New Albany, Ind., in 1853. She 
was purchased by the Army in 1862 and converted into 
an ironclad ram; transferred to the Navy; and commis- 
sioned at St. Louis, Mo., 23 March 1863, Lieutenant 
Commander F. M. Ramsay in command. 


From 23 April 1863 until the end of the war Choctaw 
operated in the Mississippi River and its tributaries. 
Between 29 April and 1 May 1863, she stood up the 
Yazoo for a feigned attack on Haynes’ Bluff designed to 
prevent the Confederates from reinforcing Grand Gulf. 
During this action she was struck 53 times. Remaining 
in the Yazoo, she took part in attacks with the Army 
which led to the destruction of Confederate works at 
Haynes’ Bluff and the burning of the navy yard and 
ships lying there at Yazoo City between 18 and 23 May. 
On 6 and 7 June, she joined in repelling a Confederate 
attack at Millkin’s Bend, La., after which she rescued a 
large number of Confederates from the river and sent 
them in as prisoners. Between 7 March and 15 May 1864 
she took part in the operations leading to the capture 
of Fort DeRussy. 

Choctaw arrived at Algiers, La., 20 July 1865, and 
was placed out of commission 2 days later. She was 
sold at New Orleans, La., 28 March 1866. 

II 

(YT-26: t. 152; 1. 91'5"; b. 21'; dr. 10'; s. 10 k.; a. 1 
3-pdr., 1 1-pdr.) 

The second Choctaw (YT-26) was built in 1892 by 
Neafie and Levy, Philadelphia, Pa., as C. G. Coyle; pur- 
chased 19 April 1898; and commissioned the same day, 
Lieutenant (junior grade) W. O. Hulme in command. 

Attached to the Auxiliary Naval Force for patrol 
duty in the Spanish-American War, Choctaw arrived 
at Pensacola, Fla., 11 June 1898. She cruised in the 
Gulf of Mexico until she was placed out of commission 
at Pensacola Navy Yard 26 August 1898. 

Recommissioned 15 June 1899 she sailed for Ports- 
mouth, N.H., with Monongahela in tow, then was sta- 
tioned at Newport, R.I., as yard tug. While undergoing 
repairs at Norfolk Navy Yard she was placed out of 
commission 15 July 1902. Upon her recommissioning in 
1904 she was assigned to Washington Navy Yard for 
duty as a yard craft. She was renamed Wicomico 20 
February 1918. Transferred to Norfolk Navy Yard 21 
April 1921, she remained there on yard duty until sunk 
in a collision with Goff at Hampton Roads 15 February 
1940. She was stricken from the Navy List 27 Febru- 
ary, and sold for salvage and scrapping 10 August 1940. 

III 

(AK: dp. 3,800; 1. 261'; b. 43'6"; dr. 17'9"; s. 9 k.; 
cpl. 63; a 1 4", 1 3") 

The third Choctaw (No. 1648) was launched in 1917 
for the Shipping Board by American Shipbuilding Co., 
Chicago, 111.: transferred to the Navy 19 February 1918 
under bare-boat charter; and commissioned 4 March 
1918 at Hoboken, N.J., Lieutenant Commander E. F. 
Mitchell, USNRF, in command. 

Choctaw was assigned to the Naval Overseas Trans- 
portation Service and between 16 March and 22 Decem- 
ber 1918 made four transatlantic voyages, carrying 
mine cargo and general supplies to the Azores, Scotland, 
and France. On her last voyage she aided the distressed 
Danish SS Asgard 19 December 1918 and towed her to 
Norfolk, arriving 22 December. 

Decommissioned at Norfolk 16 January 1919, Choctaw 
was returned to the Shipping Board and delivered to her 
owners at New York the following day. 

IV 

The fourth Choctaw (YT-114), ex-Sampson, was ac- 
quired from the USSB on 22 June 1926, and placed in 
service the following day. She performed towing and 
miscellaneous services in the 5th Naval District until 1 
June 1933 when she arrived at Philadelphia. She was 
placed out of service there on 15 July 1933 and sold on 
25 January 1937. 


113 


V 

(AT-70: dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3'; cl. Cherokee) 

The fifth Choctaw (AT-70) was launched 18 October 
1942 by Charleston Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., 
Charleston, S.C.; sponsored by Mrs. L. Cordell; com- 
missioned 21 April 1943, Lieutenant J. D. Garland in 
command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

From 17 June 1943 to 8 May 1944, Choctaw served at 
Bermuda, where she aided assembling convoys and new 
ships undergoing training with tug and target-towing 
services. Putting to sea 8 May, she was reclassified 
ATF-70 15 May, and reached Oran 19 May to take 
Holder (DE-401) in tow for New York City, where she 
delivered her tow 9 June. She returned to her duties at 
Bermuda until 22 July, when she sailed for ports in 
Wales to take two LSTs in tow for New York, arriving 
30 September. 

After overhaul at Norfolk, Choctaw sailed for tug 
duty at St. John’s and Argentia, Newfoundland, between 
20 November 1944 and 8 December, when she sailed to 
rendezvous with Huron (PF-19). She took the collision- 
damaged ship in tow for Bermuda and Charleston, and 
returned to Newfoundland for service between 3 Janu- 
ary 1945 and 14 March. She then operated off the east 
coast and in the Caribbean on salvage duty and in 
towing targets until 15 October 1946, when she arrived 
at Orange, Tex. There she was placed in commission in 
reserve 1 February 1947, and out of commission in 
reserve 11 March 1947. 


Chocura 

Variant spelling for Mount Chocorua, New Hamp- 
shire. 

I 

(ScGbt: t. 507; 1. 158'; b.*28'; dph. 12'; dr. 10'5"; s. 6 k.; 
a. 1 11" sb., 2 24-pdr. sb., 1 20-pdr.) 

The first Chocura, a screw steam gunboat, was 
launched 5 October 1861 by Curtis and Tilden, Boston, 
Mass., and commissioned 15 February 1862, Commander 
T. H. Patterson in command. 

Departing Boston 17 March 1862 Chocura was forced 
to put into Baltimore for repairs and did not arrive at 
Fort Monroe, Va., until 6 April. She was then assigned 
the blockade of Yorktown and patrol up the York River 
until 9 November 1862 when she joined the North 
Atlantic Blockading Squadron for service off Wilming- 
ton, N.C. Cruising there until 15 August 1863, she 
captured two prizes, and assisted Maratanza in taking 
another. 

After repairs at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Chocura 
sailed to New Orleans, La., arriving 30 November 1863. 
Here she joined the West Gulf Blockading Squadron 
for patrols in the Gulf of Mexico, taking six prizes and 
assisting in capturing two others, and cutting out and 
destroying a three-masted schooner late in January 

1865. 

After the war and repairs at Pensacola Navy Yard, 
Chocura resumed her cruising in the Gulf of Mexico as 
a part of the newly activated Gulf Squadron 17 October 

1866. She arrived at New York 30 May 1867, was 
decommissioned there 7 June 1867, and sold 13 July 

1867. 

II 

PC-1124, (q.v.) was renamed Chocura (IX-206) 20 
February 1945. 


Chohonaga 

A Navajo Indian word meaning “It is warm.” 

Chohonaga (YTB-500) has served in a noncommis- 
sioned status in the 5th Naval District from October 
1945 through 1962. 


Cholocco 

An Indian village in Alabama. 

Cholocco (YTB-498) served in a noncommissioned 
status from July 1945 to May 1947. After a period in 
reserve, she was placed back in service in November 
1950, and continues active through 1962 with the 17th 
Naval District. 


Chopper 

A fish common in the rivers of the Mississippi Valley. 

(SS-342 : dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 66; a. 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Chopper (SS-342) was launched 4 February 1945 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
G. S. Beebe; and commissioned 25 May 1945, Lieutenant 
Commander S. Filipone in command. 

Chopper sailed from New London 4 July 1945 for 
Pearl Harbor, where she lay from 21 September until 
24 October. On 30 October she arrived at San Diego, 
her assigned home port. She sailed 2 January 1946 for 
the Philippines, where she trained and offered local 
services until 11 May when she returned to San Diego 
and began local operations. Her next deployment, a 
simulated war patrol to China, took place from 28 July 
1947 to 9 November. After west coast operations 
through 1948 she departed San Diego 14 March 1949 
for her new home port, Key West, arriving 4 April. 
Operations in Florida waters and the Caribbean were 
conducted until 15 September 1950, when she entered 
the Electric Boat Co. yards for modernization. She re- 
turned to Key West for fleet exercises and training 23 
May 1951. 

Chopper departed Key West 7 January 1952 for a 
tour of duty in the Mediterranean until 20 May. She 
resumed local operations, then joined in North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization operations in the Atlantic between 
12 September and 14 October 1952. Frequent trips to 
Guantanamo, and local operations continued until 25 
May 1959 when she sailed to join in special exercises in 
the Mediterranean until returning to Key West 9 
August. Through 1960, she continued operations off 
Florida and in the Caribbean, often acting as target for 
surface ships in training. 

Choptank 

An Indian tribe from the Choptank River area in 
Maryland. 

( YT-36: dp. 290; 1. 108'; b. 24'6"; dr. 9'; s. 14 k.; cpl. 

38; a. 1 3") 

Choptank (No. 1161), the civilian tug Francis B. 
Hackett, was purchased by the Navy in December 1917, 
and placed in commission under her original name on 
1 April 1918, Lieutenant (junior grade) Thomas F. 
Webb, USNRF, in command. She was reclassified 
YT-36 on 17 July 1920; renamed Shenandoah (YT-36) 
20 November 1920 and Choptank on 15 October 1923. 

She was assigned to Squadron One, Submarine Chas- 
ers, Atlantic Fleet, performing towing duties and trans- 
porting personnel in the New York area until May 1918 
when she proceeded to Norfolk and began guard duty. 
In December she was assigned to Train, Atlantic Fleet 


114 


and following decommissioning was placed in service on 
13 April 1919 as a district craft in the 5th Naval 
District. 

On 28 October 1920 she was ordered to the Washing- 
ton Navy Yard where she performed general yard serv- 
ice until 1944. In 1944-45 she operated under Inspector 
of Ordnance in Charge, NTS, Alexandria, Va. 

On 13 April 1944 she was reclassified YTM-36. Chop- 
tank was placed out of service on 28 June 1946 and 
stricken from the Navy List on 30 December 1946. 

Chotank 

Probably a variant spelling of Choptank. 

(Sch: t. 53; 1. 56'; b. 17'; dph. 6'; a. 2 9" sb., 1 11") 

The privateer Savannah was captured 3 June 1861 by 
Perry. She was purchased from the New York Prize 
Court 2 July 1861 by the Navy and her name changed to 
Chotank. 

Chotank operated as a part of the Potomac Flotilla 
during the year 1862, then was laid up at New York 
Navy Yard until sold 15 August 1865. 

Chotauk 

Erroneously named as second ship of Chotank lineage. 

(IX-188: dp. 18,925 (f.); 1 .485'; b. 62'8"; dr. 28'; s. 10 
k.; a. 1 4", 1 3") 

Chotauk (IX-188) was built in 1920 by Bethlehem 
Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass., as Japan Arrow 
(later renamed American Arrow); transferred from 
the War Shipping Administration at Pearl Harbor 29 
November 1944; and commissioned the same day, Lieu- 
tenant Commander W. D. Baker, USNR, in command. 

Chotauk served as a station tanker with the Pacific 
Fleet at Eniwetok (3 January-14 February 1945), 
Ulithi (23 February-10 July), and Okinawa (17 July- 
29 October). She returned to Mobile, Ala., on 5 January 
1946. Chotauk was decommissioned there and returned 
to the War Shipping Administration 7 February 1946. 

Chourre 

Bom 28 August 1894 in San Francisco, Calif., Emile 
Chourre enrolled in the Naval Reserve 14 December 
1917, was given the provisional rank of ensign in the 
Reserve Flying Corps 6 November 1918, and confirmed 
as ensign 23 September 1920. After various duty as- 
signments in the pioneer field of naval aviation, he 
became one of the Navy’s most distinguished leaders in 
aviation. Lieutenant Commander Chourre was killed in 
a plane crash at Scott Field, 111., 26 January 1938. 

( ARV-1 : dp. 4,023; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 22'; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 578; a. 1 5"; cl. Chourre) 

Dumaran (ARG-14) was renamed and reclassified 
Chourre (ARV-1) 22 February 1944; launched 22 May 
1944 by Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard, Inc., Baltimore, 
Md., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored 
by Mrs. E. A. Forde, Jr., and commissioned 7 December 
1944, Captain A. H. Bergeson in command. 

Sailing from Norfolk 2 March 1945 Chourre arrived 
at Pearl Harbor 12 April to embark aviation personnel 
for Espiritu Santo, where she arrived 29 April. She 
transferred an aviation repair unit to Saipan, then 
sailed to San Pedro Bay, Leyte, for duty as station 
supply ship replenishing carriers from 26 May to 17 
July. Except for one trip to Guam to replenish stores 
(17 July-7 August) she remained at San Pedro Bay 
until 24 October when she sailed for Tokyo Bay to 
serve ships taking part in the occupation. On 1 January 
1946 Chourre sailed from Yokosuka for San Francisco, 
arriving 4 May. She was placed out of commission 28 
November 1948 at Stockton, Calif. 

Recommissioned 21 February 1952 during the Korean 


war, Chourre cleared San Francisco 1 September for 
the western Pacific. She operated out of Japan supply- 
ing ships off Korea until 28 February 1953, returning to 
San Francisco 26 March. Local operations off San 
Diego were followed by another tour in the Far East 
between 17 August 1953 and 11 April 1954. After her 
third tour to the western Pacific from 30 August 1954 
to 1 March 1955, Chourre returned to San Diego where 
she remained until placed out of commission in reserve 
again 13 September 1955. 

Chourre received 3 battle stars for service in the 
Korean war. 

Chowanoc 

An Indian tribe of North Carolina. 

(AT-100: dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

Chowanoc (AT-100) was launched 20 August 1943 by 
Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Charleston, 
S.C.; sponsored by Mrs. H. Hezlip; and commissioned 
21 February 1944, Lieutenant R. F. Snipes in command. 

Clearing Norfolk 4 April 1944 Chowanoc (reclassified 
ATF-100 15 May) arrived at Pearl Harbor 17 May for 
tug duty until 12 June. She arrived at Kwajalein 25 
June to operate in the Marshall Islands on towing and 
salvage duty until 3 August when she began her partici- 
pation in the Marianas operation, with towing duty 
from Eniwetok to Guam and Saipan. 

Chowanoc steamed from Manus 14 October 1944 to 
operate as a salvage tug during the invasion of Leyte 
from 20 to 24 October. Continuing her essential service 
during the epic Battle for Leyte Gulf, she came under 
heavy air attack and aided in downing several aircraft. 
She served in Leyte Gulf until 22 November, then pre- 
pared for the invasion of Lingayen Gulf on 9 and 10 
January 1945. Chowanoc towed Kitkun Bay (CVE-71) 
after she was damaged 8 January until the escort car- 
rier could regain power the next day. Chowanoc served 
as salvage tug at Lingayen Gulf until 26 February 
when she steamed to Ulithi for overhaul. Returning to 
San Pedro Bay 24 May, she served there until early 
July, when she joined the service group supporting the 
mighty 3d Fleet in its final operations against Japan. 

Chowanoc served the Fleet at Guam, Okinawa, and in 
the Marshall Islands until she returned to Pearl Harbor 
27 February 1946. Here she joined JTF 1 for the atomic 
weapons tests called Operation “Crossroads,” during 
which she operated between Bikini and Kwajalein. From 
1947 into 1950, Chowanoc gave service in the Hawaiian 
Islands, at San Francisco and San Diego, and for ex- 
tended periods at Samoa, Guam, Saipan, Eniwetok, and 
Kwajalein. Between December 1950 and April 1952, 
she offered tug and salvage services in Alaskan waters, 
then returned to local operations at San Diego. 

The tug sailed from Long Beach 28 March 1953 to 
operate as harbor tug at Yokosuka, Japan, where the 
harbor was thronged with the ships waging the Korean 
war. She returned to San Diego 29 October. A second 
Far Eastern tour in 1954 and 1955 was followed by 
operations along the west coast, in Alaskan waters, and 
short towing voyages to Pearl Harbor until March 
1959 when she sailed for 5 months duty in Japan. In 
May 1960, Chowanoc sailed once more for tour of duty 
in Alaskan waters. Upon her return to San Diego, 29 
August, the tug resumed operations along the west coast 
for the remainder of 1960. 

Chowanoc received four battle stars for World War II 
service; and one for the Korean war. 

Christabel 

Former name retained. 

(PY: t. 248; 1. 164'; b. 22'; dr. 9'8"; s. 12 k.; cpl. 55; 
a. 2 3") 


115 


Christabel (No. 162), an iron yacht, was built in 1893 
by D. and W. Henderson, Glasgow, Scotland; purchased 
by the Navy 30 April 1917 from Irving T. Bush; com- 
missioned at New York Navy Yard 31 May 1917, Lieu- 
tenant H. B. Riebe in command; and assigned to U.S. 
Patrol Squadrons Operating in European Waters. 

Clearing New York 9 June 1917 Christabel put in at 
Brest, France, 4 July. Throughout the war she had 
escort and patrol duty off the coast of France. She 
returned to the United States in December 1918 and 
served with the reserve antisubmarine squadrons in 
training operations at New London, Conn., until 19 
May 1919 when she was placed out of commission at the 
Marine Basin, Brooklyn, N.Y. She was sold 30 June 
1919. 


Christiana 

Former name retained. 

(IX-80 : dp. 500; 1. 145'6"; b. 24'3"; dr. 12'7") 

Christiana (IX-80) was built by Johnson Foundry, 
New York, N.Y., in 1892; served in World War I as 
Azalea, former Lighthouse Service tender; taken over by 
the Navy in August 1942; and commissioned on 9 No- 
vember 1942, Lieutenant (junior grade) A. J. De Fran- 
cis, USNR, in command. She was reclassified YAG-32 
on 20 November 1943. 

Christiana served as a seaplane tender in the British 
West Indies, providing vital services to the aircraft 
flying patrols in the Caribbean. She moved from base 
to base as the focus of antisubmarine activity shifted 
throughout the area. Christiana was decommissioned at 
Miami, Fla., on 28 July 1945, and transferred to the 
Maritime Commission on 25 February 1946. 


Christine 

Former name retained. 

I 

The first Christine (YT-106), a harbor tug, was as- 
signed to the Naval Station, Cavite, P.I., and the 16th 
Naval District from 1902 to 1935. She performed the 
regular duties of a yard tug. The vessel was stricken 
from the Naval List on 8 March 1935 and sold. 

II 

The second Christine (No. 2058), a barge, served in 
the 1st and 2d Naval Districts during World War I. 

Christopher 

Born in Dwight, 111., 6 November 1919, Harold Jensen 
Christopher was commissioned ensign in the Naval Re- 
serve 28 May 1941, and after training at the Naval Air 
Station, San Pedro, Calif., reported for duty in Nevada 
(BB-36) 5 August 1941. During the Japanese attack 
on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941, Christopher realized 
his services were not needed at his regular station, and 
upon his own initiative he joined the crew of the 5" 
broadside battery, effectively controlling his part of the 
battery until killed. He was posthumously awarded the 
Navy Cross. 

(DE-100: dp. 1,240; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 8'9"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21” tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct. ; cl. 

Buckley) 

Christopher (DE-100) was launched 19 June 1943 
by Dravo Corp., Wilmington, Del.; sponsored by Mrs. 
Carl Christopher, mother of Ensign Christopher. DE- 


100 commissioned 23 October 1943, Lt. A. W. P. Trench 
in command. Christopher was decommissioned at Natal 
19 December 1944, and loaned to Brazil under lend-lease. 
She was renamed Benevente in Brazilian service. On 
30 June 1953, when the loan ended, she was stricken from 
the U.S. Navy List and transferred to Brazil under the 
Mutual Assistance Program. 

Chub 

A game fish of the Atlantic and Mediterranean. The 
name is also given locally to a wide variety of American 
fishes. 

I 

(SS-329: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3”; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 66; a. 1 5”, 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

SS-329, originally named Bonaci, was renamed Chub 
on 24 September 1942 and launched 18 June 1944 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
T. A. Risch; and commissioned 21 October 1944, Com- 
mander C. D. Rhymes, Jr., in command. 

Chub reached Pearl Harbor from New London 24 
January 1945, and after final training, put to sea for 
action waters 13 February. Her first war patrol, in 
Tonkin Gulf and the Java and South China Seas, found 
her skill and determination tried in four hairbreadth 
escapes from destruction. On 3 March, she was attacked 
by an enemy submarine whose torpedoes she evaded. On 
29 March, she began a long surface chase after an 
escort group, which she carried through the next day, 
even though forced six times to go deep by enemy 
aircraft. On their last pass, they dropped bombs, a clear 
indication that Chub’s chase must be broken off. 

The next day she was off Yulikan Bay, and while 
American and Japanese planes fought in the skies 
above, Chub rescued three downed pilots as they and 
she were strafed. With two Japanese patrol craft 
looming out of the harbor, Chub raced away. On 12 
April, Chub was bombed by an enemy patrol plane as 
the submarine dove. Bomb damage caused a temporary 
loss of power, and with depth control lost, Chub 
broached. Fortunately, the aircraft had apparently 
dropped its entire load on the first run. 

Chub put in to Fremantle to repair and refit from 18 
April 1945 to 14 May, and then sailed for the Java Sea 
and her second war patrol. During this patrol, she 
attacked two freighters, and sank the minesweeper 
W-3U which had come out hunting for her. The damage 
already done to Japanese shipping made targets few by 
this time, and Chub put in to Subic Bay from 21 June to 
15 July to refit. Her third war patrol found her again 
in the Java Sea, sinking a number of small craft, al- 
though again and again attacked by the remnant of 
Japanese air strength. Returning to Fremantle 17 Au- 
gust, she sailed on to Subic Bay for training through 
the remainder of 1945, then returned to the west coast. 

During 1946, Chub operated from Pearl Harbor, her 
new home port, visiting the west coast for necessary 
overhaul. Between 12 November 1946 and 14 February 
1947, she served in the Far East, making a simulated 
war patrol, and training with the 7th Fleet. During 
late 1947, she joined in a training cruise in Alaskan 
waters, and voyaged from Seattle to San Francisco with 
reservists on board for training. After overhaul at San 
Francisco she put to sea 4 March 1948 to call at New 
London, then crossed the Atlantic and Mediterranean to 
Izmir, Turkey, arriving 11 May. She was decommis- 
sioned 23 May 1948, and transferred to Turkey 2 days 
later. She is known in the Turkish Navy as Gur. 

Chub received three battle stars for World War II 
service by reason of her three “successful” war patrols. 


116 


She is credited with having sunk a total of 4,200 tons 
of shipping. 

Chub, see Growler II 


Chukawan 

A river in Alaska. 

(AO-100: dp. 7,470; 1. 553'; b. 45'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 304; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

Chuckawan (AO-100) was launched 28 August 1945 
by Bethlehem Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md. ; sponsored 
by Miss M. McCrea; commissioned 22 January 1946, 
Commander G. H. Burrows, USNR, in command; and 
reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

From the time of her commissioning through 1963, 
Chukawan has helped give the U.S. Fleet its unique 
mobility. From her home port at Norfolk, Va., she has 
repeatedly sailed to fuel ships operating in exercises 
along the coast, to transport oil products overseas and 
to carry oil from producing regions. Among her most 
important duties have been her cruises with the formid- 
able 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. These deployments 
occurred in 1947, 1950, 1951-52, 1954, 1955-56, 1957, 
1958, and 1960, and were occasions for visits to a variety 
of Mediterranean ports, as well as participation in the 
operations by which the 6th Fleet has repeatedly 
checked Communist moves in this ancient center of 
civilization. 

Two of these were of special international signifi- 
cance. The first came in November 1956, upon the 
outbreak of the Suez crisis, when she sailed from Nor- 
folk on short notice with a carrier task force assigned to 
stand by in the eastern Atlantic should American 
strength in the Mediterranean need enhancement. Her 
second dramatic incident occurred through her service to 
6th Fleet ships during the Lebanon crisis of summer, 
1958, when such support as hers made possible the land- 
ing of Marines on the shortest possible notice in an 
operation which kept the peace in the Near East at a 
most explosive moment in history. 


Chukor 

A partridge of southern Asia. 

Chukor (AM-355) was canceled on 1 November 
1945 during construction. 

I 

The name Chukor was assigned erroneously to AMS- 
70 which was building for the Military Defense Assist- 
ance Program. The name was canceled on 9 June 1953. 


Churchill County, see LST-583 


Cigarette 

Former name retained. 

(PY: 1. 125'4"; b. 14'8"; dr. 4'3"; s. 22 k.; cpl. 21; 
a. 1 1-pdr) 

Cigarette (No. 1234) was purchased by the Navy 17 
September 1917 ; and commissioned 19 September 1917, 
Chief Boatswain J. A. Conway in command. 

Assigned to the 1st Naval District, Cigarette per- 
formed patrol duty off Boston and Provincetown, Mass., 
at Bar Harbor, Maine, and at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 
She was decommissioned in July 1919 and sold 29 
October 1920. 


Cimarron 

A river in Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, and 
towns in Colorado, Kansas, and New Mexico. 

I 

(SwGbt: t. 860; 1. 205'; b. 35'; dr. 9'.; s. 10 k.; a. 1 
100-pdr. r., 1 9" sb., 6 24-pdr. sb. how.) 

The first Cimarron (officially changed from the origi- 
nal spelling Cimerone) a sidewheel double-ended steam 
gunboat, was launched 16 March 1862 by D. S. Merschon, 
Bordentown, N.J.; outfitted at Philadelphia Navy Yard; 
and commissioned 5 July 1862, Commander Maxwell 
Woodhull in command. 

Sailing from Philadelphia Navy Yard 11 July 1862, 
Cimarron arrived at Fortress Monroe, Va., 8 July. Be- 
tween 11 July and 4 September 1862 she sailed in the 
James River in active support of Army operations. 
During this time she engaged Confederate troops at 
Harrison’s Landing (28 July) and exchanged fire with 
Fort Powhatan (31 July) and Swan Point Battery 
(4 August). 

Cimarron cleared Fortress Monroe, Va., 7 September 
1862 to join the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron at 
Port Royal, S.C., 13 September. She was constantly 
employed in the coastal and inland waters of South 
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, participating in the 
engagement with Confederate batteries up the St. John’s 
River, Fla. (17 September 1862), and returning early 
in October to support army operations there. 

After repairs at Philadelphia from January to April 
1863, Cimarron continued blockade duty until 3 August 
1865. During this time she captured three prizes, and 
fired on Confederate troops ashore on two occasions (23 
June and 8 July 1863). She also joined in the attacks 
on Fort Wagner in Charleston Harbor, S.C. (17, 20 and 
21 August 1863). During January and February 1864 
Cimarron operated in the Stono River, S.C. 

Cimarron arrived at Philadelphia Navy Yard 8 
August 1865; was decommissioned there 17 August 
1865; and sold 6 November 1865. 

II 

(AO-22: dp. 7,470; 1. 553'; b. 45'; dr. 32'4"; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 304; a. 1 5", 4 3"; cl. Cimarron) 

The second Cimarron (AO-22) was launched 7 Janu- 
ary 1939 by Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Chester, 
Pa.; sponsored by Mrs. W. D. Leahy; and commissioned 
20 March 1939, Lieutenant Commander W. W. Behrens 
in command. 

Cimarron cleared Houston 31 May 1939 for Pearl 
Harbor, arriving 21 July. She transported oil between 
west coast ports and Pearl Harbor, making 13 such 
voyages until she sailed for the east coast on 19 August 
1940. After repairs and alterations, she began oil runs 
on the east coast, principally between Baton Rouge and 
Norfolk, until August 1941, when she took part in 
amphibious operations. From 5 to 16 September she put 
to sea with a transport convoy bound for Iceland, and 
voyaged north again 12 October to 5 November to re- 
fuel ships at Placentia Bay. On 15 November, she 
joined a convoy at Trinidad bound with reinforcements 
for Singapore, but was detached from the convoy 9 
December at Capetown, South Africa. Returning to 
Trinidad 31 December, she operated from Brazilian 
ports to Iceland until 4 March 1942, when she cleared 
Norfolk for San Francisco. 

Cimarron reached San Francisco 1 April 1942 and 
sailed the next day with the task force bound for the 
first air raid on Tokyo 18 April. One of two oilers with 
the force, she fueled the Fleet at sea before and after the 
raid, and returned to Pearl Harbor 25 April. She sailed 
29 April, bound to join the force soon to join battle with 
the Japanese in the Coral Sea, but arrived after the 


117 



USS Cimarron (AO-22) 


battle concluded, fueled destroyers at Noumea, and re- 
turned to Pearl Harbor 26 May. She cleared Pearl 
Harbor 28 May to fuel the force which defeated the 
Japanese in the Battle of Midway and returned 12 June, 
departing 7 July to support the operation in the Solomon 
Islands. Using Noumea as her principal base, Cimarron 
occasionally reloaded at Suva and Efate. After repairs 
at San Francisco in November, she sailed for the for- 
ward area 18 December. She operated again out of 
Noumea supporting the final stages of the Guadalcanal 
action, then fueled out of Efate, carried cargo to Sydney, 
Australia, and returned to fueling at Dumbea Bay in 
support of the occupation of New Georgia. She re- 
turned to San Francisco (in July 1943), and then made 
two trips from the west coast to Pearl Harbor. 

Cimarron departed Pearl Harbor 29 September 1943 
with the force which raided Wake Island on 5 and 6 
October, and returned to Pearl Harbor 16 October. She 
sailed once again 14 November to fuel in support of the 
Gilbert Islands campaign, returning 1 December, and 
sailed to San Pedro to reload 12 December to 4 January 
1944. Clearing Pearl Harbor 13 January, she supported 
the Marshalls operation and the February attacks on 
Truk from Majuro until 6 June; the Marianas operation 
from Eniwetok until 26 August; and the Palau Islands 
operation from Ulithi. 

After a stateside overhaul from October through 
December 1944, Cimarron arrived at Ulithi 26 December 
1944. From 27 December to 21 January 1945 she sailed 
to fuel the task force launching air attacks on Indo- 
China and Philippine targets as part of the Luzon in- 
vasion, and put to sea once more from 8 February to 22 
March for air raids on the Japanese home islands and 
the invasion of Iwo Jima. From 26 March to 23 May 
she sailed from Ulithi to fuel ships engaging in the 
Okinawa operation, and from 3 June shuttled between 
Ulithi and the areas from which the mighty carrier task 
forces launched the final series of raids upon the heart- 
land of Japan. Ulithi remained her base as she sup- 
ported the occupation until 10 September, when she 
anchored in Tokyo Bay. Operations in the Far East 
continued until 4 February 1946, when she arrived at 
San Pedro, Calif., for overhaul. 

Between July 1946 and June 1950, Cimarron ferried 
oil from the Persian Gulf to naval bases in the Marianas 


and Marshalls, occasionally continuing on to the west 
coast. Her first tour of duty in the Korean war, from 
6 July 1950 to 3 June 1951, found her fueling ships of 
the Taiwan Patrol at Okinawa, amphibious ships at 
Kobe, and operating from Sasebo to the waters off 
Korea to fuel task forces. Several times she entered 
the heavily mined waters of Wonsan Harbor to fuel the 
ships carrying out the lengthy blockade and bombard- 
ment of that key port. 

Returning to the west coast, she gave service as a 
training tanker until her second Korean tour, from 1 
August to 10 December 1951. During this time she 
spent a month at Taiwan fueling the ships on duty in 
the Straits, and made three voyages to Korean waters 
from Sasebo. Overhaul and training on the west coast 
preceded her third Korean war deployment from 9 April 
to 5 January 1953, during which her duty was similar to 
that of her second. Her next tour of duty in the Far 
East was completed between 11 April and 27 November 
1953. 

Cimarron sailed to the Far East again between 14 
June 1954 and 8 February 1955, during which she served 
as flagship of the support group for Operation “Passage 
to Freedom,” the evacuation of refugees from Com- 
munist North Vietnam. Her pattern of operations 
from that time into 1963 has included support of the 
guardian 7th Fleet in its Far Eastern operations 
through deployments in 1955, 1956-57, 1957-58, 1958-59, 
1959, and 1960. As of 1963, she had the longest continu- 
ous commissioned service of any active ship in the 
United States Navy, belying her age as she continued to 
provide her essential support with skill and efficiency. 

Cimarron received 10 battle stars for World War II 
service, and four for the Korean war. 


Cimerone, see Cimarron 
Cinchona 

Various trees the dried bark of which produces 
quinine. 

(YN-7: dp. 560; 1. 163'2"; b. 30'6”; dr. 11'8"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 48; a. 1 3”; cl. Aloe) 


118 


Cinchona (YN-7) was launched 2 July 1941 by Com- 
mercial Iron Works, Portland, Oreg.; sponsored by 
Mrs. W. Casey; outfitted by Puget Sound Navy Yard; 
and placed in service 15 August 1941, Lieutenant H. H. 
Breed, USNR, in charge. 

Assigned to the 14th Naval District, she arrived at 
Pearl Harbor 17 October where she took up duty in net 
repair and replacement, salvage of gear lost or adrift, 
and maintenance of net and boom defenses. During the 
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941, 
Cinchona manned both her machine guns and her 3" 
gun, and as the enemy repeatedly strafed her deck, she 
closed the gaps in the net defenses protecting the dry- 
docks. Continuing her salvage operations in the Hawai- 
ian group, Cinchona salvaged YP-108 off Lanai in June 
1942, and in August escorted a motor torpedo boat con- 
voy to Midway, where she installed nets around the 
dock spaces, returning to Pearl Harbor early in Sep- 
tember. She was placed in commission 20 December 
1942, her officer-in-charge Lieutenant T. A. Ingham re- 
ceiving the title commanding officer. She continued local 
operations at Pearl Harbor, and on 20 January 1944 
was redesignated AN-12. 

Cinchona arrived off newly invaded Saipan 16 June 
1944. She conducted patrols, assisted LST-84 after an 
enemy bomb started a fire on board, then inspected the 
Japanese net line in Tanapag Harbor. She remained at 
Saipan on salvage and net operations until 18 November 
when she steamed to Guam and Ulithi to lay cables. 
From 7 December 1944 to 30 June 1945 Cinchona con- 
ducted net operations, laid moorings, and aided in in- 
stalling a pipeline at Guam. Returning to the States 
27 July, she conducted net operations at Long Beach 
and out of Mare Island Naval Shipyard until 24 August 
1946 when she sailed for Astoria, Oreg. Cinchona was 
placed out of commission in reserve 6 November 1946 
at Vancouver, Wash. 

Cinchona received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cincinnati 

A city in Ohio. 

I 

(StwGbt: t. 512; 1. 175'; b. 51'2"; dph. 6'; s. 4 k.; cpl. 
251; a. 6 32-pdr., 3 8” sb., 4 42-pdr. r., 1 12-pdr. how.; 
cl. Cairo) 

The first Cincinnati, a stern-wheel casemate gunboat, 
was built in 1861 under a War Department contract by 
James Eads, St. Louis, Mo., and commissioned at 
Mound City, 111., 16 January 1862, naval Lieutenant 
G. M. Bache in command. 

Assigned to duty with the Army in the Western Gun- 
boat Flotilla under naval Flag Officer A. H. Foote, 
Cincinnati participated in the attack and capture of 
Fort Henry (6 February 1862); the operations against 
Island No. 10 (12 March-7 April 1862); the engage- 
ment with the Confederate gunboat fleet at Plum Point 
Bend and the bombardment of Fort Pillow (10 May 
1862). This important series of operations was aimed 
at splitting the Confederacy. During the last engage- 
ment Cincinnati, the lead vessel, was repeatedly struck 
by enemy rams and sunk. 

Raised and returned to service, Cincinnati was trans- 
ferred to the Navy Department 1 October 1862 with 
other vessels of the Western Gunboat Flotilla. She 
participated in the Army-Navy operation against Port 
of Arkansas and installations on the White River in 
January 1863, then was ordered to the Yazoo River 
where she took part in Steele’s Bayou Expedition (14— 
27 March 1863). Joining the attack on the Vicksburg 
batteries (27 May 1863), Cincinnati came under heavy 
fire and was sunk for the second time, suffering 40 
casualties. 


Raised again in August 1863 Cincinnati returned to 
patrol duty on the Mississippi River and its tributaries 
until February 1865 when she was transferred to the 
West Gulf Blockading Squadron. She patrolled off 
Mobile Bay and in the Mississippi Sounds until placed 
out of commission 4 August 1865 at Algiers, La. She 
was sold at New Orleans 28 March 1866. 

II 

(C-7 : dp. 3,183; 1. 305'9"; b. 42'; dr. 18'; s. 19 k.; cpl. 

312; a. 1 6", 10 5", 8 6-pdr., 2 1-pdr., 4 18" tt.; cl. 

Cincinnati) 

The second Cincinnati (C-7) was launched 10 Novem- 
ber 1892 by New York Navy Yard; sponsored by Miss 
S. Mosby; and commissioned 16 June 1894, Captain 
H. E. Glass in command. 

Cincinnati’s first cruise, along the east coast, and 
then in the Caribbean, found her enforcing neutrality 
laws at Tampa and Key West during the Cuban Revolu- 
tion from September 1895 to January 1896. Between 
September 1896 and July 1897, she served in the eastern 
Mediterranean, returning to the South Atlantic Station 
in September 1897. In April 1898, opening month of the 
Spanish-American War, Cincinnati joined the blockade 
off Havana, Cuba, and bombarded Matanzas. The next 
month, she scouted throughout the West Indies searching 
for the Spanish fleet known to be approaching Cuba. 

At the close of May 1898, Cincinnati came north for 
repairs, returning to the Caribbean for occupation duty 
in August. She convoyed troops from Guantanamo Bay 
to Puerto Rico, patrolled off San Juan, made a recon- 
naissance of Culebra Island, and escorted the captured 
Spanish flagship Infanta Maria Teresa until the prize of 
war sank en route to Norfolk from Cuba. After joining 
in salvage operations at Santiago in November, she 
sailed north, and from 14 February 1899 to 2 December 
1901 \vas out of commission at New York Navy Yard 
for extensive repairs. 

Between May 1902 and January 1903, Cincinnati pro- 
tected American citizens and property in the Caribbean 
during political disturbances at Haiti, Santo Domingo, 
and Panama, and brought relief supplies to Martinique 
after the devastating eruption of Mount Pelee. From 
January through May 1903, the cruiser sailed in the 
Mediterranean, then passed through the Suez Canal for 
4 years of duty on the Asiatic Station, based in the 
Philippines. Target practice, maneuvers, and goodwill 
cruises took her to many ports in China, Japan, and the 
Pacific islands, and from time to time she patrolled off 
Korea. She returned to Mare Island Navy Yard 10 
September 1907, and there was decommissioned 12 
October 1907. 

Recommissioned in reserve 8 March 1911, Cincinnati 
was in full commission from 11 October 1911, and two 
months later returned to the Asiatic Station for a 6-year 
tour of duty similar to her earlier employment there. 
She returned to San Diego 16 December 1917, and while 
bound for the east coast, took part in humanitarian 
relief at San Jose, Guatemala, after severe earthquakes. 
She arrived in Hampton Roads 16 January 1918. 

As flagship of the American Patrol Detachment, 
Atlantic Fleet from 1 February 1918 to 28 March 1919, 
Cincinnati patrolled the Gulf of Mexico from Key West, 
protecting the movement of vital oil supplies. She was 
decommissioned at New Orleans 20 April 1919, and sold 
4 August 1921. 

III 

(CL-6: dp. 7,050; 1. 555'6"; b. 55'4"; dr. 13'6"; s. 34 k.; 
cpl. 458; a. 12 6", 4 3", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Omaha) 

The third Cincinnati was launched 23 May 1921 by 
Seattle Construction Drydock Co., Seattle, Wash.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. C- E. Tudor; completed by Todd Dry 
Dock and Construction Co., Tacoma, Wash.; and corn- 


119 


missioned 1 January 1924, Captain C. P. Nelson in 
command. 

After a shakedown cruise off South America, Cincin- 
nati joined the Scouting Fleet in June 1924, for opera- 
tions along the Atlantic coast and in the Caribbean. 
With this force, she joined in fleet maneuvers in the 
Pacific and off the Panama Canal Zone in spring 1925, 
then resumed Atlantic and Caribbean operations until 
early in 1927. 

On 17 February 1927, Cincinnati sailed from Balboa, 
C.Z., for duty in the Far East, based at Shanghai until 
October, then at Manila, and again at Shanghai from 
February 1928 to April. On the long cruise home to the 
east coast, she joined in exercises off Oahu and, carried 
men from Honolulu to Corinto, Nicaragua, returning to 
Newport, R.I., 25 July 1928, for operations on the east 
coast until 1932. 

Early in 1932, she joined the Battle Force, U.S. Fleet, 
in the Pacific, taking part in the Fleet’s cruise to the 
east coast between April and July 1934 for the Presi- 
dential Review of 31 May at New York. Returning to 
the west coast, she operated on summer training cruises 
for naval reservists from 1935 to 1938, then was re- 
assigned to Atlantic duty during 1939. 

Cincinnati was based at Pearl Harbor from April 
1940, voyaging to Guam and the Philippines on trans- 
port duty at the close of that year. In March 1941, she 
returned to the Atlantic, and joined in the ever-expand- 
ing patrol operations in the western Atlantic. Upon 
the outbreak of war, she continued patrols and convoy 
escort assignments in the western Atlantic and Carib- 
bean, blockading French men-of-war at Martinique, and 
searching for German blockade runners. With Mil- 
waukee (CL-5) and Somers (DD-381), Cincinnati dis- 
covered one of these, SS Annaliese Essberger, on 21 
November 1942. The German crew scuttled their ship, 
but a boarding party reached the ship in time to discover 
its identity and take all 62 crew members prisoners 
before the blockade runner sank. 

Overhauled at New York early in 1944, Cincinnati 
served as escort flagship for the crossing of three con- 
voys from New York to Belfast between March and 
July 1944, guarding the passage of men and equipment 
essential to the invasion of Europe. On 28 July, she 
sailed from Norfolk to patrol the Western Mediter- 
ranean during the time of the assault on Southern 
France, and returned to New York 9 September. After 
overhaul, she joined the 4th Fleet at Recife, Brazil, 17 
November, and patrolled South Atlantic shipping lanes 
until the close of the European phase of the war. 

In the summer of 1945, Cincinnati carried midshipmen 
on two training cruises, and on 29 September arrived at 
Philadelphia, where she was decommissioned 1 Novem- 
ber 1945 and scrapped 27 February 1946. 

Cincinnati received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Cinemaugh, see Conemaugh 

Cinnabar 

Former name retained. 

Cinnabar (IX-163), a concrete barge built in 1944, 
was acquired on a loan-charter basis from the War 
Shipping Administration and placed in service at San 
Francisco 26 September 1944. She was assigned to the 
Pacific Fleet, and in November 1944 departed the west 
coast in tow for Pearl Harbor. With Service Squadron 
8, and later Service Squadron 10, she issued general 
stores to advanced bases at Eniwetok, Espiritu Santo, 
Ulithi, Leyte, and was en route to Okinawa during the 
typhoon at sea 30 September to 2 October; on 9 October 
1945 she went aground at Baten Ko, Buckner Bay, 
Okinawa. She was stricken from the Navy Register 3 
January 1946, returned to her owner at Okinawa, and 
subsequently sold. 


Cinnamon 

A tree of the laurel family, which produces the well- 
known spice. 

( YN-69 : dp. 1,100; 1. 194'6"; b. 37'; dr. 14'8"; s. 12 k., 
cpl. 65; a. 1 3"; cl. Ailanthus) 

Cinnamon (YN-69) was launched 6 June 1943 as 
Royal Palm by Pollack- Stockton Shipbuilding Co., 
Stockton, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. E. R. Ward; re- 
named Cinnamon 7 December 1943 ; and commissioned 
10 January 1944, Lieutenant Commander J. H. Russell, 
USNR, in command. She was reclassified AN-50 on 20 
January 1944. 

Departing San Diego 6 April 1944, Cinnamon arrived 
at Milne Bay, New Guinea, 18 May. She supported 
operations in the New Guinea area until 17 January 
1945 when she sailed to Manus and the Philippines, 
where she remained until 17 November. She sailed for 
San Francisco, arriving 22 December, and from 8 Jan- 
uary to 15 November 1946, Cinnamon operated under 
Commandant, 11th Naval District out of San Pedro, 
Calif. Arriving at Pearl Harbor 25 November 1946, she 
departed 21 January 1947 and sailed via Wake and 
Guam to Shanghai, arriving 15 March. Cinnamon was 
decommissioned 25 March 1947 and transferred to 
Nationalist China through the State Department. 

Cinnamon was awarded one battle star for service in 
World War II. 


Circassian 

A native or inhabitant of Circassia, a country north- 
west of the Caucasus Mountains, formerly independent, 
now a part of Russia. 

(ScStr: t. 1,750; 1. 241'; b. 39'; dr. 18'; a. 4 9" sb., 1 
100-pdr. r., 1 12-pdr. r.) 

Circassian, an iron screw steamer, was captured 4 
May 1862 by USS Somerset; purchased from the prize 
court at Key West, Fla., 8 November 1862; outfitted at 
New York Navy Yard; and commissioned 12 December 
1862, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant W. B. Eaton in 
command. 

Circassian served as supply ship for the East and 
West Gulf Blockading Squadrons. Between 17 December 
1862 and 11 April 1865 she completed nine cruises from 
New York or Boston delivering supplies to ships and 
stations along the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of 
Mexico as far west as Galveston, Tex., and up the Mis- 
sissippi River to New Orleans, La. On return trips she 
carried men due to be discharged, invalids, prisoners of 
war, cotton and provisions. During this time she also 
captured two prizes and participated in the search for 
the Confederate steamer Florida in July 1864. 

Circassian arrived at Boston Navy Yard from her last 
cruise 11 April 1865, was placed out of commission 26 
April 1865 and sold 22 June 1865. 


Circe 

The sorceress in Homer’s Odyssey. 

I 

Marietta (q.v.) carried the name Circe from 15 June 
to 10 August 1869. 

II 

( AKA-25 : dp. 4,087; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 303; a. 1 5"; cl. Artemis) 

The second Circe (AKA-25) was launched 4 August 
1944 by Walsh-Kaiser Co., Providence, R.I., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. R. E. 
Dougherty; acquired by the Navy 10 November 1944; 


120 


and commissioned the same day, Lieutenant Commander 
V. J. Barnhart, USNR, in command. 

Circe reached Pearl Harbor from the east coast 3 
January 1945. Twenty days later she put to sea with 
Marine reinforcements and explosives for Guadalcanal, 
and through February, ferried troops in the Guadal- 
canal area. After practice landings in Savo Sound, she 
reported at Ulithi 21 March to stage for the assault of 
Okinawa. 

Between 1 April 1945 and 6 April, Circe was part of 
the vast armada off Okinawa, closing the coast in day- 
light to offload men and equipment, and retiring seaward 
at night. She called at Saipan and Pearl Harbor on her 
passage to San Francisco, where from 19 to 27 May she 
loaded cargo for a voyage to Pearl Harbor. Sailing 
again from San Francisco 24 June, she carried pilots 
and ground crews to Eniwetok, Kwajalein, Saipan, and 
Tinian, returning with men thus relieved to Pearl Har- 
bor 13 August. 

Clearing Pearl Harbor 25 September 1945, Circe 
supported the occupation on cargo duty which took her 
to ports in Japan and Korea, returning with homeward 
bound servicemen to San Francisco 20 December 1945. 
Here she was decommissioned 20 May 1946, and trans- 
ferred to the War Shipping Administration for disposal 
26 June 1946. 

Circe received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Cisco 

This name is given to any of various whitefishes of 
the Great Lakes. 

(SS-290: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 66; a. 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Cisco (SS-290) was launched 24 December 1942 by 
Portsmouth Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N.H.; sponsored 
by Mrs. A. C. Bennett, through her proxy, Mrs. N. 
Robertson; commissioned 10 May 1943, Commander 
J. W. Coe in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Cisco sailed from Panama 7 August 1943 for Bris- 
bane, Australia, arriving 1 September to assume local 
patrol duties, until 18 September, when she docked at 
Port Darwin. She put out on her first war patrol 20 
September, but never returned. Japanese records tell of 
sighting a submarine leaking oil on 28 September in an 
area where Cisco is known to have been the only sub- 
marine then operating. Japanese records state this 
submarine was sunk by bombs and depth charges. Cisco 
is thus presumed to have been lost in action 28 Sep- 
tember 1943. 

City of Dalhnrt 

Former name retained. 

(IX-156 : dp. 8,747 (f.) ; 1. 416'; b. 54'; dr. 18'9") 

City of Dalhart (IX-156) was built in 1921 by Oscar 
Daniels Co., Tampa, Fla.; acquired by the Navy 29 
February 1944; commissioned at San Francisco 2 June 
1944, Lieutenant Commander C. M. Lokey, USNR, in 
command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

City of Dalhart stood out from San Francisco 9 June 
1944, carrying sailors and cargo to Pearl Harbor. As- 
signed as a mobile barracks for the 301st Naval Con- 
struction Battalion, she departed Pearl Harbor 16 July 
with the men and machinery of this unit aboard, called 
at Eniwetok (3-5 August), and put in to Guam 11 
August, one day after the island was declared secure. 
She remained at Gaum until 22 November, when she 
sailed for San Francisco, arriving 19 December. City of 
Dalhart was decommissioned 28 January 1946, and re- 
turned to her owner. 

City of Dalhart received one battle star for World 
War II service. 


City of Lewes 

Former name retained. 

(AM: 1. 150'; b. 24'; dr. 9'; s. 12 k.; cpl. 36) 

City of Lewes (No. 383) was built by W. G. Abbott, 
Milford, Del.; purchased by the Navy 18 May 1917; 
and commissioned 12 May 1917, Lieutenant J. S. Davis, 
USNR, in command. 

City of Lewes sailed from Philadelphia 14 August 

1917 and reached Brest, France, 18 September 1917. 
Following voyage repairs, she was assigned to patrol 
and escort duty. City of Lewes was decommissioned at 
Brest 8 September 1919 and sold abroad. 

City of South Haven 

Former name retained. 

(AP: 1. 265'; b. 40'3"; dr. 12'9"; s. 18 k.; cpl. 81) 

City of South Haven (No. 2527), a transport, was 
built in 1903 by Craig Shipbuilding Co., Toledo, Ohio; 
purchased by the Navy 19 April 1918 at Manistee, Mich.; 
converted at Kraft Shipyard and Dry Dock Co., Chicago, 
111.; and commissioned 9 November 1918, Lieutenant 
Commander A. C. Wilvers, USNRF, in command. 

City of South Haven departed Chicago 29 November 

1918 and arrived at Boston 13 December to begin her 
final fitting out for use as a cross-channel transport in 
European waters. With the end of the war, she was no 
longer needed for the proposed duty and was placed on 
the sale list. City of South Haven was decommissioned 
3 December 1919 for delivery to her purchaser. 

Claiborne 

Counties in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. 

( AK-171 : dp. 2,474; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 79; a. 1 3"; cl. Alamosa) 

Claiborne (AK-171) was launched 3 September 1944 
by Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Miss L. 
Kapczynski; and commissioned 19 April 1945 at New 
Orleans, Lieutenant R. B. Johnston in command. 

Claiborne departed Gulfport, Miss., 20 May 1945 and 
arrived at Hollandia, New Guinea, 5 July. For the next 
6 months she operated in the Philippines and New 
Guinea areas, carrying food, and supplies, and helping 
to redeploy troops among the various islands. The cargo 
ship sailed from Manila 6 January 1946, for Yokosuka, 
Japan, anchoring there 13 January. Claiborne was de- 
commissioned and transferred to the War Shipping 
Administration at Tokyo 7 February 1946. 

Clamagore 

A blue parrot-fish found in the West Indies and 
Chesapeake Bay. 

(SS-343: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k.; cpl. 66; a. 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Clamagore (SS-343) was launched 25 February 1945 
by Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Miss 
M. J. Jacobs; and commissioned 28 June 1945, Com- 
mander S. C. Loomis, Jr., in command. 

Clamagore reported to Key West, her assigned base, 
5 September 1945. She operated off Key West with 
various fleet units and with the Fleet Sonar School, 
voyaging on occasion to Cuba and the Virgin Islands 
until 5 December 1947, when she entered Philadelphia 
Naval Shipyard for moderinzation and installation of 
snorkel. Clamagore returned to Key West 6 August 
1948 and assumed local and Caribbean operations for 
the next 8 years, except for a tour of duty in the 
Mediterranean from 3 February to 16 April 1953. 


121 


Clamagore called at New London and Newport early 
in 1957, returning to Key West 13 March. Between 23 
September and 7 December she took part in NATO 
exercises in the North Atlantic, calling at Portsmouth, 
England, and Argentia, Newfoundland. On 29 June 
1959, she arrived at Charleston, her new home port, and 
after a period of coastwise operations, sailed 5 April 
1960 to join the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean for a 
tour of duty which continued until July, when the sub- 
marine returned to Charleston. For the remainder of 
1960 Clamagore operated off the east coast. 

Clamour 

A loud and continued outcry. 

(AM-160: dp. 530; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 104; a. 1 3"; cl. Admirable ) 

Clamour (AM-160) was launched 24 December 1942 
by Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg. ; 
commissioned 14 March 1944, Lieutenant Commander 
D. N. Lott, USNR, in command; and reported to the 
Pacific Fleet. 

Clamour arrived at Pearl Harbor 22 May 1944, and 
made two voyages as convoy escort to Kwajalein and 
Eniwetok between that time and 11 September, when she 
cleared Pearl Harbor for continued escort duty based at 
Eniwetok. She guarded convoys to the Marianas, adding 
Ulithi to her ports of call in November, Tarawa, and 
Majuro in May 1945, and Iwo Jima in June. She sailed 
from Eniwetok for the last time 10 August, bound for 
overhaul at Bremerton. On 13 January 1946, she ar- 
rived at San Diego, where she was decommissioned 12 
June 1946, and placed in reserve. On 7 February 1955 
she was reclassified MSF-160. 


Clamp 

A device which holds fast or binds things together. 

( ARS-33 : dp. 1,441; 1. 213'6"; b. 39'; dr. 14'8"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 120; a. 2 40mm.; cl. Diver) 

Clamp was launched 24 October 1942 by Basalt Rock 
Co., Napa, Calif., under a Maritime Commission con- 
tract; and commissioned 23 August 1943, Lieutenant 
L. H. Curtis in command. 

Clamp sailed from San Pedro 30 September 1943 and 
after a brief period at Pearl Harbor, arrived at Funa- 
futi, Ellice Islands, 8 November. From this base she 
conducted combat salvage operations supporting the 
Gilbert Islands invasion. On 10 November Clamp had 
a busy day as she came under air attack five different 
times. The enemy was driven off and Clamp sustained 
no damage. She conducted salvage operations on LST- 
3Jf, and assisted Hoel (DD-533) off Betio Point, 2 
December. Departing Funafuti 12 January 1944 for 
Midway, she conducted salvage operations on Macaw 
(ASR-11) from 24 January to 17 February, then re- 
turned to Pearl Harbor for overhaul. 

Clamp began working in the Marshalls on salvage and 
cargo duty in April 1944. She investigated sunken Japa- 
nese vessels for salvage value off Saipan in July, cap- 
turing 10 prisoners during this work. She also salvaged 
LST-31. aground off Tinian, in August, returning to 
Pearl Harbor for overhaul in November. 

Clamp arrived at Iwo Jima 19 February 1945 and 
until 2 March was engaged in salvage work during the 
invasion and capture of that island. Sailing to Leyte via 
Saipan, Guam, and Ulithi, she joined the salvage and 
repair group which cleared 21 March for the invasion of 
Okinawa. Based at Kerama Retto from 26 March to 15 
May, Clamp gave emergency aid to Indianapolis (CA- 
35), a kamikaze victim, from 31 March to 5 April. She 
steamed to Ie Shima 12 May to inspect damage to two 
destroyers. 


Clamp was overhauled on the west coast until 5 No- 
vember 1945 when she sailed for Pearl Harbor. She 
remained there until 6 March 1946, put out for Bikini 
Atoll where she had towing, diving, and demolition 
duties in connection with Operation “Crossroads.” She 
returned to Pearl Harbor 16 September, and to San 
Francisco 22 October. She was placed out of commis- 
sion in reserve at San Pedro, Calif., 6 May 1947. 

Clamp received four battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Clara Dolsen 

Former name retained. 

(SwStr : t. 939; 1. 268'; b. 42'; dph. 8'9"; a. 1 32-pdr.) 

Clara Dolsen, a side-wheel steamer, was captured 14 
June 1862 by the gunboat Mound City and the tug 
Spitfire on the White River during the St. Charles 
expedition. 

After taking part in the joint Army-Navy expedition 
to recapture Henderson, Ky. (19-24 July 1862), she 
served as a receiving ship at Cairo, 111., until April 
1864. Since she had not been libeled as a prize, her 
owners brought suit for her return. The final adjudica- 
tion restored Clara Dolsen to her owners, and she was 
turned over to the U.S. Marshal for the Southern Dis- 
trict of Illinois in May 1864, for delivery to her owners. 


Clare 

Former name retained. 

(AC: dp. 7,160; 1. 338'; b. 46'2"; dr. 21'; s. 9 k.; cpl. 52; 
a. 1 4”) 

Clare (No. 2774), a collier, was built in 1915 by 
Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md.; transferred 
from the Shipping Board 19 September 1918; and com- 
missioned the same day, Lieutenant Commander J. L. 
Blair, USNRF, in command. 

Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Serv- 
ice, Clare made two voyages from New York to France 
carrying general cargo and ammunition for the Army 
between 26 September and 11 February 1919. Returning 
to Philadelphia Clare discharged her cargo and removed 
her armament, then proceeded to New York 22 February 
1919. She was placed out of commission there 24 Feb- 
ruary 1919 and transferred to the U.S. Shipping Board 
for return to her owner. 


Clarence K. Bronson 

Clarence King Bronson was born in Bushnell, 111., 21 
July 1888, and was a member of the Naval Academy 
Class of 1910. After service afloat, he was trained in 
aviation in 1914 at the Curtis Aeroplane Co., Ham- 
mondsport, N.Y., and Pensacola, Fla. Lieutenant (junior 
grade) Bronson was killed at the Naval Proving Ground, 
Indianhead, Md., 8 November 1916, while testing experi- 
mental aerial bombs. 

(DD-668 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6''; b. 39'8''; dr. 17'9"; s 35 
k. ; cpl. 319; a. 5 5", 10 21'' tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. Fletcher) 

Clarence K. Bronson (DD-668) was launched 18 April 
1943 by the Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 
Kearny, N.J.; sponsored by Mrs. W. P. Richardson; and 
commissioned 11 June 1943, Commander W. S. Veeder in 
command. 

Clarence K. Bronson reached Pearl Harbor 21 Novem- 
ber 1943 for final training, remaining in Hawaiian 
waters aside from a single escort voyage to Tarawa, 
until January 1944, when she joined TF 58. Clarence K. 
Bronson screened this force for strikes supporting the 
landings on Kwajalein, and raids on Truk, Saipan, and 


122 


Guam through February, and on 15 March, sailed from 
Espiritu Santo to screen carriers covering the landings 
in the Bismarck Archipelago from 19 to 25 March. With 
Task Group 36.1 she rejoined TF 58 two days later for 
strikes on Palau, Yap, and Woleai. 

In late April 1944, Clarence K. Bronson’s force 
covered the New Guinea landings, and returned to raid 
Truk on 29 and 30 April. The destroyer was drydocked 
at Majuro during May, and sailed again with TF 58 on 
6 June for the Marianas operation. After screening 
during preinvasion air strikes on Saipan, Rota, Tinian 
and Guam, Clarence K. Bronson stood off Saipan as the 
assault on that island began, then guarded her carriers 
as they - launched their planes in the aerial Battle of the 
Philippine Sea, 19 and 20 June, an American victory 
from which Japanese naval aviation never recovered. 
Clarence K. Bronson was one of the ships which dis- 
played her searchlight aloft as a homing beacon for 
carrier pilots at the close of the battle as the Fleet 
audaciously revealed itself to save its aviators. After 
replenishing at Eniwetok early in July, TF 58 covered 
the invasion of Guam, and launched air strikes on 
enemy bases in the Palaus and Bonins. 

Clarence K. Bronson’s force covered the capture of the 
Palaus in September 1944 and in October neutralized 
Formosan bases, hurled raids against the Philippines 
and Visayas, and played its part in the epic Battle for 
Leyte Gulf of 23 to 26 October in the Battle of Cape 
Engano, 25 October. 

In November and December 1944, air strikes covered 
the Mindoro landings, and through January 1945, raids 
on Japanese bases on Formosa, Luzon, the Nansei Shoto 
and Chinese ports made possible the Lingayen assault. 
February’s strikes on Tokyo prepared for the assault on 
Iwo Jima, and Clarence K. Bronson left the main body 
of her task force 18 February to escort cruisers to Iwo 
Jima for preinvasion bombardment and fire support to 
the forces ashore after the assault on 19 February. 
She offered this aid for 4 days, then rejoined her task 
force for another round of strikes on Tokyo and the 
Nansei Shoto. She returned to fire support and anti- 
submarine patrol duties off Iwo Jima from 3 to 29 
March, then sailed for a west coast overhaul. 

Clarence K. Bronson returned to Pearl Harbor 9 July 
1945 for training, and put to sea 2 August to bombard 
Wake Island 6 days later. Continuing west, she entered 
Sagami Wan 27 August, and took part in the occupation 
by patrolling Japanese waters until 5 December. Home- 
ward bound, she called at San Diego and New York, 
and on 12 April arrived at Charleston, S.C. Here she 
was decommissioned and placed in reserve 16 July 1946. 

Recommissioned 7 June 1951, Clarence K. Bronson 
had training along the east coast and in the Caribbean 
until 18 May 1953. when she sailed from her home port, 
Newport, to join TF 77 in Korean waters 3 July. She 
operated with TF 77 and TF 99 on blockade, patrol, and 
escort duty until 10 November, when she began the final 
leg of her round-the-world cruise, calling at Hong Kong, 
Aden, Gibraltar, Bermuda, and many other ports before 
she stood up Narragansett Bay 15 January 1954. 
Through the next 4 years, she alternated training and 
local operations with exercises in the Caribbean, NATO 
operations in the North Atlantic, assignment as engi- 
neering school ship, and two Mediterranean cruises with 
the 6th Fleet in 1955 and 1957. 

In 1958 Clarence K. Bronson was assigned to experi- 
mental duty with the Underwater Sound Laboratory, 
and in 1959, made naval reserve training cruises along 
the east coast and in the Caribbean from Charleston, 
and her new home port, Mayport, Fla. On 11 April 
1960, she was placed in commission in reserve at Orange, 
Tex., and on 29 June 1960 was decommissioned. 

Clarence K. Bronson received nine battle stars for 
World War II service, and one battle star for Korean 
war service. 


Clarence L. Evans 

Born 27 April 1923 at Saginaw, Mich., Clarence Lee 
Evans enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Re- 
serve 31 May 1941, and after training at San Diego, 
served in the field from 20 January 1942 until 25 No- 
vember 1942, when he was killed in action on Guadal- 
canal. He was awarded the Navy Cross for extraordi- 
nary heroism in capturing two enemy machine gun nests 
2 days before his death. 

(DE-113 : dp. 1,240; 1. 306’; b. 36'8"; dr. 8'9"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.fhh.), 2 dct.; cl. 

Buckley) 

Clarence L. Evans was launched 22 March 1944 by 
Dravo Corp., Wilmington, Del.; sponsored by Mrs. E. E. 
Evans; commissioned 25 June 1944, Lieutenant Com- 
mander W. C. Hughes, USNR, in command; and re- 
ported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

Clarence L. Evans reported at Norfolk 2 September 
1944 for duty in training precommissioning crews of 
other escort vessels. Here she conducted tests of newly 
developed 3" ammunition and acoustic torpedo defense 
equipment. On 19 October she cleared Norfolk for the 
first of five convoy crossings from New York City to 
Glasgow, Southhampton, Plymouth, and- Le Havre. 
These trips, which averaged about 30 days for each 
voyage, were alternated with training duties at New 
London or Casco Bay. 

On 29 May 1945, Clarence L. Evans put in to Brooklyn 
for overhaul until 22 June. She then reported to Quon- 
set Point Naval Air Station for duty as plane guard 
during carrier qualification exercises. She cleared Nar- 
ragansett Bay 17 August for Miami, assumed plane 
guard duty until 2 October, then cleared for Brooklyn 
and overhaul. Clarence L. Evans reported to Green 
Cove Springs, Florida, 10 November, where she was 
placed out of commission in reserve 29 May 1947. She 
was lent to France under the Military Assistance Pro- 
gram 29 March 1952; she bears the name Berbere in 
the French Navy. 


Clarendon 

A county in South Carolina. 

( APA-72 : dp. 4,247; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 320; a. 1 5"; cl. Gilliam) 

Clarendon (APA-72) was launched 12 September 
1944 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Wilmington, Calif., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. T. May; commissioned 14 December 1944, Lieuten- 
ant Commander E. A. Stroik, USNR, in command; and 
reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Clarendon sailed from San Diego 6 February 1945 to 
join amphibious exercises in the Hawaiian Islands, then 
sailed for Ulithi, where late in March she joined the 
escort of a convoy to voyage to Saipan. Returning to 
Ulithi, she put to sea 22 April to carry combat cargo to 
Okinawa, off which she lay to discharge 26 to 30 April. 
On the 28th, she drove away enemy aircraft with her 
intensive gunfire. 

Returning to the west coast 22 May 1945, Clarendon 
made three voyages from San Diego and San Francisco 
to Pearl Harbor, carrying passengers and cargo in both 
directions. On 29 July she got underway from San 
Francisco, called at Eniwetok, Ulithi, Manila, and put 
in to Tokyo 13 September. She carried troops for the 
occupation of Japan and in the redeployment of forces 
in China until 15 November, when she sailed from Taku 
to load homeward bound troops at Samar, Guam, Saipan, 
and Iwo Jima on her way to San Pedro, where she 
arrived 18 December. In January 1946 she sailed north 
to Seattle, where she was decommissioned 9 April 1946, 
and transferred to the War Shipping Administration in 
June 1946. 


123 


Clarendon received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Clarinda 

(YP-185: 1. 98'; b. 17'2"; dr. 5'6"; s. 14 k.; cpl. 18; a. 2 
3-pdr., 1 dcp.) 

Clarinda (No. 185), a motor yacht, was built in 1913 
by Matthew Boat Co., Detroit, Mich.; purchased by the 
Navy 5 July 1917; and commissioned 21 November 
1917, Ensign I. S. Florsheim, USNRF, in command. 

Assigned to the 6th Naval District, Clarinda was 
based on Charleston, S.C., for partol and pilot duty for 
the duration of World War I. Retained in the Navy 
after the war, she continued service as a patrol vessel 
in the 6th Naval District until the end of 1930. Clarinda 
was decommissioned at Charleston Navy Yard on 26 
December 1930 and sold on 1 June 1931. 


Clarion 

A county in Pennsylvania. 

(AK-172: dp. 2,474; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21'1"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 79; a. 1 3"; cl. Alamosa ) 

Clarion (AK-172) was launched 22 October 1944 by 
Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Miss V. L. 
Huebner; acquired by the Navy 10 May 1945; and com- 
missioned 27 May 1945, Lieutenant F. L. Johnson, 
USNR, in command. 

After loading cargo at Gulf ports, Clarion sailed for 
Pearl Harbor, which she reached 21 July 1945. Three 
days later she got underway for San Francisco to load 
cargo for Manila, where she arrived 1 October. Carry- 
ing cargo to support occupation activities, she called at 
Jinsen, Korea, and Tsingtao, Taku, and Shanghai, 
China, before sailing for the east coast from Tsingtao 
21 January 1946. She reached Norfolk 11 March, and 
was decommissioned at Baltimore 13 May 1946. On 18 
May 1946 she was transferred to the War Shipping 
Administration. 

Clarion River, see LSMR—409 

Clark 

Charles E. Clark, born 10 August 1843 in Bradford, 
Vt., graduated from the Naval Academy in 1863. His 
Civil War service included command of Ossipee in the 
Battle of Mobile Bay. Upon the outbreak of the Spanish- 
American War, Captain Clark commanded Oregon in 
her dramatic race around Cape Horn, bringing her to 
Cuba in time to join in the destruction of the Spanish 
fleet. For this high accomplishment, he was advanced 
in seniority, and was appointed Rear Admiral 16 June 
1902. He died 1 October 1922 at Long Beach, Calif. 

(DD-361 : dp. 1,850; 1. 381'; b. 36'; dr. 10'; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 240; a. 8 5", 8 21" tt. ; cl. Porter) 

Clark (DD-361) was launched 15 October 1935 by 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass.; sponsored 
by Mrs. S. Robinson ; and commissioned 20 May 1936, 
Commander H. Thebaud in command. 

Clark’s prewar service included operations on the 
Atlantic coast, in the Caribbean, and from Pearl Har- 
bor, her home port from 1 April 1940. From 3 March 
to 10 April 1941, she joined in a cruise to Samoa, 
Australia, and Fiji. At the outbreak of the war, she lay 
in overhaul at San Diego. Clark departed the west coast 
27 December, escorted two convoys to Pearl Harbor, 
then took up antisubmarine patrol off Pago Pago, 
Samoa, and in February and March 1942 joined a car- 
rier task force for air raids on New Guinea. 


From April through May 1942, Clark escorted four 
convoys on their passage between Pearl Harbor and 
San Francisco, continuing to Midway on the last. She 
returned to San Diego and Balboa, where she joined 
the escort of a convoy bound for Wellington, New 
Zealand. Between 12 August and 8 September, she 
sailed out of Noumea, New Caledonia, screening oilers 
fueling carrier task forces, then returned to Auckland 
for a month of duty escorting convoys from New 
Zealand to South Pacific island bases. After a final 
month of local escort and patrol duty at Noumea, Clark 
sailed 11 December 1942 to report at Balboa as flagship 
for Commander, Southeast Pacific Force. 

Until 10 August 1944, Clark patrolled out of various 
South American ports, sailing then for an east coast 
overhaul. Between 4 September 1944 and 11 April 
1945, she guarded the passage of six transatlantic con- 
voys to ports in the United Kingdom and France. On 
15 June 1945, she arrived at Philadelphia, where she 
was decommissioned 23 October 1945 and scrapped 29 
March 1946. 

Clark received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Clark, Carrie, see Carrie Clark 
Clark Fork River, see LSMR 4 10 
Clark, Howard F., see Howard F. Clark 
Clark, J. Alvah, see J. Alvah Clark 
Clark, James H., see James H. Clark 
Clark, Joseph M., see Joseph M. Clark 
Clarke County, see LST-601 
Clash 

Opposition; conflict. 

Clash (PG-91), formerly CN-309, was launched 18 
November 1942, by Midland Shipyards, Ltd., Midland, 
Ontario, Canada, for the U.S. Navy. Upon completion, 
Clash was transferred to the Royal Navy on 19 June 
1943 and commissioned as HMS Linaria. On 27 July 
1946 she was returned to the U.S. Navy. Never commis- 
sioned in the U.S. Navy, Clash was sold on 15 January 
1948. 

Claud Jones 

Claud Ashton Jones, born 7 October 1885 in Fire 
Creek, W. Va., graduated from the Naval Academy in 
1906, and after several years of duty at sea, did gradu- 
ate study leading to a master of science degree at Har- 
vard University. He was awarded the Medal of Honor 
for his heroism while serving as engineering officer in 
Memphis when his ship was wrecked by a hurricane off 
Santo Domingo City 29 August 1916. Most of his 
remaining service was in engineering billets ashore and 
afloat, with a tour of duty as assistant naval attache at 
London. As Rear Admiral from 9 October 1941, he 
served in the Bureau of Ships throughout World War II, 
working in the shipbuilding program, and as an assist- 
ant chief. For his exceptionally meritorius service he 
was awarded the Legion of Merit. Rear Admiral Jones 
died in Charleston, W. Va., 8 August 1948. 

(DE-1033: Classified) 

Claud Jones (DE-1033) was launched 27 May 1958 by 
Avondale Marine Ways, Inc., Avondale, La.; sponsored 


124 


by Mrs. M. R. J. Wyllie; and commissioned 10 February 
1959, Lieutenant Commander W. M. Cone in command. 

After training at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Claud Jones 
cruised to northern Europe between June and August 
1959, returning to Key West, Fla., her home port. Dur- 
ing 1960, she operated along the east coast and in the 
Caribbean, with a voyage to northern European waters 
during NATO exercises in September and October. 


Claxton 

Thomas Claxton, born in Baltimore, Md., entered the 
Navy as a midshipman 17 December 1810. He was 
mortally wounded after gallant service in the Battle of 
Lake Erie 10 September 1813, dying at Erie, Pa., 17 
October 1813. 

I 

(DD-140: dp. 1,090; 1. 314'; b. 31'; dr. 8'8"; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 122; a. 4 4", 1 3", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Wickes) 

The first Claxton (DD-140) was launched 14 January 
1919 by Mare Island Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. 
F. W. Kellogg; and commissioned 13 September 1919, 
Lieutenant Commander F. T. Leighton in command. 

Claxton operated on the west coast until 18 June 1922, 
when she was decommissioned at San Diego, Calif. Re- 
commissioned 22 January 1930, she served on the west 
coast and on reserve training from New Orleans until 
September 1933, when she joined the Special Service 
Squadron for patrol duty off Cuba. Between January 
and November 1934 she was in rotating reserve at 
Charleston, then returned to Cuban patrols until Oc- 
tober 1935. After exercising with the battle force, she 
was assigned to the Naval Academy during 1936 and 
1937, making three coastal cruises. 

Duty with Squadron 40-T, formed to patrol European 
waters protecting American interests during the civil 
war in Spain, occupied Claxton from October 1937 until 
November 1938. In January 1939 she returned to duty 
at the Naval Academy, but in September began service 
on the neutrality patrol off the Florida Straits. In 
January and February 1940, she patrolled off the New 
England coast, and after training cruises on the east 
coast, arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 21 November 
1940. On 26 November she was delivered to British 
authorities in the destroyers-for-bases exchange. She 
was decommissioned 5 December 1940, and commissioned 
in the Royal Navy the same day as HMS Salisbury. 

She arrived at Belfast, Northern Ireland, 30 Decem- 
ber 1940 for duty with the Western Approaches Com- 
mand escorting Atlantic convoys. In April and May 
1942, she joined in escorting USS Wasp (CV-7) on her 
two voyages to fly planes off for beleaguered Malta. 
Returning to the Clyde, Salisbury guarded troop convoys 
in the Atlantic until September, when she was assigned 
to the Royal Canadian Navy. Based on St. John’s, New- 
foundland, Salisbury served on local escort duty until 
November 1943, when with newer escorts available, she 
was placed in care and maintenance status at Halifax, 
and paid off on 10 December. She was sold for scrapping 
26 June 1944. 

II 

(DD-571 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'5"; b. 39'7"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 

k.; cpl. 320; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. 

Fletcher) 

The second Claxton (DD-571) was launched 1 April 
1942 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex.; spon- 
sored by Mrs. A. D. Bernhard; and commissioned 8 De- 
cember 1942, Commander H. F. Stout in command. 

In March 1943 Claxton patrolled briefly in Casco Bay, 
Maine, awaiting the possible sortie of German battle- 
ship Von Tirpitz from Norwegian waters. After one 


convoy escort assignment to Casablanca, she sailed from 
Charleston, S.C., 17 May to join the Pacific Fleet. 

After training at Noumea and Espiritu Santo from 
12 June 1943, Claxton covered the landings at Rendova 
between 27 June and 25 July, then joined Destroyer 
Squadron 23 for a period of brilliantly executed opera- 
tions which were recognized with the Presidential Unit 
Citation. In the struggle for the Solomons, Claxton and 
her squadron patrolled to intercept enemy shipping, pro- 
tected the passage of American troops and shipping, 
bombarded enemy bases, covered landings, and engaged 
Japanese surface and air forces. 

In the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay on the night of 
1-2 November 1943, Claxton, with four cruisers and 
seven other destroyers, fired her torpedoes in an attack 
which turned back a Japanese force of four cruisers and 
six destroyers sailing to attack transports off Bougain- 
ville, sinking two and damaging four of the enemy ships. 
Claxton towed Foote (DD-511), one of five American 
ships injured that night, into Purvis Bay, arriving 4 
November. 

On 25 November 1943, off Cape St. George, New Ire- 
land, Claxton and four other destroyers intercepted a 
force of five Japanese destroyers, as the enemy ships 
sailed to evacuate aviation troops to Rabaul. Once more 
fighting in darkness, Claxton and the others achieved 
complete surprise in their torpedo attack, and followed 
with a running gun battle. In this classic destroyer 
action, three Japanese ships were sunk and a fourth 
damaged, with no injury to the American ships. 

On 4 February 1944, while bombarding Sarime Plan- 
tation on Bougainville, Claxton was seriously damaged 
by an explosion aft, probably of two medium caliber 
shells. Despite her damage and 15 wounded, Claxton 
completed her mission with her three forward guns, 
then sailed for temporary aid at Purvis Bay and 
permanent repairs on the west coast. She returned to 
action in August 1944, and assigned to screen escort 
carriers, took part in the invasion of the Palaus in 
September. Sailing north for the invasion of the Philip- 
pines, the destroyer covered the operations of under- 
water demolition teams preparing the beaches, then gave 
screening and fire support during the landings on 20 
October. In the phase of the Battle for Leyte Gulf 
known as the Battle of Surigao Strait on 24 and 25 
October, Claxton screened the battle line in the surface 
action which virtually destroyed the Japanese southern 
force. 

Continuing her patrol in Leyte Gulf to support the 
forces ashore, on 1 November 1944, Claxton suffered 5 
dead, 23 wounded, and serious damage when a Japanese 
suicide plane crashed and exploded in the water along- 
side to starboard. With all her after living spaces 
flooded, Claxton fought her own damage as she rescued 
187 survivors of Abner Read (DD-526), also a kami- 
kaze’s victim. 

Repairs at Tacloban and Manus prepared Claxton for 
her return to action on fire support, patrol, and escort 
duty in the Lingayen Gulf landings from 9 to 18 Janu- 
ary 1945. Continuing action in the Philippines, she con- 
ducted bombardments and covered landings at various 
points on Luzon and Mindanao and in the Visayas 
through early May. On 16 May she arrived off Okinawa 
for dangerous and exacting duty as radar picket and 
fighter-director until the close of the war. On 6 June 
her guns drove off a flight of 12 would-be suiciders. 

Sailing from Okinawa 10 September 1945, Claxton 
reached Washington, D.C., 17 October for the ceremonial 
presentation of the Presidential Unit Citation 2 days 
later. After overhaul in New York, she was decommis- 
sioned and placed in reserve at Charleston, S.C., 18 
April 1946. On 15 December 1959, she was loaned under 
the Military Assistance Program to the Federal Repub- 
lic of Germany, with whom she serves as Z-U. 

In addition to her squadron’s Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion, Claxton received eight battle stars for World War 
II service. 


125 



USS Clay (APA-39) 


Clay 

Counties in 18 states. 

(APA-39: dp. 8,100; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 26'6"; s. 18k.; 
cpl. 575; a. 2 5"; cl. Bayfield ) 

Clay (AP-84) was launched 23 January 1943 as Sea 
Carp by Western Pipe and Steel Co., San Francisco, 
Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; spon- 
sored by Mrs. Earl Warren, wife of the Governor of 
California; reclassified APA-39, 1 February 1943; 
acquired by the Navy 29 June 1943; and placed in re- 
duced commission the same day, Commander H. B. Olsen, 
USNR, in command. Clay sailed from San Pedro 9 July 
1943 and arrived at New York 2 August 1943; was de- 
commissioned 11 August 1943 for conversion; and was 
recommissioned 21 December 1943, Captain E. W. Abdill 
in command. 

Clay sailed from Norfolk 27 January 1944 with 
Marines for Pearl Harbor, arriving 15 February on the 
first leg of 100,000 miles of war operations. She put to 
sea 4 March for the invasion of Kavieng, but because of 
highly effective neutralization of Japanese bases there by 
sea and air the landings were cancelled and Clay re- 
turned to Pearl Harbor 9 April for training with the 2d 
and 4th Marines for the next assault in the giant sea 
steps across the Pacific. She now became Transport 
Division 10 flagship, Captain C. D. Morrison, division 
commander. 

On 30 May Clay stood out of Pearl Harbor, part of the 
great armada that drove through Japanese occupied 
islands to launch America’s strength from the sea 
against the heavily fortified Japanese bastion of the 
Marianas a giant leap on the victorious sea road to 
Japan. On D-Day, 15 June 1944, she executed realistic 
feint landings off northwestern Saipan that diverted a 
substantial force of Japanese troops, then in the early 
afternoon joined the main assault, launching elements 


of the 2d Marines into the bitter struggle. 

A major Japanese fleet effort was shattered by the 
5th Fleet in the decisive battle of the Philippine Sea. 
Undamaged by air attacks Clay transported troops and 
Japanese prisoners to Pearl Harbor, arriving 9 July; 
then proceeded with her division to San Diego to embark 
the 5th Marines for Guam. As she returned, however, 
resistance on this island and on Saipan was of far- 
reaching importance to the air-sea seige of Japan, suc- 
cumbed to the swift Marine assault strongly supported 
from the sea. Clay was diverted to Hilo, Hawaii, to dis- 
embark troops and prepare for the next operation. 

After intensive rehearsals at Maui under a new skip- 
per, Captain N. B. Van Bergen, in August, with ele- 
ments of the 96th Division embarked Clay departed 
Hawaii with the assault group scheduled for Yap. 

The flexibility, mobility, and speed of concentration of 
strength based afloat has seldom been shown more strik- 
ingly than in the swift moving series of far-reaching 
events that followed Clay’s sailing. A bold change in 
strategic plans shifted the target from Yap to Leyte, 
some 700 miles beyond. Weakening resistance to the 
devastating attacks of Task Force 58 up and down the 
Philippine Archipelago was one indication that the 
Philippines were ripe for invasion. Leyte was the strate- 
gic heart of the Philippines. Clay's task force was di- 
verted to Manus to stage for the invasion ; on 14 October 
she sailed for the new objective. As dawn rose over the 
island-studded sea, on 20 October a mighty parade of 
ships hurled the United States’ concentrated strength 
into the Philippines. 

In the series of mighty battles that followed Clay’s 
luck held. She emerged unscathed and proceeded to 
even busier days. Departing on 24 October her course 
led from Leyte to Hollandia, to Morotai, where for 5 
nights Japanese aircraft flying from Halmahera kept 
the gun crews on the alert. Back to Leyte with vital 
reinforcements in personnel and supplies, Clay unloaded 


126 


in one day and departed 14 November for Manus, thence 
to Cape Gloucester, where she anchored 27 November to 
prepare for invasion of Luzon at Lingayen Gulf. 

On the last day of the eventful year of 1944, the attack 
transports began the tortuous passage to Luzon, thread- 
ing their course through waters flanked by Japanese- 
held islands. It was a bold and successful thrust again 
deep behind Japanese positions. Before nightfall on 
D-Day, 9 January 1945, American troops were speeding 
inland on Luzon from Lingayen. Japanese suicide planes 
opened up a wide-scale attack, but the U.S. Navy had 
not only come to launch the troops behind strong Japa- 
nese forces but had come to stay. 

By sundown of the first crowded day, Clay had un- 
loaded and set course for Leyte. Her gunners had 
helped repel suicide attacks during the day and, in Japa- 
nese reports, she had suffered the usual annihilation. 
Embarking troops of the 1st Cavalry Division at Leyte, 
annihilated Clay hurried back to Lingayen and unloaded 
them in a single day, 27 January 1945. 

With wounded soldiers, Clay arrived at Guadalcanal 
on 12 February, disembarked the casualties, embarked 
elements of the 6th Marines, and began rehearsals for 
the next long thrust toward Japan. In March Clay got 
underway as part of the gigantic force converging from 
the far corners of the Pacific, and even the Atlantic, for 
the tremendous assault on Okinawa, an amphibious 
force without parallel in naval warfare. 

Riding a hurricane en route and making the final 
approach through a wild night of attacking planes and 
gunfire, Clay arrived off her Okinawa beach before day- 
light 1 April. Through smoke and flame, rockets and 
bursting shells, roaring aircraft and the clatter of 
winches and cranes, Easter 1945 dawned on a gigantic 
panorama of violence and coordinated strength of Amer- 
ica’s drive thousands of miles across the Pacific to the 
threshold of Japan. Despite mass kamikaze air attacks 
and suicide boats Clay unloaded and sailed on 5 April, 


again unscathed, for San Francisco and overhaul to 
prepare for the final assault on Japan. On the west 
coast she received additional armament, a new command- 
ing officer, Captain E. M. Eller, and refresher training 
at San Diego. 

On 27 July Clay headed again to the Pacific with some 
1,700 passengers. As she plunged westward there un- 
folded the world-shaking drama of the atomic bomb, the 
last-minute entry of Russia into the war, and the swift 
collapse of Japanese resistance. The day Japanese 
emissaries came to Manila to effect surrender arrange- 
ments, Clay was swinging around her anchor in hot 
Leyte Gulf where she had participated in the first 
assault for liberation of the Philippines. 

From Leyte Clay proceeded to the once beautiful but 
ruined city of Cebu, embarked elements of 182d Regi- 
ment and sailed on 1 September as flagship of Tempo- 
rary Squadron 13, Captain R. C. Bartman, USN, 
Squadron Commander, part of “Tokyo Force.” Early 
on 8 September, Clay steamed up the swept channel 
through minefields and swift currents into Tokyo Bay; 
passed the battered pagoda structure of the sunken 
battleship Nagato, which she used as a fixed navigational 
aid; and anchored off the ruined and silent industrial 
section that extended from Yokohama into Tokyo. The 
devastation indicated how badly Japan was beaten to 
her knees and how much the arteries of economic life 
had been strangled by seapower. 

Unloading swiftly Clay sailed the next day, again for 
Cebu and another occupation move, to Otaru on the 
northern island of Hokkaido. Making another swift 
turn around Clay reached Guam on 12 October and there 
embarked Marines for reoccupation duty in north China. 
From Tientsin, she sailed to Saipan to take on board 
homeward-bound servicemen, arriving 5 December 1945 
at San Pedro, Calif. She made another “Magic Carpet” 
voyage to the western Pacific then sailed from San 
Francisco 9 March 1946 for New York, arriving 27 



Battle of New Orleans 


127 



March. Clay was decommissioned 15 May 1946 and sold 
through the Maritime Commission 12 September 1946. 

Clay received four battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Clearfield 

A county in Pennsylvania. 

(APA-142: dp. 6,720; 1. 445'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 536; a. 1 5"; cl. Haskell) 

Clearfield (APA-142) was launched 21 November 

1944 by California Shipbuilding Corp., Wilmington, 
Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; spon- 
sored by Mrs. F. L. Chambers; acquired by the Navy 11 
January 1945; and commissioned 12 January 1945, 
Captain F. C. Stelter, Jr., in command. 

Clearfield loaded construction battalion troops and 
cargo at Port Hueneme, Calif., and departed 9 March 

1945 for Pearl Harbor, Eniwetok, Ulithi and Okinawa, 
where she arrived 17 April, to disembark her passengers 
and their equipment at Ie Shima, to build an airfield. 

She sailed from Okinawa 26 April to load Army re- 
placements at San Francisco and transported these 
troops to Manila, arriving 23 June. After moving occu- 
pation troops among the Philippine Islands, Clearfield 
departed Manila 27 August for Tokyo, where she landed 
soldiers 2 September. 

From 4 September 1945 Clearfield operated between 
Okinawa and Manila and ports in China, supporting the 
reoccupation of northern China by transporting Marines 
and Chinese troops. She got underway for Tacoma, 
Wash., 2 December, and after overhaul, sailed to Nor- 
folk, arriving 4 February 1946. Clearfield was decom- 
missioned 4 March 1946, and returned to the War 
shipping Administration 6 March 1946. 

Clearfield received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Clearwater County, see LST—602 
Cleburne 

Counties in Arkansas and Alabama. 

( APA-73 : dp. 4,247; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 370; a. 1 5", cl. Gilliam) 

Cleburne (APA-73) was launched 27 September 1944 
by Consolidated Steel Corp., Wilmington, Calif., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. J. E. 
Trainer, acquired by the Navy 21 December 1944; and 
commissioned the next day, Lieutenant Commander F. T. 
Callaghan in command. 

From 12 February 1945 to 10 June, Cleburne made 
two voyages from west coast ports to conduct training 
in the Hawaiian Islands, returning each time with pas- 
sengers and hospital patients. She sailed from San 
Francisco 28 June to transfer troops in the western 
Pacific, calling at Eniwetok, Guam, Ulithi, Okinawa, 
ports in the Philippines, and Jinsen, Korea, before she 
arrived at Portland, Oreg., from the Far East 13 No- 
vember. On 7 December she sailed to carry men to 
Shanghai and Tsingtao, China, returning to San Fran- 
cisco 13 February 1946. 

Cleburne arrived at Pearl Harbor 1 March 1946, and 
there was decommissioned 7 June 1946. After use in 
the atomic weapons tests at Bikini, she was towed to 
San Francisco and transferred to the Maritime Com- 
mission 7 July 1947. 

Clematis 

A perennial flowering vine of the crowfoot family. 

(Tug: t. 297; 1. 127'; b. 22'; dr. 10'; s. 12 k.; cpl. 46; 
a. 1 30-pdr. r., 2 12-pdr. sb.) 


Clematis, a steam tug, was built in 1863 at Cleveland, 
Ohio, and purchased by the Navy 2 August 1864. She 
was taken to New York Navy Yard to be outfitted, and 
placed in commission there 14 September 1864, Acting 
Volunteer Lieutenant Elias D. Bruner in command. 

Departing New York 4 October 1864 with the monitor 
Mahopac in tow, Clematis arrived at Fort Monroe, Va., 
6 October. She operated as a tug in the J ames and Eliza- 
beth Rivers and at Norfolk Navy Yard until 5 Novem- 
ber when she sailed for duty on the blockade off Wil- 
mington, N.C. 

After repairs in Norfolk from 13 December 1864, 
Clematis again served up the James River in March and 
April 1865. On 27 April she cleared Fort Monroe, Va., 
for Mobile, Ala., arriving 21 May 1865. Retained in 
service at the close of the Civil War, she served the 
Gulf Squadron until 23 May 1866 when she sailed for 
Philadelphia Navy Yard, arriving 31 May. She was 
placed out of commission 6 June 1866 and sold 26 No- 
vember 1866. 


Clemson 

Henry A. Clemson was born in New Jersey in 1820 
and was appointed a midshipman in 1836. He served in 
St. Mary’s and Somers during the Mexican War. Passed 
Midshipman Clemson was drowned 8 December 1846 
when Somers capsized off Vera Cruz. 

(DD-186: dp. 1,215; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'9"; dr. 9'10"; s. 35 

k. ; cpl. 101; a. 4 4", 3 3'', 12 21" tt. ; cl. Clemson) 

Clemson (DD-186) was launched 5 September 1918 by 
Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport 
News, Va. ; sponsored by Miss M. C. Daniels; and com- 
missioned 29 December 1919, Lieutenant Commander 
G. C. Dichman in command. 

Clemson cruised in east coast and Cuban waters until 
placed in reserve with 50 percent complement at Norfolk 
Navy Yard 13 June 1920. She lay there and later at 
Charleston and Boston Navy Yards until she sailed to 
Philadelphia Navy Yard where she was decommissioned 
30 June 1922. 

Reclassified AVP-17, 15 November 1939, and con- 
verted into a small aircraft tender, Clemson was recom- 
missioned 12 July 1940. On 6 August she was again 
reclassified, becoming AVD-4, and on 18 August re- 
ported to Commander, Aircraft, Scouting Force, At- 
lantic Fleet at Norfolk. From 29 August 1940 to 28 
November 1941 she tended patrol planes in the Carib- 
bean and at the Galapagos Islands. Clemson then sailed 
south arriving at Recife, Brazil, 6 December. She re- 
mained on the coast of Brazil until 22 January 1942 
when she returned to the Galapagos Islands. For the 
next year the tender shuttled between there and the 
Caribbean as her services were required. She returned to 
Norfolk, Va., 2 March 1943 and then moved to Charles- 
ton, S.C., for reconversion to a destroyer (although not 
reclassified DD-186 until 1 December 1943). 

On 30 May 1943 she joined the pioneer American 
hunter-killer group built around Bogue (CVE-9). Clem- 
son made eight patrols with the group during which it 
sank eight German submarines, a major contribution to 
victory in the Battle of the Atlantic. Clemson shared in 
the credit for the sinking of TJ-172 on 13 December in 
26° 19' N., 29° 58' W. After an overhaul at New York 
early in 1944, she escorted a convoy to Casablanca and 
back between 25 January and 9 March. Once more 
Clemson underwent conversion, this time to a high 
speed transport at Charleston Navy Yard (reclassified 
APD-31, 7 March 1944). 

Clearing Charleston 1 May 1944 the transport reached 
Pearl Harbor 24 May and embarked Underwater Demo- 
lition Team 6. She then sailed westward to act as a 
mother ship for the UDT as it prepared beaches imme- 
diately before the invasions of Saipan, Guam, Peleliu, 
Leyte and Lingayen Gulf, Luzon. While entering the 


128 


Gulf 5 January 1945, she drove off a Japanese air attack. 
Clemson escorted convoys to Ulithi, Saipan, and Oki- 
nawa before returning to San Pedro, Calif., 6 July. Re- 
designated DD-186, 17 July, she was still undergoing 
reconversion when World War II ended. She was de- 
commissioned 12 October 1945 and sold 21 November 
1946. 

Clemson shared in the Presidential Unit Citation 
awarded the Bogue hunter-killer group, and received 
nine battle stars for World War II service. 


Cleo 

Former name retained. 

Cleo (No. 232), a motorboat, served in a noncommis- 
sioned status on the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers during 
World War I. 


Clermont 

A county in Ohio. 

(APA-143 : dp. 6,720; 1. 445'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 536; a. 1 5"; cl. Haskell) 

Clermont (APA-143) was launched 25 November 1944 
by California Shipbuilding Corp., Wilmington, Calif., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. F. Wells; acquired by the Navy 27 January 1945; 
converted at Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash.; and 
commissioned 28 January 1945, Captain F. E. Shoup in 
command. 

Clermont sailed from Port Chicago, Calif., 10 April 
1945 for Pearl Harbor, arriving 16 April. Here she 
conducted training, then embarked the 126th Construc- 
tion Battalion. She cleared Pearl Harbor 20 May, for 
Eniwetok, Ulithi, and Okinawa, arriving 24 June to 
disembark her troops and cargo. She returned to San 
Francisco 21 July to embark passengers for Pearl Har- 
bor, arriving there 9 August. After taking Marine units 
and the 116th Naval Construction Battalion on board, 
she cleared 1 September for Saipan and Sasebo, where 
she put her passengers ashore for the occupation of 
Sasebo Naval Base. After a voyage to the Philippines 
to carry additional occupation troops to Japan, she car- 
ried units of the 5th Marines from Sasebo to Peleliu 
and sailed on 3 November with homeward bound service- 
men to San Diego, arriving 23 November. 

Clermont made a second “Magic Carpet” voyage be- 
tween 8 December 1945 and 11 January 1946. Eleven 
days later she sailed for Norfolk, arriving 4 February. 
Clermont was decommissioned 1 March 1946, and re- 
turned to the Maritime Commission 3 March 1946. 

Clermont received one battle star for World W^r II 
service. 


Cleveland 

A city in Ohio. 

I 

(C-19: dp. 3,200; 1. 308'10"; b. 44'; dr. 15'9”; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 339; a. 10 5"; cl. Denver) 

The first Cleveland (C-19), a protected cruiser, was 
launched 28 September 1901 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, 
Maine; sponsored by Miss R. Hanna; and commissioned 
2 November 1903, Commander W. H. H. Southerland in 
command. 

Cleveland cruised with the European Squadron, in 
West Indian and Cuban waters, along the east coast 
between Hampton Roads and Boston, and on a midship- 
men training cruise until 17 May 1907. She then sailed 
from New York via Gibraltar, Port Said, Aden, Colombo, 
and Singapore to Cavite, arriving 1 August 1907. After 


3 years on the Asiatic station, Cleveland returned to 
Mare Island Navy Yard 1 August 1910. Decommissioned 
3 August 1910, she was placed in second reserve 8 April 
1912, and returned to full commission 31 August 1912. 

Cleveland alternated patrols in waters off Mexico and 
Central America with reserve periods -at Mare Island 
Navy Yard between 1912 and 1917, protecting American 
lives and interests from the turmoil of revolution. On 
31 March 1917, she arrived at Hampton Roads, Va., and 
from 9 April to 22 June, patrolled from Cape Hatteras 
to Charleston. Assigned to escort convoys to a midocean 
meeting point, Cleveland made seven such voyages be- 
tween June 1917 and December 1918. 

Returning to patrols off Central and South America, 
Cleveland was assigned to the Pacific Fleet once more 
from 16 February 1920, returning to Caribbean waters 
from time to time. She was reclassified CL-21 on 8 
August 1921. During her continued service in the Carib- 
bean and along the South American coasts, Cleveland 
made courtesy calls, supported diplomatic activities, 
gave disaster relief, and represented American interests 
in troubled areas. She was decommissioned at Boston 1 
November 1929, and sold for scrapping 7 March 1930 in 
accordance with the Washington Treaty limiting naval 
armament. 

II 

(CL-55 : dp. 10,000; 1. 610'1"; b. 66'6"; dr. 20'; s. 33 k.; 
cpl. 992; a. 12 6", 12 5''; cl. Cleveland) 

The second Cleveland (CL-55) was launched 1 No- 
vember 1941 by New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, 
N.J.; sponsored by Mrs. H. Burton; and commissioned 
15 June 1942, Captain E. W. Burrough in command. 

Clearing Norfolk 10 October 1942 Cleveland joined a 
task force off Bermuda bound for the invasion of North 
Africa. Her firepower supported the landings at Fed- 
hala, French Morocco, on 8 November and she remained 
on patrol until 12 November, returning to Norfolk, 24 
November. 

Cleveland sailed for the Pacific 5 December 1942, and 
arrived at Efate 16 January. Her first mission in the 
consolidation of the Solomon Islands was with TF 18 
to guard a troop convoy to Guadalcanal from 27 to 31 
January. Cleveland fired on the enemy as she came 
under heavy air attack in the Battle of Rennell Island 
on the 29th and 30th. 

Joining TF 68 Cleveland steamed up “the slot” 6 
March 1943 to bombard Japanese airfields at Vila, then 
joined in the attacks which sank two Japanese destroy- 
ers in Kula Gulf. Still with TF 68, “Merrill’s Maraud- 
ers,” Cleveland fired in the bombardment of the Short- 
land Islands on 30 June and provided gun support for 
the invasion landings at Munda, New Georgia on 12 
July. Following a short repair period at Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, Cleveland sailed for the preinvasion bombard- 
ment of the Treasury Islands on 26 and 27 October. Her 
task force steamed to blast Buka and Bonis on 1 No- 



USS Cleveland (CL— 55) 


129 


4JL55/A.1G-3 
Swiial (uoi6) 


DECLASSIFIED 


U S S. CLEVELAND C02 

o/o riuut. Pool i-rrio# 

San iruiicleoc, California. 


lb JUL 1943 


From: -he Ccniaumding Offlosr. 

To: The Coounen der in Chief, U. S. Peclfio Fleet. 

Via: (1) CooimAJider, Task Croup >6.9* 

(2) Comnsender , South Paolflo Foroe. 


SuLjeot : 


1. 

Cocsjaaner, ■'aafc (-roup >6.9 Operation Plana, ho. 6-43 dated Juna 
2t>, 1943, and ho. 7-43 dated July 10, 1943. tf.S.S. CLEVELAND, 
fo*u*th lr. ool’xnn, opened fire at 1604 C.C.T., approximately n< ne 
nJ nut os aftor L’.S.S. NONITEllLR, tile f 1 1 .(. • ihi n and column leader, 
with 6" and 5" batteries iii ediatuly upon roechin* opening fire 
jpolnt , Uunda Point bearing 308° True, distunoo 4.7 uilea. 
Throughout the bora bard ns nt thu visibility was £ood with saue 
0 waul us oloudj around tli.. horizon, '\inde Point, the re fere nee 
point, was easily naan. An excellent navigational plot waa ob- 
tained from the SC' Radur osln* ranges bearings on Hlaok 
ftook, south of Munde Point., f Comcmnl oat ions with tho "Bleak Cat* 
uir spotter or. voice radio were ezoollent. The Air Spotter, the 
CLfcVEL-tf.n*s Senior Aviator, spotted for U.S.S. DENVER, CLEV ELAN), 
and BUCHANAN. He observe^! frcn altitudes varying between 3 000 
and 8000 feet and o oul. distinctly male*, out Junrta Point. The 
initial epots for both batteries wore handled expeditiously by 
piano ano oiiib, one there eaa no delay In ooja&anolng destructive 
fire. The initial am. only spots ware "Right X>0 yards" for the 
6 battery, unu "No change" for the 5" battery. After the first 
calvo it wae diffioult for the Air Spotter to Identify aalvoa by 
ships. Identification and spotting became increasingly diffioult 
as tho JQ/Ahardznent progrosaed, due to fire, snake, duae. 


Action Rupoj-t - Bombertknent of Japanese Installa- 
tions or. Munde Point Area, New Georgia Island, 
160*, to 1634 C.C.T., July 11, 194i. 5 


A h< bo;iberd,ient was carried out In aooordanoe with 


lour unlduntlflad planec , believed to have been 
-arcs, woru in the air in tho vicinity of the "Black Cat" dur- 
ing part of the ben hard ent . One of than made several pa&aaa 
at the 1 ) leak Cat", tut did net shoot. Spotting wee frtxa a 
blister. -Till 1 rot Jd a mere aatinfactory location Mw>n tbs •©- 
- ilot'M seat, tut oould only be used baa. use the. 50 caliber 
achlne gunn were not in aoticn. 


The fc.ll of uhot was also observed frou tho 
Cl.F.V ELAND ; the arue soenod to be wail ow a rtd. and nil— I rai ■ 
.‘ires wore jtu.’tcid. Huj CLEVrLLAND*s sixth salvo apparently 
struoi: or. ojivnunl tiun dump, uu a heavy axploaloc was observed 
foliov/t'u by fienu. oovutilI hundred feet high. Shore battarloa 
we -c observod by the " llao); Cat" to bo firing an tho i M»*fr er «M l » g 
uiLips n first. They .ere quickly -dl uncart. Uno full aelvo 
fra. luo of tho ships lanuod squarely on cue battery on 
Point. Shore bottory ;iro was not observed fnxa this ship. 


Tint* ojti aUx uonaity of li^paet was approxi— ctaly 
one 6 " KC/6289 square yards, j lus oao 5" AA Co— \/b22!7 square 
yards. 37.3 tons of 6" and 28.5 tons of 5 " ware delivered in 
tho target a ran by thu CLEVELAND. Tha 5" aelvo interval wee 
ten seconds, that o. tho 6" was 20 seconds. -AT cry other 5* ael- 
vo was fired in broadside with the 6". If it had bean no— ary 
to do so it la bo 11 avert Uu*t equal psrfor— no# in avury respect 
ooulu easily hnvo been oute Inert with aelvo intervals of five 
and ten ascends v which would hove par It tad the formation to 
have ateoned at 20 knots, with the alow rata of firs, and sal- 
vo fire, no t risible was ex er lanoe> due to the use of snotoala— 
powder. If e higher rate of aelvo fire v or continuous fire, 
had baan used, flaahlaea powder would have bean very desirable. 


The aooureov of the fire prorad to be ouch that 
it is believed that it would in ve barn pcrfeetlv feasible to 
have extended the area oovered by our fire to within 100 JSr4l 
or so of our own forces auhorc. ones the initial 0 a reetio— 
were aj plied, partleularly if timed to give a line of fire ap- 
proximately parallel to c — 1 forocs* front lln— . 


vember in support of the troops invading Bougainville, 
dashed south the same day to neutralize bases in the 
Shortlands, and that night intercepted a Japanese force 
off Empress Augusta Bay in the action which was to 
win her a Navy Unit Commendation. Cleveland poured 
her radar-controlled fire into the four Japanese cruisers 
for over an hour, aiding in sinking Sendai, then chased 
the fleeing ships until daybreak. An air attack followed 
and one stick of bombs severely rocked Cleveland, who 
answered by splashing several of the enemy planes. She 
returned to Buka for another bombardment on 23 De- 
cember, then patrolled between Truk and Green Island 
from 13 to 18 February 1944 while American forces 
captured the latter. 


After supporting the capture of Emirau Island from 
17 to 23 March 1944, Cleveland sailed for replenishment 
and repairs at Sydney, Australia, then returned to the 
Solomons 21 April to prepare for the Marianas opera- 
tion. One practice bombardment on 20 May brought 
return fire unexpectedly which straddled the ship, but 
unharmed, she quickly silenced the shore batteries. 

From 8 June to 12 August 1944 Cleveland partici- 
pated in the Marianas operation. She conducted soften- 
ing-up bombardments and then gave fire support for 
invading troops until she joined TF 58 for the Battle of 
the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June. Although few 
enemy aircraft penetrated the screen of American 
carrier planes, Cleveland was credited with splashing at 
least one enemy aircraft and assisting in downing an- 
other of the few which did get through. 

From 12 to 29 September 1944 Cleveland fired in the 
invasion of the Palaus, then sailed from Manus 5 Oc- 
tober for a stateside overhaul. She arrived in Subic Bay 
9 February, and sailed on to bombard Corregidor on 13 
and 14 February, effectively neutralizing the fortress 
before the landings there. Continuing to support the 
consolidation of the Philippines, she covered the land- 
ings at Puerto Princesa, the Visayans, Panay, and the 
Malabang-Parang area on Mindanao. 

Cleveland put out from Subic Bay 7 June 1945 to act 
as part of the covering force and provide fire support 
for the invasion landings at Brunei Bay, Borneo on 10 
June. She returned to Subic Bay 15 June, then sailed 
to Manila to embark General of the Army Douglas Mac- 
Arthur, USA, and his staff as observers of the assault 
on Balikpapan. Arriving 30 June, she fired in a pre- 
landing bombardment the next morning, and after Gen- 
eral MacArthur had made an inspection tour of the 
landing area, got underway for Manila, arriving 3 July. 

With a new cruiser task force, Cleveland sailed 13 
July 1945 to Okinawa, arriving 16 July. From this base 
the force made a series of sweeps against Japanese 
shipping until 7 August to insure Allied control of the 
East China Sea. Cleveland got underway from Okinawa 
9 September to support the occupation of Japan by 
covering the evacuation of Allied prisoners of war from 
Wakayama, then serving as part of a naval occupation 
group until the 6th Army made its landings on Honshu. 
After a short stay in Tokyo Bay (28 October-1 Novem- 
ber), Cleveland sailed for Pearl Harbor, San Diego, the 
Panama Canal, and Boston, arriving 5 December for 
overhaul. She operated out of Newport on various train- 
ing exercises, including a Naval Reserve training cruise 
to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Quebec in June 1946, be- 
fore reporting to Philadelphia for inactivation. Cleve- 
land was placed out of commission in reserve there 7 
February 1947, until sold 18 February 1960. 

In addition to her Navy Unit Commendation, Cleve- 
land received 13 battle stars for World War II service. 

Cliffrose 

A tufted herb with pink or white flowers found in the 
mountains and on the seacoasts in the North Temperate 
Zone. 

(AN-42: dp. 1,100; 1. 194'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13'6"; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 56; a. 1 3"; cl. Ailanthus) 

Cliffrose (AN-42) was launched 27 November 1943 by 
Everett-Pacific Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Everett, 
Wash., as YN-61; sponsored by Miss S. Morgan; reclas- 
sified AN-42, 20 January 1944; and commissioned 30 
April 1944, Lieutenant Commander G. Montague, 
USNR, in command. 

Cliffrose sailed from San Pedro, Calif., 21 June 1944 
for Pearl Harbor, arriving 4 July for local duty. She 
departed 8 August for the Florida Islands and the 
invasion of Peleliu on 15 September. She carried 
out surveys for the installation of moorings, and then 
laid an antitorpedo net across the western entrance of 
Kossol Passage, remaining in the Palaus until 8 De- 


130 


cember, when she sailed for Ulithi. Arriving 10 De- 
cember, she was briefly overhauled and had duty repair- 
ing nets. 

Cliffrose put out from Ulithi 25 March 1945 for the 
Okinawa invasion, arriving on 1 April, the day of the 
first landings, for duty installing and repairing nets 
until 5 August. After upkeep at Saipan, she returned to 
Okinawa 20 September, loaded supplies, and cleared 25 
October for Bungo Suido, Japan, arriving 29 October. 
Here she laid navigational aids until the end of the 
year, sailing then for Pearl Harbor and San Pedro, 
California, where she arrived 1 January 1946. 

Cliffrose cleared San Pedro, after local operations, 3 
July 1946 for Pearl Harbor, where she operated from 
16 July to 16 August; Guam and Subic Bay, arriving 
14 September. She served in Philippine waters until 25 
December, when she cleared Subic Bay for Shanghai, 
arriving 31 December. Cliffrose was decommissioned 
7 January 1947 and turned over to China through the 
State Department. 

Cliffrose received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Clifton 

Former name retained. 

I 

(SwStr: t. 892; 1. 210'; b. 40'; dph. 13'6"; a. 4 32-pdr., 
2 9" sb.) 

The first Clifton, a side wheel steam ferryboat, was 
built in Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1861 and purchased 2 De- 
cember 1861 by the Navy Department. She was outfitted 
by J. A. Westervelt of New York, and placed in commis- 
sion late in 1861 or early 1862, Acting Lieutenant C. H. 
Baldwin in command. 

Clifton sailed from New York 22 February 1862 and 
arrived at Ship Island, La., 18 March for duty with the 
Mortar Flotilla of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron. 


She was commended by Commander D. D. Porter for 
assisting in towing the 21 vessels of the flotilla across 
the bar into the Mississippi River. She joined in the 
bombardment and capture of Forts Jackson and St. 
Philip below New Orleans between 18 and 24 April 
1862; the attack on the Confederate batteries at Vicks- 
burg, Miss., during which on 28 June 1862 she took a 
shot through her boiler which killed seven men; and the 
capture of Galveston, Tex., from 4 to 9 October 1862. 

After capturing the bark H. McGuin in Bay St. Louis, 
on 18 July 1863, she fired with telling effect on Sibley’s 
Brigade on 28 July 1863 during a reconnaissance up the 
Atchafalaya and Teche Rivers. Captured by the Con- 
federates at Sabine Pass, Tex., 8 September 1863, she 
ran aground there 21 March 1864 when an attempt to 
run the blockade failed. The Confederates burned her 
to prevent capture. 

II 

The second Clifton (No. 2080), a motorboat, served 
in the Navy during 1917-18. 

III 

(IX-184: dp. 4,600; 1. 453'2"; b. 54'; dr. 27'6"; s. 10 k.; 
a. 1 4", 1 3") 

The third Clifton (IX-184) was built in 1913 by Beth- 
lehem Shipbuilding Co., Alameda, Calif., as the tanker 
Dilworth; transferred from the War Shipping Admin- 
istration at Brisbane, Australia, 31 May 1945; and com- 
missioned 2 June 1945, Lieutenant D. M. Cranford, 
USNR, in command. 

Clifton sailed from Brisbane on 13 June 1945 to serve 
as station tanker at Leyte (12 July-2 August), Manila 
(5-29 August), and Kanoya, Japan (8 September-2 
November). Sailing by way of Pearl Harbor and San 
Pedro, Calif., the tanker reached Mobile, Ala., 14 Janu- 
ary 1946. She was decommissioned there 21 February 
1946 and returned to the War Shipping Administration 
the same day. 



USS Clifton (Side-wheel Steamer) in attack on Sabine Pass, Tex. 


131 


Climax 

The highest point; culmination; acme. 

(AM-161: dp. 530; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 104; a. 1 3"; cl. Admirable) 

Climax (AM-161) was launched 9 January 1943 by 
Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg.; and 
commissioned 24 March 1944, Lieutenant R. E. Daniel- 
son, Jr., USNR, in command. 

From May to September 1944 Climax served as a 
school ship at U.S. Naval Small Craft Training Center, 
San Pedro, Calif. After brief overhaul she sailed on 
convoy escort duty to Pearl Harbor, Eniwetok, and 
Ulithi, returning to Eniwetok 20 December. Until 6 
March 1945 she operated out of Eniwetok on convoy 
escort duty to Ulithi, Guam, and Saipan. She escorted 
a resupply convoy to Iwo Jima 13 March as fighting 
continued on the island, remaining on screening duty 
until 18 March. Returning to Eniwetok 29 March, 
Climax resumed her convoy escort duty to Ulithi and 
Guam, and acted as training ship for submarines as well 
as aiding in the expansion of anchorage facilities at 
Eniwetok. 

Following overhaul at Guam, Climax sailed for Sai- 
pan, Okinawa and Wakayama, Honshu, where she 
conducted sweeping operations from 11 September 
1945 to 18 October in support of the landing of Allied 
occupation troops. She remained in Matoya Ko as a 
pilot vessel until 19 December 1945 when she cleared 
Nagoya for San Diego, arriving 16 February. Climax 
was placed out of commission in reserve there 31 May 
1946. She was reclassified MSF-161, 7 February 1955. 

Climax received two battle stars for World War II 
service. 


Clinton 

Partial retention of former name Lena Clinton; 
counties in nine states. 

I 

(ScTug: t. 50; 1. 58'8"; b. 15'10"; dr. 7'; cpl. 16) 

The first Clinton, a screw tug, was purchased 14 June 
1864 at New York under the name Lena Clinton. She 
was assigned to duty with the North Atlantic Blockad- 
ing Squadron, Acting Ensign Farnum J. Runnells in 
command, for picket and tug service in the James River 
and at Norfolk Navy Yard until the end of the war. 
Arriving at New York Navy Yard 16 June 1865, she 
remained in use as a yard tug until sold 3 August 1870. 

II 

(APA-144 : dp. 6,720; 1. 455'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 17 k.; 
cpl. 546; a. 1 5"; cl. Haskell) 

The second Clinton (APA-144) was launched 29 No- 
vember 1944 by California Shipbuilding Co., Wilming- 
ton, Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; 
sponsored by Mrs. L. N. Green ; transferred to the Navy 
1 February 1945; converted at U.S. Naval Station, 
Astoria, Oreg.; and commissioned 1 February 1945, 
Commander J. A. Ivaldi, USNR, in command. 

Clinton cleared San Francisco 17 April 1945 and 
sailed to land Marine replacement troops and equipment 
on Okinawa between 27 and 31 May. She transferred 
battle casualties to Guam where she embarked ground 
forces of the 7th Bomber Command for transportation 
to Okinawa, arriving 2 July. When she sailed 6 days 
later she was carrying over 1,000 Okinawan and Korean 
prisoners of war for internment in the Hawaiian Is- 
lands. Clinton cleared Honolulu 5 August carrying re- 
placement troops to Saipan. 

She sailed on to Manila to embark Army occupation 
troops whom she landed at Tsingtao, China, 11 October 


1945. Arriving at Haiphong, French Indo-China, 26 
October, she loaded Chinese troops and equipment and 
carried them to Chinwangtao and Taku for the reoccu- 
pation of northern China. Assigned to “Magic Carpet” 
duty, Clinton embarked homeward-bound servicemen at 
Manila and sailed 28 November for San Pedro, Calif., 
arriving 18 December. She continued to the east coast, 
arriving at Norfolk 2 February 1946. Clinton was de- 
commissioned 2 May 1946 and transferred to the Mari- 
time Commission for disposal 1 October 1958. 

Clinton received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Clio 

The muse of history in Greek mythology. 

I 

(AK: 1. 332'; b. 44'4''; dr. 19'; s. 10 k.) 

The first Clio (No. 2578) was built in 1910 by Werfte 
Voorh Rijkee and Co., Rotterdam, Holland; seized by 
Customs officials at Key West, Fla., under the 20 March 
1918 Presidential Proclamation; transferred to the 
Navy from the Shipping Board 21 March 1918; and 
commissioned 3 April 1918, Lieutenant Commander 
D. M. Helle, USNRF, in command. 

Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Serv- 
ice, Clio sailed from Key West 5 April for Havana, Cuba, 
arriving the next day. She departed Cuba 15 April and 
arrived 4 days later at New Orleans, La., where she 
was placed out of commission and returned to the Ship- 
ping Board 23 April 1918. 

II 

The second Clio, a freighter, served in the 5th Naval 
District during 1918-22. 

Cloues 

Born 25 December 1917 at Warner, N.H., Edward 
Blanchard Cloues graduated from the Naval Academy 

6 June 1940. Ensign Cloues reported to Arizona (BB- 
39) 29 June 1940, and was killed in action when his ship 
was sunk at Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack 

7 December 1941. 

(DE-265 : dp. 1,140; 1. 289'5"; b. 35'; dr. 8'3''; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 156; a. 3 3'', 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct. ; cl. Evarts) 

Cloues (DE-265) was launched 6 April 1943 by Bos- 
ton Navy Yard; sponsored on her commissioning day by 
Mrs. H. B. Cloues, mother of Ensign Cloues; and com- 
missioned 10 August 1943, Commander W. S. Howard 
in command. 

Cloues stood out of Boston 4 October 1943 for New 
York, the Panama Canal, San Francisco, and Pearl 
Harbor, arriving 17 November. She conducted gunnery 
exercises, battle practice, and landing operations off 
Oahu until 30 November, when she sailed in convoy to 
San Francisco. For the next months she had escort duty 
in the Hawaiian Islands and to San Francisco. On 29 
February, she sailed from Pearl Harbor for Johnston 
Island and the Gilberts, arriving 11 March for escort 
duty and to cover the landings at Bikini, Enyu, and 
Rongelap. From 22 March Clones was based on Kwaja- 
lein for screening duty in the Marshalls. 

Cloues was assigned to a special mission scouting the 
Japanese-held islands of Jaluit, Wotje, Mille, and Loj 
between 2 and 27 May 1944. She launched and recovered 
a reconnaissance party consisting of an officer, an in- 
terpreter, and three native scouts who operated with 
outriggers. This group was able to evaluate the results 
of bombings of these islands during the previous months. 
With her mission successfully completed, Cloues re- 
sumed escort duties from Eniwetok in support of the 
Guam operation. 


132 


Convoy escort duty between Eniwetok and Saipan 
occupied Cloues from 25 November until 23 December 
1944, and from that time until 10 March 1945 she had 
escort duty from Eniwetok to Ulithi and Kossol Roads. 
On 22 March Cloues sailed in support of the Okinawa 
operation serving in antisubmarine and antiaircraft 
screening, on plane guard duty, destroying mines, and 
transferring personnel, mail, and freight. Cloues re- 
turned to Ulithi 28 April, and sailed 4 May for San 
Pedro Bay, P.I., for screening duty until 27 May, when 
she returned to Ulithi. She sailed 9 June for San Pedro 
Bay, where she made rendezvous for the amphibious 
landings at Balikpapan. She returned to San Pedro 
Bay 8 July, and sailed for Eniwetok, Pearl Harbor, and 
San Francisco, arriving 29 July. Cloues was decommis- 
sioned 26 November 1945, and sold 22 May 1947. 

Cloues received three battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Clover 

Any of several species of plants, usually three-leaved, 
of the bean family. 

I 

(Tug: t. 129; 1. 92'; b. 19'; dr. 9'; s. 7 k.; a 1 12-pdr., 
1 12-pdr. sb.) 

The first Clover , a steam tug, was purchased as Daisy 
11 November 1863 from Winsor and Co., Philadelphia, 
Pa.; outfitted at Philadelphia Navy Yard; and commis- 
sioned there 28 November 1863, Acting Ensign J. M. 
Smiley in command. 

Clover sailed 1 December 1863 to join the South At- 
lantic Blockading Squadron at Beaufort, S.C. She was 
employed on picket duty guarding the monitors, and on 
tug and dispatch service until the end of the war. On 
26 January 1865 she captured the schooner Coquette 
and brought her into Port Royal, S.C. After the war, 
she joined in dragging for torpedoes off Charleston, S.C. 

Arriving at Philadelphia Navy Yard 26 July 1865, 
Clover was decommissioned the following day and sold 
21 September 1865. 

II 

The second Clover, a lighthouse tender, was taken 
over by the Navy at the start of World War I. Attached 
to the 9th, 10th and 11th Naval Districts, the tender 
continued lighthouse duty on the Great Lakes through- 
out the war. She was returned to the Lighthouse Serv- 
ice on 1 July 1919. 


Clyde 

Villages in New York and Ohio. 

I 

(SwStr : t. 294; 1. 200'6''; b. 18'6"; dph. 8'; s. 9 k.; cpl 
67; a. 2 24-pdr. how.) 

The first Clyde, a side wheel steamer, was captured as 
Neptune 14 June 1863 by USS Lackawanna and sent to 
Key West for condemnation. Sent to New York to be 
surveyed and appraised, she was purchased by the Navy 
Department and placed in commission 29 July 1863, 
Acting Master A. A. Owens in command. 

Departing New York 30 July 1863, the steamer ar- 
rived at Washington, D.C., 3 August. Her name was 
changed to Clyde 11 August 1863. Clyde sailed from 
Washington 6 September 1863 and arrived at Key West 
13 September for duty with the East Gulf Blockading 
Squadron. She patrolled the coastal and inland waters 
of western Florida and among the Florida Keys until 
the end of the war. She captured the schooner Amaranth 
27 September 1863, and participated in two boat expedi- 


tions up the Suwanee and Waccasassa rivers, capturing 
nearly 200 bales of cotton. 

Arriving at Philadelphia Navy Yard 10 August 1865, 
Clyde was decommissioned 17 August 1865, taken to 
New York and sold 25 October 1865. 

II 

(IX-144: dp. 4,800; 1. 409'8''; b. 52'5"; dr. 25'3"; s. 11 
k.; cpl. 97; a. 1 4", 1 3") 

The second Clyde (IX-144) was built in 1918 by 
Palmers Shipbuilding & Iron Works, Newcastle, Eng- 
land, as tanker Swivel; transferred from the War 
Shipping Administration at Brisbane, Australia, 9 Feb- 
ruary 1944; and commissioned 14 March 1944 as St. 
Mary, Lieutenant H. I. Ross, USNR, in command; and 
renamed Clyde on 10 June 1944. 

Clyde served as a station tanker at Langemak and 
Hollandia, New Guinea, from 25 June 1944 until dam- 
aged in a collision 1 November. She remained at Hol- 
landia as dead storage until 22 October 1945. On 9 
April 1945 she was decommissioned and placed “in 
service.” Towed by way of Manus, Admiralty Islands 
to Subic Bay, Luzon (11-24 December 1945) she was 
returned to the War Shipping Administration at Subic 
on 7 February 1946. She was stricken from the Navy 
List on 5 May 1946. 


Clymer, George, see George Clymer 
Clytie 

A nymph in Greek mythology, enamored of Apollo. 

(AS-26: dp. 7,150; 1. 492'; b. 69'6''; dr. 23'; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 1,460; a. 1 5", 4 3''; cl. Aegir) 

Clytie (AS-26) was launched 26 November 1943 by 
Ingalls Shipbuilding Co., Pascagoula, Miss., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. C. H. 
Leavitt; transferred to the Navy 26 February 1944; 
converted at Bethlehem Steel Corp., Hoboken, N.J.; and 
commissioned 18 January 1945, Commander C. H. 
Walker in command. 

Clytie sailed from New London 21 February 1945 for 
Brisbane, and Fremantle, Australia, where she tended 
submarines of the 7th Fleet from 4 April to 13 Septem- 
ber. Returning to New London 17 October, Clytie 
remained there except for a brief overhaul at Phila- 
delphia until placed out of commission in reserve 5 
October 1946. 


Coast Battleship No. 1, see Indiana (BB-1) 


Coast Battleship No. 2, see Massachusetts (BB-2) 
Coast Battleship No. 4, see Iowa (BB-4) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 1, see Foote (TB-3) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 2, see Rodgers (TB-4) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 3, see Du Pont (TB-7) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 4, see Dahlgren (TB-9) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 5, see Farragut (TB-11) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 6, see Morris (TB-14) 


133 


Coast Torpedo Boat No. 7, see Goldsborough (TB— 20) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 8, see Bailey (TB— 21) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 9, see Somers (TB-22) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 10, see Bag ley (TB-24) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 11, see Barney (TB-25) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 12, see Biddle (TB— 26) 
C6ast Torpedo Boat No. 13, see Blakely (TB— 27) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 14, see De Long (TB— 28) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 15, see Shubrick (TB— 31) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 16, see Thornton (TB-33) 
Coast Torpedo Boat No. 17, see Tingey (TB— 34) 


Coasters Harbor 

An island in Narragansett Bay, R.I., site of the 
Naval War College. 

(AG-74: dp. 5,766; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11”; dr. 23'; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 891; a. 1 5”; cl. Basilan) 

Coasters Harbor was launched 17 November 1944 by 
New England Shipbuilding Corp., South Portland, 
Maine, under a Maritime Commission contract; spon- 
sored by Mrs. M. M. Naples; transferred to the Navy 26 
November 1944; commissioned the same day, ferried to 
Todd Shipbuilding Co., Brooklyn, N.Y. ; decommissioned 
30 November 1944 for conversion to an electronics re- 
pair ship; and was recommissioned 29 July 1945, Com- 
mander T. H. Moyer, USNR, in command. 

Sailing from Norfolk, Va., 29 August, Coasters Har- 
bor reached San Diego, Calif., 19 September and Sasebo, 
Japan, 31 October. She remained there servicing vessels 
of the occupation force until 5 March 1946 when she 
sailed westward to take part in Operation “Crossroads.” 
Following the atomic weapons tests Coasters Harbor 
returned to the west coast, arriving at San Pedro, Calif., 
14 September. She was placed out of commission in 
reserve at San Diego 3 July 1947. She was redesignated 
AKS-22, 18 August 1951 and stricken from the Navy 
List on 1 April 1960. 


Coates 

Born in Oakland, California 2 June 1912, Charles 
Coates enlisted in the Navy 24 September 1930. He 
served in New York (BB-34) where he was commended 
by his commanding officer for his seamanship in damage 
control following an engineering casualty. He was pro- 
moted to carpenter’s mate, first class, 16 August 1940, 
and on 14 February 1942 was assigned to Juneau (CL- 
52). He lost his life when his ship was torpedoed 13 
November 1942 off Guadalcanal. 

(DE-685: dp. 1,450; 1. 306'; b. 37'; dr. 9'8"; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 2 5”, 3 21” tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct. ; cl. 

Rudderow) 

Coates (DE-685) was launched 12 December 1943 by 
Bethlehem Steel Co., Quincy, Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. 
A. M. Bledsoe, wife of Captain Bledsoe; commissioned 
24 January 1944, Lieutenant W. S. Wills, USNR, in 
command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet. 


Coates served as a school ship for student officers and 
nucleus crews at Miami between 8 April 1944 and 15 
September 1945, when she reported at Charleston for 
inactivation. Coates was placed out of commission in 
reserve 16 April 1946 at Green Cove Springs. 

Coates was recommissioned 7 February 1951, and re- 
ported to her homeport, Norfolk, 18 March. After coast- 
wise operations and training, she sailed 9 July from 
Norfolk to Liverpool, Nova Scotia, on hunter-killer exer- 
cises, returning 27 July. Training in Cuban waters and 
local operations preceded assignment as training ship 
for Fleet Sonar School, Key West in the spring of 1952. 

Coates sailed 26 August 1952 to join in North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization Operation “Mainbrace,” visiting 
the Firths of Clyde and Forth and Arendal, Norway, 
before returning home 11 October. Coates resumed 
local operations, training exercises off the Virginia 
Capes and at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and took part in a 
midshipman cruise to Brazil in summer 1953. NATO 
exercises took her to Scotland and France from 12 July 
to 3 September 1954. She served as school ship at Key 
West early in 1957, and on 21 November 1957 was as- 
signed to the 3d Naval District as a Naval Reserve 
Training vessel, operating from New York City. 
Through 1963 Coates has conducted training cruises of 
various lengths in Long Island Sound, and to ports in 
the West Indies and along the east coast. Her base was 
changed from N.Y. to New Haven, 19 Sept. I960. 

Coatopa 

Indian village in Alabama. 

Coatopa (YTB-382) served in a noncommissioned 
status in the 15th Naval District during World War II. 

Cobb, Walter B., see Walter B. Cobb 

Cobblpr 

The killifish of New South Wales. 

(SS-344: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9''; b. 27'3”; dr. 15'3”; s. 20 
k.; cpl. 66; a. 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 

Cobbler (SS-344) was launched 1 April 1945 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
J. B. Rutter; commissioned 8 August 1945, Commander 
J. B. Grady in command. 

Cobbler arrived at Key West 11 January 1946, for 
operations locally and in the Caribbean for exercises and 
training until 27 November 1948. She then sailed for 
Groton, arriving 1 December to be modernized. Conver- 
sion completed 17 August 1949, she departed Groton 24 
August for Norfolk, her home port from the time of her 
arrival, 27 August. She conducted operations in Florida 
and Caribbean waters and along the east coast visiting 
Quebec 10 to 14 September 1953, and returning to Nor- 
folk 19 September. On 27 March 1954 she cleared Nor- 
folk for 3 weeks of operations under the control of the 
Operational Development Force, cruising with units of 
the Canadian navy and air force from Bermuda to 
Nova Scotia. 

Her operations in the Caribbean and off the east coast 
continued, until 6 January 1958, when she departed 
Norfolk for a tour of duty in the Mediterranean, re- 
turning 18 April. She resumed operations off the east 
coast, cruising to Bermuda in June 1958, and to Quebec 
with midshipmen embarked in July 1959. From 9 Sep- 
tember 1959 through 1960 she was assigned to the 
Atlantic Fleet’s Antisubmarine Development Force. 

Cobia 

A food fish found in warm waters. 

(SS-245: dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3”; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 60; a. 1 3", 10 21" tt. ; cl. Gato) 


134 


Cobia (SS-245) was launched 28 November 1943 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
C. W. Magruder; and commissioned 29 March 1944, 
Lieutenant Commander A. L. Becker in command. 

Cobia reached Pearl Harbor from New London 3 June 
1944. On 26 June she put to sea on her first war patrol, 
bound for the Bonin Islands. On 13, 17, and 18 July she 
sank Japanese freighters, and on 20 July sank three 
small armed ships in a running gun battle. One of them 
rammed Cobia, causing minor damage, but she con- 
tinued her mission, sinking a converted yacht of 500 tons 
on 5 August, one of whose survivors she rescued as her 
first prisoner of war. 

After refitting at Majuro from 14 August to 6 Sep- 
tember 1944, Cobia sailed into the Luzon Straits for her 
second war patrol, a mission punctuated again and 
again by attacks by Japanese aircraft. On 22 October, 
she rescued two survivors of a Japanese ship previously 
sunk by one of Cobia’s sisters. She put into Fremantle 
to refit 5 November, and cleared on her third war patrol 
30 November. Sailing into the South China Sea, she 
reconnoitered off Balabac Strait between 12 December 
and 8 January 1945, and on 14 January sank the mine- 
layer Yurishima off the southeast coast of Malay. Sur- 
facing to photograph her sinking victim, Cobia was 
driven under by a Japanese bomber. Next day she 
rescued two Japanese from a raft on which they had 
been adrift 40 days. 

Once more she refitted at Fremantle between 24 Janu- 
ary and 18 February 1945, then sailed to the Java Sea 
for her fourth war patrol. On 26 February she engaged 
two sea trucks, one of which resisted with machinegun 
fire which killed one of Cabia’s crew and damaged her 
radar equipment. After sinking both sea trucks, Cobia 
interrupted her patrol for repairs at Fremantle from 
4 to 8 March, then returned to the Java Sea, where on 
8 April she rescued seven men, the surviving crew of a 
downed Army bomber. 

Cobia replenished at Subic Bay from 15 April to 9 
May 1945, then put out for the Gulf of Siam and her 
fifth war patrol. On 14 May she attacked a cargo ship, 
but was driven deep by depth charges hurled by a mine- 
sweeper. Luck changed on 8 June, when Cobia contacted 
a tanker convoy, and sank both a tanker and the land- 
ing craft Hakusa. She refitted once more at Fremantle 
between 18 June and 18 July, then sailed for her sixth 
and final war patrol. After landing intelligence teams 
along the coast of Java on 27 July, Cobia sailed to act as 
lifeguard during air strikes on Formosa until the end 
of hostilities, returning to Saipan 22 August. 

She sailed on for Pearl Harbor, New York, Washing- 
ton, and New London, where she was decommissioned 
and placed in reserve 22 May 1946. Recommissioned 6 
July 1951, Cobia trained reservists and Submarine 
School students at New London until placed in commis- 
sion in reserve at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 29 
October 1953. After overhaul, she was towed to New 
London, where she was again placed out of commission 
in reserve 19 March 1954. 

Of Cobia’s six war patrols, the first, third, fourth, and 
fifth were designated as “successful” war patrols, for 
which she received four battle stars. She was credited 
with having sunk a total of 16,835 tons of shipping. 


Cobra 

Former name retained. 

Cobra (No. 626), a motorboat, served in a noncommis- 
sioned status in the 1st Naval District during World 
War I. 

Cochali 

An Indian name of an island in the Tennessee River in 
Alabama. 


Cochali (YTB-383) was built by Gulfport Boiler and 
Welding Works, Port Arthur, Texas, and served in a 
noncommissioned status in the 8th Naval Dist. during 
World War II. After being in reserve from May 1947 to 
June 1948, she was placed back in service in the 6th 
Naval Dist. She served there through 1960. 

Cochi no 

A trigger fish found in the Atlantic. 

(SS-345 : dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 16'10'; s. 20 
k. ; cpl. 66; a. 1 5”, 10 21" t.t. ; cl. Gato) 

Cochino (SS-345) was launched 20 April 1945 by 
Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. 
M. E. Serat; and commissioned 25 August 1945, Com- 
mander W. A. Stevenson in command. 

Cochino joined the Atlantic Fleet, cruising east coast 
and Caribbean waters from her home port, Key West, 
Fla. On 18 July 1949, she put to sea for a cruise to 
Britain, and arctic operations. Her group ran through 
a violent polar gale off Norway, and the joltings received 
by Cochino played their part in causing an electrical 
fire and battery explosion, followed by the generation of 
deadly hydrogen on 25 August. Defying the most un- 
favorable possible weather conditions, men of Cochina 
and Tusk (SS-426) fought to save the submarine for 14 
hours, performing acts of skillful seamanship and high 
courage. But a second battery explosion on 26 August 
made “Abandon Ship” the only possible order, and 
Cochino sank on 71°35' N., 23°35' E. All Cochino’s men 
were rescued by the valiant Tusk, who had lost seven of 
her own men in the attempt to save Cochino. 

Cochise 

A noted Chiricahua Apache chief. 

Cochise (YTB-216) served in a noncommissioned 
status in the 3d Naval District from July 1944 through 
1960. 


Cockatoo 

A parrot found almost exclusively in Australia. 

I 

The first Cockatoo (AMC-8) was placed in service 25 
April 1941 and operated in the 14th Naval District from 
Pearl Harbor throughout the war. She was transferred 
to the Maritime Commission 23 September 1946. 

II 

On 7 March 1952 LSIL-709 (q.v.) was reclassified 
AMCU-21 and named Cockatoo. 

Cockenoe 

A Montauk Indian who rendered great service to set- 
tlers and the authorities of New England and New York 
in the latter half of the 17th century. 

Cockenoe (YN-47) was launched by Gulfport Boiler 
and Welding Works, Port Arthur, Tex., bought by the 
Navy on 21 December 1940, and placed in service 31 
December 1940. She was reclassified YNT-15 on 1 
May 1942. 

Assigned to the 14th Naval District, Cockenoe was 
towed to Pearl Harbor, arriving 17 June 1941. She 
served as net tender at the entrance to Honolulu Har- 
bor throughout her naval service. She was placed out of 
service on 18 January 1947 and transferred to the Mari- 
time Commission on 16 July 1947. 

Cockrell, Alvin C., see Alvin C. Cockrell 


135 


Cockrill 

Born in Nashville, Tennessee, 27 March 1914, Dan 
Robertson Cockrill was appointed ensign 18 May 1935. 
He reported for active duty 16 June 1941, and joined 
Meredith (DD-434) 22 October 1941. He died 19 Oc- 
tober 1942 as a result of injuries suffered 4 days earlier 
when Meredith was torpedoed. 

(DE-398: dp. 1,200; 1. 306'; b. 36'7"; dr. 8'7"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct; cl. 

Edsall) 

Cockrill (DE-398) was launched 29 October 1943 by 
Brown Shipbuilding Co., Houston, Tex.; sponsored by 
Mrs. Cockrill, mother of Lieutenant Cockrill; commis- 
sioned 24 December 1943, Lieutenant Commander S. 
Farnham in command; and reported to the Atlantic 
Fleet. 

Cockrill cleared Norfolk 23 February 1944 on convoy 
escort duty for Casablanca, returning to New York 5 
April. After training and repairs, she conducted various 
operations off the east coast until 24 July, when she 
cleared Norfolk for a convoy to Bizerte returning to 
New York 7 September. Coastwise escort duty and 
training at Bermuda followed until 4 December, when 
she put to sea for a submarine search in the Gulf of 
Mexico. She voyaged to Bermudan waters 26 December- 
16 January 1945 for operational training with Bogue 
(CVE-9) and an escort unit, and then took part in car- 
rier qualification training in Narragansett Bay and 
training at Casco Bay. 

From 11 April to 11 May 1945 Cockrill was on an 
antisubmarine patrol, with the Bogue group. Taking 
station in a barrier of carrier groups in position from 
Greenland to the Carolinas against the known presence 
of a large number of U-boats, Cockrill participated 24 
April in the attack on U-5U6, which was forced to the 
surface and scuttled by its crew. 

Cockrill sailed from New York 19 May for Charleston, 
Guantanamo, the Panama Canal, and San Diego, arriv- 
ing 14 July. Two days later she cleared for Pearl Har- 
bor, for training until 20 August, when she sailed for 
Saipan arriving 30 August. Assigned to convoy escort 
duty, she operated from Saipan and Guam to Okinawa 
and Japanese ports in support of the occupation. She 
continued training out of Guam from 14 November 
1945 to 11 January 1946 then sailed to call at San 
Pedro, Calif., before continuing to Boston, arriving 26 
February. After coastwise operations, Cockrill reported 
to the Reserve Fleet at Green Cove Springs, Fla., where 
she was decommissioned 21 June 1946. 


Coco 

Former name retained. 

Coco (No. 110), a motorboat, served in a noncommis- 
sioned status in the 7th Naval District during World 
War I. 


Coconino County, see LST-603 


Cocopa 

An Indian tribe of Arizona. 

( AT-101 : dp. 1,240; 1. 205'; b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16 k.; 
cpl. 85; a. 1 3"; cl. Cherokee) 

Cocopa (AT-101) was launched 5 October 1943 by 
Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Charleston, 
S.C.; sponsored by Miss Z. Williams; and commissioned 
25 March 1944, Lieutenant J. C. Hutcheson, USNR, in 
command. She was reclassified ATF-101, 15 May 1944. 

Joining the Atlantic Fleet Cocopa began an active 
career of service. Between 9 May 1944 and 1 April 1945 


she made two passages across the Atlantic with barges 
in tow, and one to Trinidad. She sailed then for the 
Pacific, reaching San Francisco 8 May, Seattle 14 
June, Pearl Harbor 3 July, and Leyte, 29 August. The 
tug remained in the Far East on occupation duty shut- 
tling between the Philippines, Shanghai, Okinawa, and 
Hong Kong until returning to Puget Sound Naval Ship- 
yard for overhaul on 25 January 1947. 

From 1947 through 1960, Cocopa rotated between the 
west coast, Hawaii, and the Far East, where she 
served seven tours of duty. In addition, in 1948 and 
1949 she plied Alaskan waters. 

Cocopa received one battle star for Korean war 
service. 

Cod 

The well-known food fish of the North Atlantic and 
North Pacific. 

( SS-224 : dp. 1,526; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 
k.; cpl. 60; a. 1 3", 10 21" tt.; cl. Gato ) 

Cod (SS-224) was launched 21 March 1943 by Electric 
Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. G. M. 
Mahoney; and commissioned 21 June 1943, Lieutenant 
Commander J. C. Dempsey in command. 

Cod arrived in Brisbane, Australia, 2 October 1943 to 
prepare for her first war patrol, on which she sailed 20 
days later. Penetrating the South China Sea, she 
contacted few targets, and launched an attack only once, 
on 29 November, with unobserved results. Returning to 
Fremantle, Australia, to refit from 16 December to 11 
January 1944, Cod put to sea for her second war patrol 
in the South China Sea, off Java, and off Halmahera. On 
16 February, she surfaced to sink a sampan by gunfire, 
and on 23 February, torpedoed a Japanese merchant- 
man. She sent another to the bottom on 27 February, 
and two days later attacked a third, only to be forced 
deep by a concentrated depth charging delivered by an 
alert escort ship. 

Refitting at Fremantle again from 13 March to 6 
April 1944, Cod sailed to the Sulu and South China Seas 
off Luzon for her third war patrol. On 10 May, she 
daringly attacked a heavily escorted convoy of 32 ships 
and sank destroyer Karukaya and a cargo ship before 
the escorts concentrated to drive her down with depth 
charges. Returning to Fremantle to replenish 1 June, 
she cleared 3 July on her fourth war patrol, during 
which she ranged from the coast of Luzon to Java. She 
sank a merchantman on 3 August, and a landing craft, 
LSV-129, on 14 August, and, once more successful, 
returned to Fremantle 25 August. 

Cod put to sea on her fifth war patrol 18 September 
1944, bound for Philippine waters. She made her first 
contact, a cargo ship, on 5 October, and sent it to the 
bottom. Two days later, she inflicted heavy damage on 
a tanker. Contacting a large convoy on 25 October, Cod 
launched several attacks without success; with all her 
torpedoes expended she continued to shadow the convoy 
for another day to report its position. In November she 
took up a lifeguard station off Luzon, ready to rescue 
carrier pilots carrying out the series of air strikes on 
Japanese bases which paved the way for the invasion of 
Leyte later that month. 

Cod returned to Pearl Harbor 20 November 1944, and 
sailed on to a stateside overhaul, returning to Pearl 
Harbor 7 March 1945. On 24 March she sailed for the 
East China Sea on her sixth war patrol. Assigned 
primarily to lifeguard duty, she also sank a tug and its 
tow by gunfire on 17 April, rescuing three survivors, 
and on 24 April launched an attack on a convoy which 
resulted in the most severe depth charging of her 
career. The next day, she sent the minesweeper W-bl 
to the bottom. On 26 April Cod was threatened by a fire 
in the after torpedo room, but was saved by the heroism 
and skill of her men who fought the fire under control 


136 


and manually fired a torpedo already in its tube before 
the fire could explode it. One man was lost overboard 
during the emergency. 

After refitting at Guam between 29 May and 26 June 
1945, Cod put out for the Gulf of Siam and the coast of 
Indo-China on her seventh war patrol. On 9 and 10 July 
she went to the rescue of a grounded Dutch submarine, 
taking its crew on board and destroying the submarine 
when it could not be gotten off the reef. Between 21 
July and 1 August, Cod made 20 gunfire attacks on the 
junks, motor sampans, and barges which were all that 
remained to supply the Japanese at Singapore. After 
inspecting each contact to rescue friendly natives, Cod 
sank it by gunfire, sending a total of 23 to the bottom. 
On 1 August, an enemy plane strafed Cod, forcing her 
to dive leaving one of her boarding parties behind. These 
men were rescued 2 days later by another submarine. 

Cod returned to Fremantle 13 August 1945, and on 
the last day of the month sailed for home. Arriving in 
New London 3 November after a visit to Miami, Cod 
sailed to Philadelphia for overhaul, returning to New 
London where she was decommissioned and placed in 
reserve 22 June 1946. 

All of Cod’s seven war patrols were designated as 
“successful” war patrols for which she received seven 
battle stars. She was credited with having sunk a total 
of 26,985 tons of Japanese shipping. 


Codington 

A county in South Dakota. 

(AK-173 : dp. 2,474; 1. 338'6"; b. 50'; dr. 21T'; s. 12 k.; 
cpl. 79: a. 1 3”; cl. Alamosa) 

Codington (AK-173) was launched 29 November 1944 
by Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., under a 
Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. W. P. 
Plehl; and commissioned at Galveston 23 July 1945, 
Lieutenant Commander A. F. Pittman in command. 

Codington departed Galveston 11 August 1945 for 
Leyte, arriving 11 October. She assumed cargo opera- 
tions in the Philippines, with one voyage to New Guinea 
(1-27 December), until 30 January 1946, when she 
sailed from Subic Bay for Yokosuka. Codington was 
decommissioned at Tokyo 27 February 1946, and trans- 
ferred to the War Shipping Administration for disposal. 


Coeur de Lion 

A French phrase meaning lionhearted, used to de- 
scribe Richard I of England and Louis VIII of France. 

(SwStr : t. 110; 1. 100'; b. 20'6"; dph. 4'10”; dr. 4'6"; cpl. 

29; a. 1 30-pdr., 1 12-pdr. r., 1 12-pdr. sb.) 

Coeur de Lion, a side wheel steamer, was loaned to the 
Navy Department by the Lighthouse Board in 1861; 
outfitted at New York Navy Yard; and sailed 2 October 
1861 for Washington, D.C., Acting Master Alexander in 
command. 

Until the end of the war Coeur de Lion patrolled in 
the Potomac, James, and other rivers of Virginia. She 
burned the schooners, Charity, Gazelle, and Flight in the 
Appomattox River on 27 May 1862 and the schooners 
Sarah Margaret and Odd Fellow up the Coan River 1 
June 1862. Enforcing the blockade, Coeur de Lion cap- 
tured the schooners Emily Murray off Machodoc Creek, 
Va,, 9 February 1863, and Robert Knowles 16 September 
1863, and Malinda 3 June 1864, in the Potomac. During 
a reconnaissance up the Nansemond River, she ex- 
changed fire with enemy batteries on 17 and 19 April 
1863, taking the surrender of one of these on the 19th. 

Arriving at Washington Navy Yard 15 May 1865, 
Coeur de Lion was decommissioned 2 June 1865 and 
returned to the Lighthouse Board the following day. 


Cofer 

Born 30 November 1919 in Louisville, Ga., John 
Joseph Cofer enlisted in the Navy 27 October 1941, and 
reported for duty in Aaron Ward (DD-483) 4 March 
1942. Seaman First Class Cofer was killed in action 13 
November 1942 during the naval battle off Guadalcanal. 
He was posthumously awarded the Silver Star for his 
gallant and intrepid conduct as spotter and Rangefinder 
operator during the action. 

(DE-208. dp. 1,400; 1. 306'; b. 36'10”; dr. 9'5"; s. 24 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21'' tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; cl. 

Buckley) 

Cofer (DE-208) was launched 6 September 1943 by 
Charleston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. M. J. Cofer, 
mother of Seaman First Class Cofer; and commissioned 
19 January 1944, Lieutenant Commander A. P. Chester 
in command. 

Cofer escorted convoys on two transatlantic crossings, 
between New York and Gibraltar and Norfolk and 
Bizerte, Tunisia from 23 March to 30 June 1944, re- 
turning to New York for conversion to a high speed 
transport. She was reclassified APD-62 on 5 July 1944. 

Cofer sailed from New York 26 September 1944, and 
arrived at Hollandia, New Guinea, 4 November for duty 
with the 7th Fleet. She carried troops in one of the first 
resupply convoys for landings on Leyte, sailing with a 
group which fought its way through Japanese air at- 
tacks to arrive off the beaches 24 November. Unloading 
at furious pace, Cofer was cleared the same day for 
Palau, where she embarked additional troops for the 
landings at Ormoc Bay on 7 and 8 December. On the 
first day, as suicide planes attacked in great number, 
Cofer joined in general firing, and went to the aid of 
Liddle (APD-60), when she was damaged by a kami- 
kaze. Cofer next came under enemy air attack 15 De- 
cember, as she landed assault troops on Mindoro. 

Continuing in her role in the return to the Philippines, 
Cofer landed reinforcements at Lingayen Gulf on 11 and 
12 January 1945, and then in a series of unopposed 
landings on Luzon, and in assaults on Palawan on 28 
February. Zamboanga on 10 March, and Cebu on 26 
March, the last under heavy mortar fire from the beach. 
Between 27 April and 8 May 1945 Cofer operated as 
flagship and covering vessel for minesweepers clearing 
the waters off Tarakan, Borneo, in support of the in- 
vasion on 1 May. On 3 May as the group swept the 
straits to prepare for motor torpedo boat operations off 
Cape Djoeata, concealed shore batteries sank YMS-481. 
Cofer destroyed the batteries and rescued 19 survivors 
of YMS-i81. She continued to participate in minesweep- 
ing preceding the invasion of Brunei Bay from 7 to 11 
June and Balikpapan from 15 June to 10 July. On 8 
June she assisted Salute who had struck a mine, and 
rescued 59 survivors, 42 of whom were injured. On 18 
June she rescued 23 survivors of YMS-50. 

Cofer departed San Pedro Bay, Leyte 29 August and 
arrived at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, 1 September. She 
voyaged to Nagasaki in September to evacuate former 
prisoners of war, then returned to Sasebo, 28 September, 
to operate with the 7th Fleet on various duties in sup- 
port of the occupation at Okinawa and Fusan, Korea. 
She embarked passengers at Okinawa and departed 26 
November for San Diego, arriving 16 December. Un- 
loading her passengers she sailed 26 December for the 
east coast, arriving at Brooklyn 9 January 1946. Cofer 
was placed out of commission in reserve 28 June 1946, 
berthed at Green Cove Springs, Fla. 

Cofer received eight battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Coffman 

DeWitt Coffman was born at Mount Jackson, Va., 28 
November 1854, and graduated from the Naval Academy 


137 


in 1876. He served in Terror during the Spanish-Amer- 
ican War and received the Distinguished Service Medal 
as Commander, Battleship Force 2, Atlantic Fleet, dur- 
ing World I. Rear Admiral Coffman retired 28 Novem- 
ber 1918, and was advanced to Vice Admiral on the re- 
tired list 21 June 1930. He died at Jamestown, R.I., 27 
June 1932. 

(DE-191 : dp. 1,240; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 11'8"; s. 21 k.; 
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 dct.; cl. 

Cannon) 

Coffman (DE-191) was launched 28 November 1943 
by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Newark, 
N.J.; sponsored by Miss F. Liggett; and commissioned 
27 December 1943, Lieutenant Commander W. H. Put- 
nam, USNR, in command. 

After one convoy escort voyage to Bizerte, Tunisia 
between 12 April and 3 May 1944, Coffman served be- 
tween 10 June and 10 July as a target for submarines in 
training. Assigned to the hunter-killer group formed 
around Card (CVE-11), Coffman joined in training 
patrols, and a voyage to Casablanca during which the 
group covered the movement of several convoys. Alter- 
nate periods of exercises and patrols continued until 
early in February 1945, when Coffman was ordered to 
join a group searching in stormy waters for a German 
weather ship reported south of Iceland. She returned to 
screen carriers during air training operations out of 
Quonset Point, R.I., until April, when the German 
U-boats made their last great effort of the war, pene- 
trating the eastern Atlantic in strength. Coffman and 
her division were ordered to a search along the coast of 
Virginia, and on 30 April, she, with Thomas (DE-102), 
Bostwick (DE-103) and Natchez (PF-2), sank U-5U8 
in 36°34' N., 74°00' W. After continued service to car- 
riers and submarines in training, Coffman reported to 
Green Cove Springs, Fla., '15 November 1945, and was 
decommissioned there 30 April 1946 preparatory to dis- 
posal. Following the outbreak of the Korean war she 
was removed from the sale list and placed in reserve. 

Coffman received one battle star for World War II 
service. 


Coghlan 

Joseph Bulloch Coghlan, born at Frankfort, Ky., 9 
December 1844, graduated from the Naval Academy in 
1863. He served in Sacramento during the Civil War 
and led the expedition which captured the batteries at 
Cavite (2 May 1898) and at Isla Grande, Subic Bay (7 
July) during the Spanish- American War. He was pro- 
moted to Rear Admiral in 1902 and died at New Rochelle, 
N.Y., 5 December 1908. 

I 

(DD-326: dp. 1,190; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'10"; s. 35 
k.; cpl. 95; a. 4 4", 1 3", 12 21" tt. ; cl. Clemson) 

The first Coghlan (DD-326) was launched 16 June 

1920 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., San Francisco, 
Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. G. Coghlan; and commissioned 
31 March 1921, Lieutenant (junior grade) C. Hupp in 
command. 

Coghlan arrived at Charleston, S.C., 28 December 

1921 for operations in East Coast and Caribbean waters. 
Coghlan took part in the funeral ceremonies for Presi- 
dent Warren G. Harding at Washington. (7-9 August 
1923) and served as a plane guard in the North Atlantic 
(24 July-6 September 1924) during the Army’s round- 
the-world flight. 

From 18 June 1925 to 11 July 1926 she served with 
U.S. Naval Forces Europe in the Mediterranean pro- 
tecting American interests. The destroyer returned to 
her cruising along the east coast and in the Caribbean, 
served as an exhibition vessel at the Philadelphia Sesqui- 


Centennial Exposition during the summer of 1926, 
cruised with the Special Service Squadron off Nicaragua 
(3 February-31 March 1927), and took part in the 
Presidential Fleet Review, in Hampton Roads, 4 June 
1927. She was decommissioned at Philadelphia 1 May 
1930, and sold for scrapping 17 January 1931 under 
terms of treaties limiting naval armaments. 

II 

(DD-606 : dp. 1,620; 1. 347'9"; b. 36'1"; dr. 17'4"; s. 38 
k. ; cpl. 262; a. 4 5", 5 21" tt. ; cl. Benson) 

The second Coghlan (DD-606) was launched 12 Feb- 
ruary 1942 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Inc., San 
Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. G. Coghlan; com- 
missioned 10 July 1942, Lieutenant Commander B. F. 
Tompkins in command ; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

Coghlan sailed from San Francisco 22 September 1942 
for Pearl Harbor and Kodiak, Alaska, arriving 13 Oc- 
tober for convoy and patrol duty. She supported Army 
landings on Amchatka 12 January 1943, and partici- 
pated in the bombardment of Gibson Island at the 
entrance of Chicago Harbor 18 February. On 20 Febru- 
ary, she aided in the sinking of a Japanese merchant- 
man. On 15 March she cleared Dutch Harbor with a 
force to patrol against Japanese shipping south and 
west of Kiska to prevent reinforcement of enemy-held 
Attu. On 26 March her group turned a larger Japanese 
force back in the Battle of the Komandorski Islands. In 
this action, Coghlan screened Richmond (CL-9), and 
laid smoke for the disabled Salt Lake City (CL— 25). She 
bombarded Holtz and Chicago harbors 26 April, and 
with the southern support group covered the landings 
on Attu from 11 May to 2 June. Overhauled at San 
Francisco in July, Coghlan returned to Adak on 13 
August for 2 final weeks on patrol in the Aleutians. 

Coghlan sailed 25 August 1943 for Pearl Harbor, 
arriving 1 September. After taking part in the raids on 
Baker and Tarawa Islands from 15 to 17 September and 
the attack on Wake on 5 October, Coghlan replenished 
at Pearl Harbor and sailed on 31 October for escort and 
screening duties in the assault on the Gilberts. She 
returned to Pearl Harbor 11 December. 

Coghlan sailed from Pearl Harbor 22 January 1944 
to screen carriers giving air coverage to the landings in 
the Marshalls. She returned, screening transports, to 
Pearl Harbor 8 March for overhaul. On her next cruise, 
from 14 to 22 April, she escorted a carrier to sea on its 
way to Majuro, returning to Pearl Harbor 22 April. On 
24 May she sailed for Eniwetok, where she joined the 
screen of landing ships bound for the invasion of Saipan 
on 15 June. Coghlan gave fire support and patrolled off 
the island until 23 June. After replenishing at Eni- 
wetok, the destroyer returned to Saipan 17 July to sup- 
port the landings at Tinian 24 July. After offering fire 
support until the island was secured 1 August, Coghlan 
sailed for a brief overhaul at Pearl Harbor. 

Coghlan arrived at Manus 8 October, and sailed for 
the operations in the Philippines 6 November. She con- 
ducted convoy escort duty from Humboldt Bay and 
Palau to Leyte, and supported the landings at Ormoc 
Bay on 7 and 8 December, firing in the heavy kamikaze 
attack on the first day. On 9 January 1945 she entered 
Lingayen Gulf for patrol and screening operations in 
support of the landings. She continued to operate in 
the Philippines until 8 April, when she cleared San 
Pedro Bay for a stateside overhaul. She returned to 
Pearl Harbor 22 July, and on 26 August arrived at 
Okinawa for occupation duty, carrying passengers, mail, 
and light freight between Okinawa and Japan. On 23 
October she sailed for Pearl Harbor, San Diego, and 
Charleston, where she arrived 2 December. After over- 
haul and a year of inactivity, Coghlan was decommis- 
sioned and placed in reserve 31 March 1947. 

Coghlan received eight battle stars for World War II 
service. 


138 


Cogswell 

James Kelsey Cogswell was born at Milwaukee, Wis., 
27 September 1847 and graduated from the Naval 
Academy in 1868. He was executive officer of Oregon 
(BB-3) during the Spanish-American War. Rear Ad- 
miral Cogsweil died at South Jacksonville, Fla., 12 
August 1908. 

His son, Francis Cogswell, was born at Portsmouth, 
N.H., 19 August 1887 and graduated from the Naval 
Academy in 1908. He received the Navy Cross for dis- 
tinguished service as commanding officer of Fanning 
(DD-37) and McDougal (DD-54) during World War I. 
Captain Cogswell died at Puget Sound Naval Hospital 
22 September 1939. 

(DD-651 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'7"; dr. 17'9"; s. 35 
k. ; cpl. 319; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. Fletcher ) 

Cogswell (DD-651) was launched 5 June 1943 by Bath 
Iron Works Corp., Bath, Me.; cosponsored by Mrs. D. C. 
Bingham, daughter of Rear Admiral Cogswell, and Mrs. 
Francis Cogswell, widow of Captain Cogswell; and 
commissioned 17 August 1943, Commander H. K. 
Deutermann in command. 

Cogswell arrived at Pearl Harbor 9 December 1943 for 
training, and there joined the screen of mighty carrier 
Task Force 58 for the Marshall Islands operation. At 
sea on this duty from 16 January 1944 until 12 Febru- 
ary, when she put in to Majuro, Cogswell also bombarded 
Gugewe Island. She continued her screening as the 
carriers launched raids on Truk on 16 and 17 February 
and on bases in the Marianas on 21 and 22 February, 
then sailed from Majuro to Espiritu Santo to screen 
carriers providing air cover for the seizure of Emirau 
Island from 20 to 25 March, and raiding the Palaus, 
Yap, and Woleai from 30 March to 1 April. 

The destroyer returned to Majuro 6 April 1944, and a 
week later joined the sortie for the Hollandia landings 
of 21 to 24 April, and air raids on Truk, Satawan, and 
Ponape at the close of the month. Replenishment at 
Majuro from 4 May to 6 June preceded Cogswell’s 
assignment to screen carriers during the landings in the 
Marianas. On 16 June, Cogswell was temporarily de- 
tached to join in the bombardment of Guam, rejoining 
her force to guard it during the momentous air Battle 
of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June. She continued 
her screening in the raids on Palau, Ulithi, Yap, Iwo 
Jima, and Chichi Jima from 25 July to 5 August, during 
the last of which she joined in the surface gunfire which 
sank several ships of a Japanese convoy earlier badly 
mauled by carrier aircraft. From 11 to 30 August, she 
replenished at Eniwetok. 

Next at sea from 30 August to 27 September 1944, 
Cogswell sailed in the carrier screen as strikes were 
hurled at targets in the Palaus and Philippines during 
the invasion of Peleliu. On 6 October she sailed from 
Ulithi for the air strikes on Okinawa and Formosa in 
preparation for the Leyte landings, and fired protective 
antiaircraft cover for her force during the Formosa air 
battle of 12 to 14 October. After guarding the retire- 
ment toward safety of the stricken Canberra (CA-70) 
and Houston (CL-81), she rejoined her force for air 
strikes on Luzon and the Visayans, and screened them 
during the Battle of Surigao Strait, one phase of the 
decisive Battle for Leyte Gulf. She returned to Ulithi 
30 October, but put to sea 2 days later to return to the 
Philippines. After Reno (CL-96) was damaged by a 
submarine’s torpedo, Cogswell guarded her passage to 
the safety of Ulithi, then returned to screen air strikes 
on Luzon, the landings on Mindoro, and the air attacks 
on Formosa and the China coast which neutralized 
Japanese bases in preparation for and during the 
Lingayen invasion. Cogswell screened Ticonderoga 
(CV-14), hit during an air attack, into Ulithi 24 Janu- 
ary 1945, and sailed on to the west coast for overhaul. 

After sailing across the Pacific guarding convoys, 


Cogswell arrived off Okinawa 27 May 1945 for danger- 
ous and demanding duty as radar picket until 26 June. 
Three days later she rejoined the carrier Task Force 38 
for the final series of raids against the Japanese home 
islands until the close of the war. Arriving in Sagami 
Wan 27 August, Cogswell pushed on into Tokyo Bay 2 
September for the surrender ceremonies. She supported 
the occupation in the Far East through operations in 
Japanese waters and escort duty to Korean ports until 5 
December, when she sailed from Yokosuka for San 
Diego, Boston, and Charleston, where she was decom- 
missioned and placed in reserve 30 April 1946. 

Recommissioned 7 January 1951, Cogswell served with 
the Atlantic Fleet with Newport, R.I., as her home port. 
Between 26 August 1952 and February 1953, she cruised 
to ports of northern Europe while taking part in NATO 
operations, sailing on for duty with the 6th Fleet in the 
Mediterranean. She again cleared Newport 10 August 
1953, bound for the Panama Canal and duty off Korea 
and patrolling in the Taiwan Straits. Continuing west- 
ward, she sailed through the Suez Canal, and completed 
her cruise around the world 10 March 1954. 

On 15 December 1954, Cogswell arrived in San Diego 
to join the Pacific Fleet. From that time through 1963, 
she has alternated tours of duty with the 7th Fleet in 
the Far East with coastwise operations. On her 1955 
cruise, she took part in the evacuation of the Tachen 
Islands. She returned to the Far East in 1956 and each 
succeeding year through 1960. In 1957 Cogswell visited 
Australia and the Fiji Islands, and in 1958, she took 
part in nuclear weapons tests at Johnston Island, and 
patrolled in the Taiwan Straits when Chinese Com- 
munists resumed shelling of the offshore islands and 
threatened their assault. 

Cogswell received nine battle stars for World War II 
service. 

Cohasset 

Towns in Massachusetts and Minnesota. 

I 

(Tug: t. 100; 1. 82'; b. 18'10"; dph. 7'2"; s. 8 k.; cpl. 12; 
a. 1 20-pdr. r.) 

The first Cohasset, a tug originally called E. D. Fogg 
and later Narragansett., was built in 1860 at Providence, 
R.I.; purchased by the Navy 13 September 1861; out- 
fitted at New York Navy Yard; delivered at Hampton 
Roads, Va., 26 October 1861; and assigned to duty with 
the Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Pilot Thomas Evans 
in command. 

From 26 October 1861 to July 1864 Cohasset sailed in 
the Norfolk area and in the rivers of Virginia as a 
picket and dispatch boat, carried mail and supplies, 
towed coal barges, acted as guard for Minnesota, and 
shared in the fighting in the York, James, and Nanse- 
mond Rivers. 

Ordered to Beaufort, N.C., in July 1864, Cohasset was 
used for harbor defense and towing until 1 October 
1864, when she returned to Norfolk for duty towing coal 
barges in the James River. 

Cohasset arrived at Boston Navy Yard 1 June 1865. 
She served as yard tug there until 1882, when she was 
transferred to Newport, R.I., where she was sold 9 May 
1892. 

II 

(AK: 1. 406'4"; b. 54'6"; dr. 25'; s. 10 k. ; cpl. 42) 

The second Cohasset was built in 1918 by Fore River 
Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass.; transferred from 
the Shipping Board 5 December 1918; and commissioned 
the same day, Lieutenant Commander E. S. B. Beecher, 
USNRF, in command. 

Assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Serv- 
ice, Cohasset sailed from Boston 22 December carrying 


139 


Army supplies for St. Nazaire, France, where she ar- 
rived 16 January 1919. Returning to Boston 3 March 
1919, she reloaded and departed a week later for Bor- 
deaux, France, arriving 25 March. After discharging 
her cargo at Bordeaux, she steamed to Pauillac where 
she loaded ammunition for return to the United States. 
Arriving at Norfolk 29 April 1919, she was decommis- 
sioned 9 May 1919 and returned to the Shipping Board 
the same day. 

Ill 

The third Cohasset (IX-198) was so named and re- 
classified from LST-129 (q.v.) on 31 December 1944. 

Cohocton 

A river in New York State. 

(AO-101: dp. 5,730; 1. 523'6"; b. 68'; dr. 30'10"; s. 15 k.; 
cpl. 225; a. 1 5"; cl. Escambia) 

Cohocton (AO-101) was launched 28 June 1945 by 
Marinship Corp., Sausalito, Calif., under a Maritime 
Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. C. 0. Day; 
commissioned 25 August 1945, Lieutenant Commander 
J. A. Houston, USNR, in command; and reported to the 
Pacific Fleet. 

Cohocton sailed from San Francisco 5 September 1945 
for Eniwetok, carrying ammunition and fresh water. 
She supported occupation forces in the Far East and 
western Pacific by carrying water from one port to 
another and serving as station water tanker. She 
called at Guam, Ulithi, Samar, Leyte, Yokosuka, Waka- 
yama, and Kagoshima before arriving at Tsingtao, 
China 10 January 1946, for station duty until 21 April. 
She returned by way of San Pedro, Calif., and the 
Panama Canal to Mobile, Ala., where she was decommis- 
sioned 14 June 1946 and returned to the War Shipping 
Administration the same day. 

Cohoes 

A city in New York State. 

I 

The light draft monitor Cohoes was still building at 
the close of the Civil War and saw no service. Laid up 
at League Island, Pa., from 1867 until sold in July 1874, 
her name was changed to Charybdis 15 June 1869 and 
back to Cohoes 19 August 1869. 

II 

(AN-78: dp. 775; 1. 168'6"; b. 33'10": dr. lO'lO"; s. 12 
k. ; cpl. 46; a. 1 3"; cl. Cohoes) 

The second Cohoes (AN-78) was launched 29 Novem- 
ber 1944 by Commercial Iron Works, Portland, Oreg. ; 
sponsored by Mrs. W. W. Johnson; commissioned 23 
March 1945, Lieutenant D. B. Little, USNR, in com- 
mand; and reported to the Pacific Fleet. 

After training at Pearl Harbor, Cohoes sailed 20 June 
1945 for Eniwetok, arriving 2 July. She remained at 
Eniwetok installing, maintaining, and then removing 
the net line there until 16 October, when she sailed for 
Ponape, arriving 18 October to lay a mooring. In 
Langar Roads, she salvaged and relaid a Japanese 
mooring buoy, and performed similar operations in the 
Carolines and Marshalls until 20 November, when she 
cleared Kwaialein for Pearl Harbor and San Francisco, 
arriving 12 December for duty at Tiburon Net Depot. 

Cohoes served at Tiburon until 8 April 1946, when she 
sailed for duty at Astoria, Oreg. She returned to San 
Francisco 3 September, and remained there until 25 
August 1947 when she sailed for San Diego, arriving 27 
August. There Cohoes was placed out of commission in 
reserve 3 September 1947. 


Colahan 

Born 25 October 1849 at Philadelphia, Pa., Charles 
Ellwood Colahan graduated from the Naval Academy 
4 June 1869. His long and active career included com- 
mand of Chesapeake, Indiana and Cleveland. Com- 
mander Colahan died at Lambertville, N.J., 11 March 
1904. 

(DD-658: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; s. 37 
k. ; cpl. 319; a. 5 5”, 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. Fletcher) 

Colahan (DD-658) was launched 3 May 1943 by 
Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island, N.Y. ; sponsored by 
Mrs. P. C. Hinkamp, adopted granddaughter of Com- 
mander Colahan; and commissioned 23 August 1944, 
Lieutenant Commander D. T. Wilber in command. 

Colahan arrived at Pearl Harbor 11 December 1943 to 
join the Pacific Fleet. She sortied with Task Force 52 
for the invasion of the Marshall Islands 19 January 
1944 and screened Mississippi (BB-41) during her 
bombardment of Enubuj and Kwajalein Islands on 31 
January. 

After repairs and training at Pearl Harbor, Colahan 
sailed 31 May 1944 to rejoin the 5th Fleet, operated on 
radar picket, shore bombardment and fire support duty 
during the bombardment, capture, and occupation of 
Guam from 12 July to 15 August and screened air 
strikes in support of the invasion of the southern 
Palaus from 29 August to 28 September. Colahan 
screened TF 38 as it prepared for the Leyte assault with 
air strikes on the Nansei Shoto and Formosa from 10 to 
14 October, then began strikes in the Philippines until 
20 October, day of the landings. Carriers she guarded 
struck the retiring Japanese forces after the Battle of 
Surigao Strait phase of the massive Battle for Leyte 
Gulf of 24 to 26 October. Continued air operations in 
the Philippines claimed her services until she put in to 
Ulithi for repairs late in December. 

From 30 December 1944 to 22 January 1945 Colahan 
resumed duty as advanced radar picket for the 3d Fleet 
raids on Formosa, Luzon, Camranh Bay in Indo-China, 
Hong Kong, and Hainan Island which were coordinated 
with the Lingayen assault. On 10 February she put to 
sea to serve on the scouting line as TF 58 swept close 
to Japan for air strikes in the Tokyo area. Colahan 
served on radar picket duty off Iwo Jima as it was in- 
vaded on 19 February, and for 5 days afterward, re- 
turning to Ulithi for repairs and replenishment. 

Colahan operated with TF 58 in preparations for the 
Okinawa operation, from 14 March 1945 to 1 April, 
screening during air strikes on Kyushu and Okinawa. 
Continuing carrier task force operations after the initial 
assault, she went to the aid of Hazelwood (DD-531), 
on 29 April, rescuing some 140 survivors of the kamikaze 
victim. After replenishing at San Pedro Bay, Leyte, 
Calahan rejoined TF 38 13 June for the last great series 
of air raids against the Japanese home islands. Enter- 
ing Sagami Wan 27 August, the destroyer became har- 
bor entrance control vessel for Tokyo Bay until 3 
September. On 8 October she aided the Japanese MV 
Kiri Mam which had gone aground on Miyake Shima 
and transferred the survivors to Okubo. 

Clearing Tokyo Bay 31 October 1945, Colahan re- 
turned to San Diego where she was placed out of com- 
mission in reserve 14 June 1946, and assigned to the 12th 
Naval District for use in training Naval Reservists. 

Recommissioned 16 December 1950, Colahan had train- 
ing from her home port at San Diego until 20 August 
1951, when she cleared San Francisco for service in the 
Korean war with the 7th Fleet. Conducting shore 
bombardment and fire support to aid forces ashore, she 
also had antisubmarine training off Okinawa before 
returning to the west coast 10 March 1952. On 1 No- 
vember 1952, she sailed again from San Diego to 
bombard Korean targets and screen carriers, as well as 
serve on the Taiwan Patrol and train off Okinawa. She 
returned to the west coast 1 June 1953, and in 1954, 


140 


1955, 1956, and 1957, returned to the Far East for 
service with the 7th Fleet. From 1958 through 1963, 
her operations have been along the west coast, training 
members of the Naval Reserve. 

Colahan received eight battle stars for World War II 
service, and five for Korean war service. 

Colbert 

A county in Alabama. 

(APA-145: dp. 6,720; 1. 445'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 536; a. 1 5"; cl. Haskell) 

Colbert (APA-145) was launched 1 December 1944 by 
California Shipbuilding Corp., Wilmington, Calif., under 
a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. 
L. G. Miller; acquired 7 February 1945 and commis- 
sioned the same day, Captain L. Jeffrey in command. 

Colbert sailed from San Francisco 15 April 1945 with 
passengers for Honolulu, where she remained from 21 
April to 20 May, disembarking her original troops and 
loading reinforcements for Okinawa, where she arrived 
7 June. She sailed on to Ulithi to load Japanese and 
Korean prisoners of war, with whom she returned to 
Pearl Harbor 28 June. 

After a brief stateside overhaul, Colbert put to sea 21 
July 1945 to carry troops to Ulithi and Okinawa, where 
she lay until 5 September. She voyaged to Jinsen, 
Korea, and Dairen, Manchuria, to embark Allied soldiers 
and sailors formerly held prisoner at Mukden, Man- 
churia, and returned to Okinawa 16 September. Next 
day she put to sea to evade a typhoon, and that same 
day struck a floating mine, which caused the death of 
three men and damaged the ship extensively. Towed 
back to Okinawa 18 September, she was later towed to 
Guam, Pearl Harbor, and San Francisco for repairs, 
reaching the west coast 30 January 1946. On 26 Feb- 
ruary 1946, she was decommissioned and transferred to 
the War Shipping Administration at Suisan Bay, Calif. 

Colbert received one battle star for World War II 
service. 


Cole 

Edward Ball Cole was born 23 September 1879 in 
Boston, Mass. One of the country’s leading experts on 
machineguns, he received a direct commission in the 
Marine Corps in World War I. Major Cole received a 
Distinguished Service Cross for heroism during the 
Battle of Belleau Wood (10 June 1918) in which he was 
mortally wounded. He died 18 June 1918 and is buried 
at Mouroux Cemetery, France. 

(DD-155 : dp. 1,090; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 122; a. 4 4", 2 3", 12 21" tt.; cl. Wickes) 

Cole (DD-155) was launched 11 January 1919 by 
William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa.; sponsored by Mrs. E. B. Cole; and 
commissioned 19 June 1919, Commander I. F. Dortch 
in command. 

Cole sailed from New York 30 June 1919 to join U.S. 
Naval Forces in Turkish waters. For the next year she 
aided in the evacuation of refugees fleeing turmoil and 
war in the Middle East and showed the flag in the 
eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, returning to New 
York 4 June 1920. She cruised in east coast and Carib- 
bean waters until decommissioned at Philadelphia Navy 
Yard 10 July 1922. 

Recommissioned 1 May 1930, Cole joined the Scouting 
Fleet in the Atlantic. Once again she cruised along the 
east coast and in the Caribbean and took part in training 
exercises. From 22 October 1932 to 24 March 1933 and 
from 3 February to 14 August 1934, Cole was in re- 
duced commission at Norfolk Navy Yard as part of a 
rotating reserve squadron. On 15 August 1934 Cole was 


assigned to the Scouting Force in the Pacific, and fol- 
lowing maneuvers in the Caribbean reached her new 
base at San Diego, Calif., 9 November. She remained in 
the Pacific until 24 May 1936 and then reported to New 
York as a Naval Reserve training ship. She arrived 
Philadelphia Navy Yard 25 September and was decom- 
missioned there 7 January 1937. 

Recommissioned 16 October 1939, Cole joined the 
neutrality patrol in the Atlantic. From 10 June 1941 
she escorted convoys to Newfoundland and Iceland mak- 
ing five such voyages by 28 January 1942. From 14 
March to 28 September, the destroyer patrolled and 
escorted convoys along the east coast, making one con- 
voy run to the Virgin Islands. She put to sea from Nor- 
folk 24 October for the invasion of North Africa on 8 
November during which she landed 175 men of the 47th 
Infantry under fire on a pier at Safi, Morocco. Cole 
received the Presidential Unit Citation for her fine 
performance of this hazardous mission. Returning to 
Boston 1 December she resumed convoy duty, and be- 
tween 18 December 1942 and 15 February 1943 she 
operated between the east coast, Newfoundland, and 
Nova Scotia, then made a voyage to Gibraltar in March. 
The destroyer returned to the Mediterranean, reaching 
Mers-el-Kebir, Algeria, 23 May. 

Along with patrol and escort duties in the Western 
Mediterranean. Cole took part in the invasion of Sicily 
10 July 1943, acting with a British submarine as a beach 
identification group, and later guarded transports dur- 
ing the assault on Salerno 9 September. She returned 
to Charleston, S.C., for overhaul 24 December, after 
which she resumed convoy escort duty along the east 
coast and in the Caribbean, making one voyage to Casa- 
blanca in March 1944. On 3 December 1944, she began 
duty as a plane guard for carriers conducting air opera- 
tions out of Quonset Point, R.I., which continued until 
31 August 1945. She was reclassified AG-116 30 June 
1945. Cole was decommissioned 1 November 1945, and 
sold 6 October 1947. 

In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation, Cole 
received three battle stars for World War II service. 

Cole, William C., see William C. Cole 


Colfax 

Former name retained. 

Colfax, a Coast Guard cutter, was transferred to the 
Navy in 1917 and served in the vicinity of Baltimore, 
Md., during World War I. She was returned to the 
Coast Guard in 1919. 


Colhoun 

Born 6 May 1821 at Chambersburg, Pa., Edmund Ross 
Colhoun was appointed a midshipman 1 April 1839. He 
served during the Mexican War with Commodores 
Conner and Perry at Alvarado and Tabasco. During 
the Civil War he served on both the North and South 
Atlantic Blockading Squadrons, had command of the 
monitor Weehawken, and was commended for his par- 
ticipation in the bombardment and capture of Fort 
Fisher, N.C., from December 1864 to January 1865. He 
commanded the South Pacific Station (1874-5), Mare 
Island Navy Yard (1877-81), and retired from the Navy 
5 May 1883. Rear Admiral Colhoun died 17 February 
1897. 

I 

(DD-85 : dp. 1,060; 1. 315'5"; b. 31'9"; dr. 9'2"; s. 35 k.; 
cpl. 100; a. 4 4", 12 21" tt.; cl. Wickes) 

The first Colhoun (DD-85) was launched 21 February 
1918 by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass.; 
sponsored by Miss A. Colhoun; commissioned 13 June 


141 


1918, Commander B. B. Wygant in command; and re- 
ported to the Atlantic Fleet. 

From 30 June to 14 September 1918 Colhoun served 
as convoy escort between New York and European ports. 
On 10 November 1918 she reported to New London to 
conduct experiments with sound equipment then under 
development. On 1 January 1919 she rushed to assist 
the transport Northern Pacific which was stranded at 
Fire Island, carrying 194 of her returning troops to 
Hoboken, N.J. 

After operations in the Caribbean and off the east 
coast, Colhoun was placed in reduced commission at 
Philadelphia Navy Yard 1 December 1919. Following 
overhaul at Norfolk Navy Yard and a reserve period 
at Charleston, S.C., she returned to Philadelphia, where 
she was decommissioned 28 June 1922. 

Towed to Norfolk Navy Yard (5 June 1940) Colhoun 
underwent conversion to a high-speed transport and was 
recommissioned as APD-2 on 11 December 1940. She 
operated between Norfolk and the Caribbean on training 
exercises until sailing for Noumea, New Caledonia, 
where she arrived 21 July 1942. 

She carried units of the 1st Marine Raider Battalion 
in the initial assault landings on Guadalcanal on 7 
August and continued to serve as both transport and 
antisubmarine vessel in support of the invasion. 

At 1400 on 30 August 1942, while Colhoun was on 
patrol off Guadalcanal, she was struck in a Japanese 
air raid. The first hits wrecked the ship’s boats and the 
after davits and started a diesel fire from the boat 
wreckage. In a second attack, a succession of hits on 
the starboard side brought down the foremast, blew 
two 20mm. guns and one 4" gun off the ship, and dam- 
aged the engineering spaces. Two more direct hits 
killed all the men in the after deck house. Tank lighters 
from Guadalcanal rescued the crew, and Calhoun sank in 
09° 24' S., 160° 01' E. Fifty-one men were killed and 18 
wounded in this action. 

Colhoun received one battle star for her participation 
in World War II. 

II 

(DD-801 : dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; cpl. 

320; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct. ; cl. Fletcher) 

The second Colhoun (DD-801) was launched 10 April 
1944 by Todd-Pacific Shipbuilding Corp., Seattle, Wash.; 
sponsored by Captain K. K. Johnson, WAC; and com- 
missioned 8 July 1944, Commander G. R. Wilson in 
command. 

Colhoun arrived at Pearl Harbor 10 October 1944 for 
training and patrol duty. Arriving off Iwo Jima 19 
February 1945, she screened transports, served as radar 
picket and gave fire support for the invasion. On 1 
March she was hit by a salvo from heavy enemy bat- 
teries ashore, which killed one man and injured 16. 
After repairs at Saipan, Colhoun sailed for Okinawa, 
arriving 31 March for radar picket duty. 

At 1530 on 6 April 1945 during the first heavy kami- 
kaze raid Colhoun received a request for help from Bush 
(DD-529) and sped to her aid. Interposing her guns 
between the crippled Bush and the attacking suicide 
planes, Colhoun downed three planes before a kamikaze 
crashed into the 40mm. mount scattering flaming wreck- 
age across the ship and dropping a bomb into the after 
fireroom where it exploded. Retaining power and using 
emergency steering, Colhoun awaited the next attacking 
trio, splashing the first two and taking the third on the 
starboard side. The bomb from the suicide plane ex- 
ploded, breaking Colhoun’s keel, piercing both boilers, 
ripping a 20' by 4' hole below the waterline and starting 
oil and electric fires. Operating the remaining guns 
manually, Colhoun gamely faced yet another wave of 
three attackers splashing one, damaging another, and 
taking the third suicide plane aboard aft. This air- 
plane’s bomb bounced overboard and exploded, adding 


another 3' hole to allow more flooding. Colhoun valiantly 
struggled to stay afloat, but a final suicide plane crashed 
into the bridge in a mass of flames. At 1800 LCS—48 
took off all but a skeleton crew which remained on board 
while a tug attempted to tow Colhoun to Okinawa- 
Heavy listing, uncontrolled flooding, and fires made it 
impossible to save her and she was sunk by gunfire from 
Cassin Young at 27° 16' N., 127°48' E. Her casualties 
were 32 killed and 23 wounded, two of whom later died. 

Colhoun received one battle star for World War II 
service. 

Colington 

An island off the coast of North Carolina. 

I 

The first Colington (YFB-43), formerly Elmer W. 
Jones, served in a noncommissioned status in the 5th 
Naval District during World War II. 

II 

The second Colington was launched 13 January 1945 
by American Bridge Co., Ambridge, Pa.; and commis- 
sioned 21 February 1945 as LST-1085. After serving 
with the navy occupation forces in Asia after World 
War II, she was reclassified AG-148 on 27 January and 
named Colington on 1 February 1949. She was again 
reclassified to AKS-29 on 18 August 1951 and stricken 
from the Navy List 1 April 1960. 

Colleen 

Former name retained. 

(PYC-27 : dp. 230; 1. 147'6"; b. 22'6"; dr. 8'; s. 16 k.; 

a. 1 3") 

Colleen (PYC-27), was built by Pusey and Jones Co., 
Wilmington, Del., in 1928; purchased by the Navy 5 
March 1942; and commissioned 2 September 1942, Lieu- 
tenant L. L. Stanton, USNR, in command. 

Commissioned at Sturgeon Bay, Wis., Collen pro- 
ceeded to Boston via the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence 
River, and Halifax, N.S., carrying out escort and patrol 
duties on the way. After operations in the Boston area, 
she sailed to New York, where she was decommissioned 
on 14 February 1944, and placed in service as the school- 
ship at the Naval Reserve Midshipman’s School. She 
served in that capacity until 11 September 1945 when 
she was transferred to the Coast Guard. 

Colleton 

A county in South Carolina. 

Colleton (APB-36) saw no active service after being 
completed in September 1946. She was in reserve, 
berthed at Boston, Mass., through 1960. 

Collett 

John Austin Collett was born 31 March 1908 in 
Omaha, Nebr., and graduated from the Naval Academy 
in 1929. He was killed in action during the Battle of 
the Santa Cruz Islands on 26 October 1942, while com- 
manding Torpedo Squadron 10 in Enterprise (CV-6). 

(DD-730 : dp. 2,200; 1. 376'; b. 41'1"; dr. 19,; s. 34 k.; 
cpl. 336; a. 6 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. Allen M. 

Sumner) 

Collett (DD-730) was launched 5 March 1944 by Bath 
Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine; sponsored by Mrs. C. C. 
Baughman as proxy for Mrs. J. D. Collett; and commis- 
sioned 16 May 1944, Commander J. D. Collett in 
command. 


142 


Assigned to the Pacific Fleet, Collett reached Pearl 
Harbor 16 October 1944 and Ulithi 3 November. From 
this base, she screened the mighty carrier task force 
variously designated TF 38 and TF 58 for the remainder 
of the war. She first saw action in the air raids on 
Luzon and Formosa, which accompanied the advance of 
ground forces on Leyte, and prepared for the invasion 
at Lingayen from November 1944 into January 1945. 
In January the carriers she screened continued to 
launch air attacks on Formosa, the China coast, and the 
Nansei Shoto, and on 16 and 17 February sailed daringly 
close to the Japanese coast to strike targets on Honshu 
before giving air cover to the invasion of Iwo Jima from 
20 to 22 February. 

Collett returned to Empire waters with the carrier 
task force to screen during air raids on Honshu 25 
February 1945, joined in the bombardment of Okino 
Daito Shima 2 March, and returned to screening during 
the air strikes on Kyushu and southern Honshu of 18 to 
20 March. From 23 March to 24 April, the force con- 
centrated its strikes on Okinawa, invaded on 1 April. 
On 18 April Collett joined with four other destroyers 
and carrier aircraft to sink Japanese submarine 1-56 in 
26°42' N., 130°38' E. 

After replenishing at Ulithi, Collett rejoined TF 58 
11 May 1945 for its final month of air strikes supporting 
the Okinawa operation, and from 10 July to 15 August 
sailed with the carriers as they flew their final series of 
heavy air attacks on the Japanese home islands. With 
her squadron, she swept through the Sagami Nada on 
22 and 23 July, aiding in the sinking of several Japanese 
merchantmen. After patrol duty off Japan, and guard- 
ing the carriers as they flew air cover for the landing of 
occupation troops, Collett entered Tokyo Bay 14 Septem- 
ber 1945, and 4 days later sailed for a west coast over- 
haul. 

Remaining on active duty with the Pacific Fleet from 
World War II into 1960, Collett alternated local opera- 
tions and cruises along the west coast with tours of 
duty in the Far East, the first of which came in 1946-47. 
She was in the Far East upon the outbreak of the 
Korean war in June 1950, and after patrolling off Pusan 
from her base at Sasebo, and escorting cargo ships laden 
with military supplies to Korea, she sailed up the dif- 
ficult channel to Inchon on 13 September to begin the 
preinvasion bombardment. She carried out her mission, 
although hit four times by counterfire which wounded 
five of her men, and on the 15th, returned with the 
invasion force, to whom she provided gunfire support 
once the landings had been made, as well as protective 
cover at sea. Her outstanding accomplishment in the 
invasion of Inchon was recognized with the awarding 
of the Navy Unit Commendation. After taking part in 
the Wonsan landings on 26 October, she returned to 
San Diego 18 November 1950. 

Her second tour of duty in the Korean war, from 18 
June 1951 to 17 February 1952, found her screening TF 
77 as it conducted air strikes on the Korean east coast, 
training with an antisubmarine group off Okinawa, 
patrolling in the Taiwan Straits, and conducting shore 
bombardments along the coast of Korea. Similar duty, 
aside from bombardment, was her assignment during her 
third tour, from 29 August 1952 to 9 April 1953. 

From the close of the Korean war, Collett served in 
the Far East in 1953-54, 1954-55, 1956, 1957, 1958, and 
1959. Early in 1960 she began an extensive moderniza- 
tion, which continued until July 1960. On 19 July 1960, 
Collett collided with Ammen (DD-527) off Long Beach, 
Calif., killing 11 and injuring 20, all members of 
Ammen’s crew. Despite a badly smashed bow, Collett 
made port under her own power, entering the Long 
Beach Naval Shipyard for extensive repairs. Her bow 
was removed and replaced with that of Seaman (DD- 
791) an uncompleted destroyer in the Reserve Fleet. 
On 5 November 1960, Collett departed Long Beach for 


coastal operations, which continued intermittently for 
the remainder of the year. 

Collett received six battle stars for World War II 
service, and in addition to the Navy Unit Commenda- 
tion, six battle stars for the Korean war. 

Collier 

Partial retention of former name. 

(StwStr: t. 177; I. 158'; b. 30'; dph. 4'; a. 2 20-pdr. r., 

1 12-pdr. r., 6 24-pdr. how.) 

Collier, a stern wheel steamer, was purchased as Allen 
Collier 7 December 1864 from John Swasey, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; outfitted at Mound City, 111.; and commissioned 
18 March 1865, Acting Master J. F. Reed in command. 

Collier patrolled in the Mississippi River and its tribu- 
taries until 29 July 1865 when she was decommissioned 
at Mound City. She was sold there 17 August 1865. 

Collingsworth 

A county in Texas. 

( APA-146: dp. 6,873; 1. 455'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 18 k.; 
cpl. 536; a. 1 5"; cl. Haskell) 

Collingsworth (APA-146) was launched 2 December 
1944 by California Shipbuilding Corp., San Pedro, Calif., 
under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by 
Mrs. R. H. Moulton; acquired 27 February 1945 and 
commissioned the same day, Captain C. H. Anderson in 
command. 

After one cargo voyage to Pearl Harbor (8 May-4 
June 1945), Collingsworth departed Seattle 27 June and 
sailed by way of Saipan and Ulithi to Okinawa, arriving 
12 August. She carried troops for the occupations of 
Inchon', Korea, and Chinwangtao and Tsingtao, China, 
until 28 November when she sailed with homeward- 
bound servicemen for Tacoma, Wash., arriving 19 De- 
cember. She discharged her passengers and sailed for 
San Pedro, Cal., the Panama Canal and Norfolk, arriv- 
ing 28 February 1946. She was decommissioned there 

17 March 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Commis- 
sion 20 March 1946. 

Collins, General E. T,, see General E. T. Collins 

Colonel Harney 

William S. Harney was commissioned a Second Lieu- 
tenant in the United States Army in 1818. He was 
breveted a colonel in 1840 for his services in the Semi- 
nole War and a brigadier general in 1847 for gallant 
and meritorious conduct at the Battle of Cerro Gordo 
in the Mexican War. 

(SwStr: t. 300; 1. 133'; b. 22'; dph. 9'; cpl. 50; a. 1 

32-pdr.) 

Colonel Harney, a side wheel steamer, was built in 
1840 at Baltimore and transferred from the Army in 
1844. From 28 November 1844 she cruised between 
Norfolk, Va., and New Orleans under the command of 
Lieutenant W. F. Lynch, protecting the live oak and 
other essential ship-building timber on Government land 
and offering aid to vessels in distress. From 21 October 
1845 she lay at New Orleans until returned to the Army 

18 March 1846. 

Colonel Kinsman 

Former name retained. 

(SwGbt) 

Colonel Kinsman, a sidewheel steamer, was captured 
by the Army at New Orleans, and fitted out as a gunboat 


143 


at the direction of Major General B. F. Butler for serv- 
ice in the rivers and bayous of Louisiana. At Butler’s 
request, Rear Admiral David G. Farragut assigned 
naval officers to command the Army gunboats; Acting 
Volunteer Lieutenant George Wiggins was given com- 
mand of Colonel Kinsman in October 1862. 

On 3 November 1862 in Bayou Teche, La., Colonel 
Kinsman joined a vigorous action against Confederate 
troops and the ironclad gunboat CSS J. A. Cotton. 
Moving close inshore, Colonel Kinsman dispersed an 
artillery battery, all the while firing at the gunboat. 
Colonel Kinsman was hit more than 50 times in this 
heated engagement, suffering 2 killed and 4 wounded. 

' The gunboat was officially transferred to the Navy on 
1 January 1863, Lieutenant Wiggins remaining in com- 
mand. Colonel Kinsman was damaged in Bayou Teche 
on 14 January 1863 when with other Union ships, she 
again fought Confederate shore batteries and CSS J. A. 
Cotton. This time the Confederate gunboat was dam- 
aged so severely that she had to be destroyed. 

Colonel Kinsman’s career ended on 23 February 1863 
while on a reconnaissance of Berwick Bay when she 
struck a hidden snag and ripped open her bottom. De- 
spite being beached, she filled and slid o